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Slavery in China

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Chinese labourer, 1900
Chinese labourer, 1900

Slavery in China has taken various forms throughout history. Slavery was reportedly abolished as a legally recognized institution, including in a 1909 law[1][2] fully enacted in 1910,[3] although the practice continued until at least 1949.[4]

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  • ✪ Slavery - Crash Course US History #13
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Transcription

Episode 13 – Slavery Hi, I’m John Green. This is Crashcourse U.S. history and today we’re gonna to talk about slavery, which is not funny. Yeah, so we put a lei on the eagle to try to cheer you up, but, let’s face it, this is going to be depressing. With slavery, every time you think, like, “Oh, it couldn’t have been that bad,” it turns out to have been much worse. Mr. Green, Mr. Green, but what about-- Yeah, Me from the Past, I’m gonna stop you right there because you’re going to embarrass yourself. Slavery was hugely important to America. I mean, it led to a civil war. And it also lasted what at least in U.S. history counts as a long ass time—from 1619 to 1865 And, yes, I know there’s a 1,200 year old church in your neighborhood in Denmark, but we’re not talking about Denmark! But slavery is most important because we still struggle with its legacy. So, yes, today’s episode will probably not be funny. But it will be important. INTRO So, the slave-based economy in the South is sometimes characterized as having been separate from the market revolution, but that’s not really the case. Without southern cotton, the north wouldn’t have been able to industrialize, at least not as quickly, because cotton textiles were one of the first industrially produced products and the most important commodity in world trade by the 19th century. And ¾ of the world’s cotton came from the American South. And, speaking of cotton, why has no one mentioned to me that my collar has been half-popped this entire episode, like I’m trying to recreate the flying nun’s hat? And although there were increasingly fewer slaves in the North as northern states outlawed slavery, cotton shipments overseas made Northern merchants rich, northern bankers financed the purchase of land for plantations. Northern insurance companies insured slaves, who were, after all considered property and very valuable property. And, in addition to turning cotton into cloth for sale overseas, northern manufacturers sold cloth back to the south where it was used to clothe the very slaves who had cultivated it. But certainly the most prominent effects of the slave-based economy were seen in the South. The profitability of slave-based agriculture, especially “King Cotton,” meant that the south would remain largely agricultural and rural. Slave states were home to a few cities, like St. Louis and Baltimore, but with the exception of New Orleans, almost all southern urbanization took place in the Upper South, further away from the large cotton plantations. And slave-based agriculture was so profitable that it siphoned money away from other economic endeavors. Like, there was very little industry in the South – it produced only 10% of the nation’s manufactured goods, and as most of the capital was being plowed into the purchase of slaves, there was very little room for technological innovation like, for instance, railroads. This lack of industry and railroads would eventually make the south suck at the civil war, thankfully. In short, slavery dominated the south, shaping it both economically and culturally. And, slavery wasn’t a minor aspect of American society. By 1860, there were 4 million slaves in the U.S., and in the South, they made up 1/3 of the total population. Although in the popular imagination, most plantations were these sprawling affairs with hundreds of slaves, in reality the majority of slave-holders owned five or fewer slaves. And of course, most white people in the south owned no slaves at all, although if they could afford to, they would sometimes rent slaves to help with their work. These were the so-called “yeoman” farmers who lived self-sufficiently, raised their own food and purchased very little in the market economy. They worked the poorest land and as a result were mostly pretty poor themselves. But even they largely supported slavery, partly perhaps for aspirational reasons and partly because the racism inherent to the system gave even the poorest whites legal and social status. And southern intellectuals worked hard to encourage these ideas of white solidarity and to make the case for slavery. Many of the founders, a bunch of whom you’ll remember held slaves, saw slavery as a necessary evil. Jefferson once wrote, “As it is, we have the wolf by the ear, and we can neither hold him, nor safely let him go. Justice is in one scale, and self-preservation in the other.” The belief that justice and self-preservation couldn’t sit on the same side of the scale was really opposed the American idea and, in the end, it would make the civil war inevitable. But as slavery became more entrenched – and as ideas of liberty and political equality were embraced by more people – some Southerners began to make the case that slavery wasn’t just a necessary evil. They argued, for instance, that slaves benefited from slavery. Because, you know, their masters fed them and clothed them and took care of them in their old age. You still hear this argument today, astonishingly. In fact, you’ll probably see asshats in the comments saying that. I will remind you, it’s not cursing if you are referring to an actual ass. This paternalism allowed masters to see themselves as benevolent, and to contrast their family oriented slavery with the cold mercenary capitalism of the free labor north. So, yeah, in the face of rising criticism of slavery, some Southerners began to argue that the institution was actually good for the social order. One of the best-known proponents of this view was John C. Calhoun who, in 1837 said this in a speech on the Senate floor: “I hold that in the present state of civilization, where two races of different origin, and distinguished by color, and other physical differences, as well as intellectual, are brought together, the relation now existing in the slaveholding States between the two, is, instead of an evil, a good — a positive good.” John: Now, of course, John C. Calhoun was a fringe politician and nobody took his views particularly seriously … Stan: Well, he was secretary of state from 1844 to 1845. John: Well, I mean, who really cares about the Secretary of State, Stan … Danica: Ehh, also Secretary of War from 1817 to 1825. John: Alright, but we don’t even have a Secretary of War anymore. Meredith: And he was Vice President from 1825 to 1832. John: Oh my God, were we insane? We were, of course. But we justified the insanity—with biblical passages and with the examples of the Greeks and Romans and with outright racism, arguing that black people were inherently inferior to whites and that NOT to keep them in slavery would upset the natural order of things, a worldview popularized millennia ago by my nemesis, Aristotle. God, I hate Aristotle. You know what defenders of Aristotle always say? He was the first person to identify dolphins. Well, okay. Dolphin-identifier. Yes, that is what he should be remembered for, but he’s a terrible philosopher. Here’s the truth about slavery: It was coerced labor that relied upon intimidation and brutality and dehumanization. And this wasn’t just a cultural system, it was a legal one. I mean, Louisiana law proclaimed that a slave “owes his master…a respect without bounds, and an absolute obedience.” The signal feature of slaves’ lives was work. I mean, conditions and tasks varied, but all slaves labored, usually from sunup to sundown, and almost always without any pay. Most slaves worked in agriculture on plantations and conditions were different depending on which crops were grown. Like, slaves on the rice plantations of South Carolina had terrible working conditions but they labored under the task system, which meant that once they had completed their allotted daily work, they would have time to do other things. But lest you imagine this as like how we have work and leisure time, bear in mind that they were owned and treated as property. On cotton plantations, most slaves worked in gangs, usually under the control of an overseer or another slave who was called a driver. This was backbreaking work done in the southern sun and humidity and so it’s not surprising that whippings or the threat of them were often necessary to get slaves to work. It’s easy enough to talk about the brutality of slave discipline, but it can be difficult to internalize it. Like, you look at these pictures, but because you’ve seen them over and over again, they don’t have the power they once might have. The pictures can tell a story about cruelty, but they don’t necessarily communicate how arbitrary it all was. As for example in this story told by a woman who was a slave as a young girl. “[The] overseer … went to my father one morning and said, “Bob, I’m gonna whip you this morning.” Daddy said, “I ain’t done nothing,” and he said “I know it, I’m going to whip you to keep you from doing nothing,” and he hit him with that cowhide – you know it would cut the blood out of you with every lick if they hit you hard.” That brutality – the whippings, the brandings, the rape – was real and it was intentional because in order for slavery to function, slaves had to be dehumanized. This enabled slaveholders to rationalize what they were doing and, it was hoped, to reduce slaves to the animal property that is implied by the term “chattel slavery.” So the idea was that slaveholders wouldn’t think of their slaves as human. And slaves wouldn’t think of themselves as human. But, it didn’t work. But more importantly, slaveowners were never able to convince the slaves themselves that they were anything less than human. Let’s go to the Thought Bubble. Slaves resistance to their dehumanization took many forms, but the primary way was by forming families. Family was a refuge for slaves and a source of dignity that masters recognized and sought to stifle. A paternalistic slaveowner named Bennett H. Barrow wrote in his rules for the Highland Plantation: “No rule that I have stated is of more importance than that relating to Negroes marrying outside of the plantation … It creates a feeling of independence.” Most slaves did marry, usually for life, and when possible, slaves grew up in two-parent households. Single parent households were common, though, as a result of one parent being sold. In the Upper South, where the economy was shifting from tobacco to different, less labor-intensive cash crops, the sale of slaves was common. Perhaps 1/3 of slave marriages in states like Virginia were broken up by sale. Religion was also an important part of life in slavery. While masters wanted their slaves to learn the parts of the Bible that talked about being happy in bondage, slave worship tended to focus on the stories of Exodus, where Moses brought the slaves out of bondage, or Biblical heroes who overcame great odds, like Daniel and David. And although most slaves were forbidden to learn to read and write, many did anyway, and some became preachers. Slave preachers were often very charismatic leaders, and they roused the suspicion of slave owners, and not without reason. Two of the most important slave uprisings in the south were led by preachers. Thanks, Thought Bubble. Oh, it’s time for the Mystery Document? We’re doing two set pieces in a row? Alright...The rules here are simple. I wanted to reshoot that, but Stan said no. I guess the author of the Mystery Document. If I am wrong, I get shocked with the shock pen. “Since I have been in the Queen’s dominions I have been well contented, Yes well contented for Sure, man is as God intended he should be. That is, all are born free and equal. This is a wholesome law, not like the Southern laws which puts man made in the image of God on level with brutes. O, what will become of the people, and where will they stand in the day of Judgment. Would that the 5th verse of the 3rd chapter of Malachi were written as with a bar of iron, and the point of a diamond upon every oppressor’s heart that they might repent of this evil, and let the oppressed go free…” Alright, it’s definitely a preacher, because only preachers have read Malachi. Probably African American. Probably not someone from the south. I’m going to guess that it is Richard Allen, the founder of the African Methodist Episcopal Church? Dang it! It’s Joseph Taper? And Stan just pointed out to me that I should have known it was Joseph Taper because it starts out, “Since I have been in the Queen’s dominions.” He was in Canada. He escaped slavery to Canada. The Queen’s dominions! Alright, Canadians, I blame you for this. Although thank you for abolishing slavery decades before we did. AH! So the mystery document shows one of the primary ways that slaves resisted their oppression: by running away. Although some slaves, like Joseph Taper, escaped slavery for good by running away to Northern free states or even to Canada where they wouldn’t have to worry about fugitive slave laws, even more slaves ran away temporarily, hiding out in the woods or the swamps and eventually returning. No one knows exactly how many slaves escaped to freedom, but the best estimate is that 1,000 or so a year made the journey northwards. Most fugitive slaves were young men, but the most famous runaway has been hanging out behind me all day long, Harriet Tubman. Harriet Tubman escaped to Philadelphia at the age of 29 and over the course of her life she made about 20 trips back to Maryland to help friends and relatives make the journey north on the Underground Railroad. But a most dramatic form of resistance to slavery was actual armed rebellion, which was attempted. Now individuals sometimes took matters into their own hands and beat or sometimes even killed their white overseers or masters, like “Bob,” the guy who received the arbitrary beating, responded to it by killing his overseer with a hoe. But that said, large-scale slave uprisings were relatively rare. The four most famous ones all took place in a 35 year period at the beginning of the 19th century. Gabriel’s rebellion in 1800, which we talked about before, was discovered before he was able to carry out his plot. Then, in 1811 a group of slaves upriver from New Orleans seized cane knives and guns and marched on the city before militia stopped them. And, in 1822 Denmark Vesey, a former slave who had purchased his freedom may have organized a plot to destroy Charleston, South Carolina. I say may have because the evidence against him is disputed and comes from a trial that was not fair. But, regardless, the end result of that trial is that he was executed as were 34 slaves. But, the most successful slave rebellion, at least in the sense that they actually killed some people, was Nat Turner’s in August 1831. Turner, was a preacher and with a group of about 80 slaves, he marched from farm to farm in Southampton County Virginia killing the inhabitants, most of whom were women and children because the men were attending a religious revival meeting in North Carolina. Turner and 17 other rebels were captured and executed, but not before they struck terror into the hearts of whites all across the American south. Virginia’s response was to make slavery worse, passing even harsher laws that forbade slaves from preaching and prohibited teaching them to read. Other slave states followed Virginia’s lead and by the 1830s, slavery had grown if anything more harsh. So this shows that large-scale armed resistance was, Django Unchained aside, not just suicidal but also a threat to loved ones, and really to all slaves. But it is hugely important to emphasize that slaves DID resist their oppression. Sometimes this meant taking up arms, but usually it meant more subtle forms of resistance, like intentional work slowdowns, or sabotaging equipment, or pretending not to understand instructions. And, most importantly, in the face of systematic, legal, and cultural degradation they reaffirmed their humanity through family and through faith. Why is this so important? Because too often in America we still talk about slaves as if they failed to rise up, when in fact rising up would not have made life better for them or for their families. The truth is, sometimes carving out an identity as a human being in a social order that is constantly seeking to dehumanize you is the most powerful form of resistance. Refusing to become the chattel that their masters believed them to be is what made slavery untenable, and the Civil War inevitable. So make no mistake: Slaves fought back. And in the end, they won. I’ll see you next week. Crash Course is produced and directed by Stan Muller. The script supervisor is Meredith Danko. Our associate producer is Danica Johnson. The show is written by my high school history teacher, Raoul Meyer, and myself. And our graphics team is Thought Café. Every week, there’s a new caption to the libertage, but today’s episode was so sad that we couldn’t fit a libertage in UNTIL NOW. Suggest libertage captions in comments where you can also ask questions about today’s video that will be answered by our team of historians. Thanks for watching Crash Course, and as we say in my hometown, don’t forget to be abolitionist. CCUS 13 -

Contents

History of slavery in China

Shang dynasty (second millennium BC)

The earliest evidence of slavery in China dates to the Shang dynasty when, by some estimates, approximately 5 percent of the population was enslaved. The Shang dynasty engaged in frequent raids of surrounding states, capturing slaves who would be killed in ritual sacrifices. Scholars disagree as to whether these victims were also used as a source of slave labor.[5]

Warring States period (475–221 BC)

The Warring States period saw a decline in slavery from previous centuries, although it was still widespread during the period.[6] Since the introduction of private ownership of land in the state of Lu in 594 BC, which brought a system of taxation on private land, and saw the emergence of a system of landlords and peasants, the system of slavery began to decline over the following centuries, as other states followed suit.

Qin dynasty (221–206 BC)

The Qin government confiscated property and enslaved families as punishment.[7][8]

Han dynasty (206 BC – 220 AD)

One of Emperor Gao's first acts was to manumit agricultural workers enslaved during the Warring States period, although domestic servants retained their status.[1]

Men punished with castration during the Han dynasty were also used as slave labor.[9]

Deriving from earlier Legalist laws, the Han dynasty set in place rules penalizing criminals doing three years of hard labor or sentenced to castration by having their families seized and kept as property by the government.[10]

During the millennium long Chinese domination of Vietnam, Vietnam was a great source of slave girls who were used as sex slaves in China.[11][12]

Xin dynasty (9–23 AD)

In the year AD 9, the Emperor Wang Mang usurped the Chinese throne and instituted a series of sweeping reforms, including the abolition of slavery and radical land reform. Slavery was reinstated in AD 12 before his assassination in AD 23.[13][14]

Three Kingdoms (220–280 AD)

During the Three Kingdoms period, a number of statuses intermediate between freedom and slavery developed, but none of them are thought to have exceeded 1 percent of the population.[1]

Tang dynasty (618–907 AD)

A contract from the Tang dynasty that records the purchase of a 15-year-old slave for six bolts of plain silk and five Chinese coins. Found in the Astana Cemetery in Turfan.
A contract from the Tang dynasty that records the purchase of a 15-year-old slave for six bolts of plain silk and five Chinese coins. Found in the Astana Cemetery in Turfan.

Tang law forbade enslaving free people, but allowed enslavement of criminals and foreigners.[15] Free people could however willingly sell themselves. The primary source of slaves came from southern tribes and young slave girls were the most desired on the market. Although various officials such as Kong Kui, the governor of Guangdong, banned the practice, the trade continued.[16] Other peoples sold to Chinese included Turks, Persians, and Korean women, who were sought after by the wealthy.[17][15] On the silk road slave girls were a major item and much more expensive than silk. Silk was up to five times less than the value of a slave girl.[clarification needed][how?] Central Asian slave girls were exported from Central Asia Iranian areas to China. It is believed that the wealthy merchants and aristocratic noblemen of the Chinese capital of Chang'an were the consumers for the huge amount of Central Asian slave women brought by the Sogdians to China to sell to the Chinese. The Central Asian foreign women in the Sogdian owned wineshops in the Chinese capital are also believe to have been slaves since Chinese poets depicted them as homesick, sad and melancholy and they would service travelers by keeping them company overnight. Merchants and literati would frequent the wineshops.[18] The Sogdians reaped massive profits from selling slave girls and so did the Chinese government by taxing the sale of the slaves. Slave girls were one of the major products Chinese bought from Sogdians. Persian poets often wrote about wine and women since the wineservers were often girls and this wine culture with girl servers seems to have spread to China. There were many Sogdian wineshops and Persian shops in Chang'an along with a large slave market. The wineshops were staffed with young girls who served wine to customers and danced for them. Most of the slave girls were 14 or 15 years old. They provided services like dancing, singing, and served wine to their customers in Chang'an as ordered their masters who ran the wineshops. A Sogdian merchant, Kang Weiyi 康尾義 had Indians, Central Asians, and Tokharistanis (Bactrians) among the 15 slave girls he was bringing to sell in the Chinese capital of Chang'an.[19][20] The slave girls of Viet(nam) were eroticized in Tang dynasty poetry.[21]

Song dynasty (960–1279 AD)

The Song's warfare against northern and western neighbors produced many captives on both sides, but reforms were introduced to ease the transition from bondage to freedom.[1]

Yuan dynasty (1271–1368 AD)

The Yuan dynasty expanded slavery and implemented harsher terms of service.[1] In the process of the Mongol invasion of China proper, many Han Chinese were enslaved by the Mongol rulers.[22] According to Japanese historians Sugiyama Masaaki (杉山正明) and Funada Yoshiyuki (舩田善之), there were also a certain number of Mongolian slaves owned by Han Chinese during the Yuan. Moreover, there is no evidence that Han Chinese suffered particularly cruel abuse.[23]

Korean women were viewed as having "jade snow" like skin (肌膚玉雪發雲霧) by Hao Jingceng 郝經曾, a Yuan scholar, and it was highly desired and prestigious to own Korean female servants among the "Northerner" nobility in the Yuan dynasty as mentioned in Toghon Temür's (shùndì 順帝) Xù Zīzhì Tōngjiàn (續資治通鑒): (京师达官贵人,必得高丽女,然后为名家) and the Caomuzi (草木子) by Ye Ziqi (葉子奇) which was cited by the Jingshi ouji (京師偶記引) by Chai Sang (柴桑).[24][25][26][27][28][29]

Ming dynasty (1368–1644 AD)

The Hongwu Emperor sought to abolish all forms of slavery[1] but in practice, slavery continued through the Ming dynasty.[1]

The Javans sent 300 black slaves as tribute to the Ming dynasty in 1381.[30] When the Ming dynasty crushed the Miao Rebellions in 1460, they castrated 1,565 Miao boys, which resulted in the deaths of 329 of them. They turned the survivors into eunuch slaves. The Guizhou Governor who ordered the castration of the Miao was reprimanded and condemned by Emperor Yingzong of Ming for doing it once the Ming government heard of the event.[31][32] Since 329 of the boys died, they had to castrate even more.[33] On 30 Jan 1406, the Ming Yongle Emperor expressed horror when the Ryukyuans castrated some of their own children to become eunuchs in order to give them to Yongle. Yongle said that the boys who were castrated were innocent and didn't deserve castration, and he returned the boys to Ryukyu and instructed them not to send eunuchs again.[34]

Later Ming rulers, as a way of limiting slavery because of their inability to prohibit it, passed a decree that limited the number of slaves that could be held per household and extracted a severe tax from slave owners.[1]

Qing dynasty (1644–1912 AD)

The Qing dynasty initially oversaw an expansion in slavery and states of bondage such as the booi aha.[4] They possessed about two million slaves upon their conquest of China.[1] However, like previous dynasties, the Qing rulers soon saw the advantages of phasing out slavery, and gradually introduced reforms turning slaves and serfs into peasants.[1] Laws passed in 1660 and 1681 forbade landowners from selling slaves with the land they farmed and prohibited physical abuse of slaves by landowners.[1] The Kangxi Emperor freed all the Manchus' hereditary slaves in 1685.[1] The Yongzheng Emperor's "Yongzheng emancipation" between 1723 and 1730 sought to free all slaves to strengthen his authority through a kind of social leveling that created an undifferentiated class of free subjects under the throne, freeing the vast majority of slaves.[1]

The abolition of slavery in many countries following the British emancipation led to increasing demands for cheap Chinese laborers, known as "coolies". Mistreatment ranged from the near-slave conditions maintained by some crimps and traders in the mid-1800s in Hawaii and Cuba to the relatively dangerous tasks given to the Chinese during the construction of the Central Pacific Railroad in the 1860s.[4]

Among his other reforms, Taiping Rebellion leader Hong Xiuquan abolished slavery and prostitution in the territory under his control in the 1850s and 1860s.[4]

"Slavery exists in China, especially in Canton and Peking ... I have known a male slave. He is named Wang and is a native of Kansu, living in Kuei-chou in the house of his original master's son, and with his own family of four persons acknowledged to me that he was a slave, Nu-p'u. He was a person of considerable ability, but did not appear to care about being free. Female slaves are very common all over China, and are generally called . . .

YA-TOU 丫頭. Slave girl, a female slave. Slave girls are very common in China; nearly every Chinese family owns one or more slave girls generally bought from the girl's parents, but sometimes also obtained from other parties. It is a common thing for well-to-do people to present a couple of slave girls to a daughter as part of her marriage dowery. Nearly all prostitutes are slaves. It is, however, customary with respectable people to release their slave girls when marriageable. Some people sell their slave girls to men wanting a wife for themselves or for a son of theirs.

I have bought three different girls; two from Szű-chuan for a few taels each, less than fifteen dollars. One I released in Tientsin, another died in Hongkong; the other I gave in marriage to a faithful servant of mine. Some are worth much money at Shanghai."[35]

In addition to sending Han exiles convicted of crimes to Xinjiang to be slaves of Banner garrisons there, the Qing also practiced reverse exile, exiling Inner Asian (Mongol, Russian and Muslim criminals from Mongolia and Inner Asia) to China proper where they would serve as slaves in Han Banner garrisons in Guangzhou. Russian, Oirats and Muslims (Oros. Ulet. Hoise jergi weilengge niyalma) such as Yakov and Dmitri were exiled to the Han banner garrison in Guangzhou.[36] In the 1780s after the Muslim rebellion in Gansu started by Zhang Wenqing 張文慶 was defeated, Muslims like Ma Jinlu 馬進祿 were exiled to the Han Banner garrison in Guangzhou to become slaves to Han Banner officers.[37] The Qing code regulating Mongols in Mongolia sentenced Mongol criminals to exile and to become slaves to Han bannermen in Han Banner garrisons in China proper.[38]

20th century

Throughout the 1930s and 1940s the Yi people (also known as Nuosu) of China terrorized Sichuan to rob and enslave non-Nuosu including Han people. The descendants of the Han slaves, known as the White Yi (白彝), outnumbered the Black Yi (黑彝) aristocracy by ten to one.[39] There was a saying goes like: "the worst insult to a Nuosu is to call him a "Han" (with the implication being that "your ancestors were slaves")".[40][41]

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Hallet, Nicole. "China and Antislavery". Encyclopedia of Antislavery and Abolition, Vol. 1, p. 154 – 156. Greenwood Publishing Group, 2007. ISBN 0-313-33143-X.
  2. ^ Gang Zhou. Man and Land in Chinese History: an Economic Analysis, p. 158. Stanford University Press (Stanford), 1986. ISBN 0-8047-1271-9.
  3. ^ Huang, Philip C. Code, Custom, and Legal Practice in China: the Qing and the Republic Compared, p. 17. Stanford University Press (Stanford), 2001. ISBN 0-8047-4110-7.
  4. ^ a b c d Rodriguez, Junius. "China, Late Imperial". The Historical Encyclopedia of World Slavery, Vol. 1, p. 146. ABC-CLIO, 1997. ISBN 0-87436-885-5.
  5. ^ Critical Readings on Global Slavery, Damian Alan Pargas, Felicia Roşu (ed), p 523
  6. ^ The First Emperor of China by Li Yu-Ning(1975)
  7. ^ Lewis 2007, p. 252.
  8. ^ Society for East Asian Studies (2001). Journal of East Asian archaeology, Volume 3. Brill. p. 299. Retrieved 2011-01-11.
  9. ^ History of Science Society (1952). Osiris, Volume 10. Saint Catherine Press. p. 144. Retrieved 2011-01-11.
  10. ^ Barbieri-Low 2007, p. 146.
  11. ^ Henley, Andrew Forbes, David. Vietnam Past and Present: The North. Cognoscenti Books. ISBN 9781300568070.
  12. ^ Schafer, Edward Hetzel (1967). The Vermilion Bird. University of California Press.
  13. ^ Encyclopedia of Antislavery and Abolition. Greenwood Publishing Group. 2011. p. 155. ISBN 978-0-313-33143-5.
  14. ^ Encyclopedia of Slave Resistance and Rebellion, p. 420, at Google Books
  15. ^ a b Schafer 1963, p. 44.
  16. ^ Schafer 1963, p. 45.
  17. ^ Benn 2002, p. 39.
  18. ^ 温, 翠芳 (2006). "唐代长安西市中的胡姬与丝绸之路上的女奴贸易" (2): 19–21. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  19. ^ "唐代長安城中販賣給漢人的胡姬與絲綢之路上的女奴貿易". 每日頭條. 2018-03-31.
  20. ^ 郭, 雪妮 (2012 (北京师范大学文学院北京100875)). "酒肆论文摘要,唐代"胡姬"诗与现代日本的西域想象". 长安学刊 (003). Check date values in: |date= (help)
  21. ^ Henley, Andrew Forbes, David. Vietnam Past and Present: The North. Cognoscenti Books. ISBN 9781300568070.
  22. ^ Rodriguez, Junius P. The Historical Encyclopedia of World Slavery. ABC-CLIO. p. 146. ISBN 9780874368857. Retrieved 20 March 2017.
  23. ^ Funada Yoshiyuki, "The Image of the Semu People: Mongols, Chinese, Southerners, and Various Other Peoples under the Mongol Empire", Historical and Philological Studies of China's Western Regions, p199-221, 2014(04)
  24. ^ 倪, 方六 (18 June 2015). "中國古代如何打擊人口非法買賣". 文史--人民网. 北京晚報.
  25. ^ "唐代卖到中国的非洲黑人被称为"昆仑奴"". 军事_军事网_军事新闻- 今日秀点. Retrieved 23 April 2017.
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  40. ^ Du 2013, p. 150.
  41. ^ Lozny 2013, p. 346.

Bibliography

  • Abramson, Marc S. (2008), Ethnic Identity in Tang China, University of Pennsylvania Press
  • Barbieri-Low, Anthony Jerome (2007), Artisans in early imperial China, University of Washington Press
  • Benn, Charles (2002), Daily Life in Traditional China: The Tang Dynasty, Greenwood Press
  • Du, Shanshan (2013), Women and Gender in Contemporary Chinese Societies, Lexington Books
  • Harrasowitz, O. (1991), Journal of Asian History, Volume 25, O. Harrassowitz.
  • Lewis, Mark Edward (2007), The Early Chinese Empires: Qin and Han, The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press
  • Lozny, Ludomir R. (2013), Continuity and Change in Cultural Adaptation to Mountain Environments, Springer
  • Mitamura, Taisuke (1970), Chinese eunuchs: the structure of intimate politics, C.E. Tuttle Co.
  • Ramsey, S. Robert (1987), The Languages of China, Princeton University Press
  • Schafer, Edward H. (1963), The Golden Peaches of Samarkand: A Study of T'ang Exotics, University of California Press
  • Toh, Hoong Teik (2005), Materials for a Genealogy of the Niohuru Clan, Harrassowitz Verlag
  • Tsai, Shih-shan Henry (1996), The Eunuchs in the Ming Dynasty, SUNY Press

External links

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