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Slave rebellion

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A slave rebellion is an armed uprising by slaves. Slave rebellions have occurred in nearly all societies that practice slavery or have practiced slavery in the past. A desire for freedom and the dream of successful rebellion are often the greatest objects of song, art, and culture amongst the enslaved population. Many of the events, however, are often violently opposed and suppressed by slaveholders.

The most successful slave rebellion in history was the 18th-century Haitian Revolution, led by Toussaint Louverture and later Jean-Jacques Dessalines who won the war against their French colonial rulers, which founded the country formerly known as Saint Domingue. Other famous historic slave rebellions have been led by the Roman slave Spartacus (c. 73–71 BC), as well as the thrall (Scandinavian slave) Tunni, who rebelled against the Swedish monarch Ongentheow, a rebellion that needed Danish assistance to be quelled. In the ninth century, the poet-prophet Ali bin Muhammad led imported East African slaves in Iraq during the Zanj Rebellion against the Abbasid Caliphate; Nanny of the Maroons was an 18th-century leader who rebelled against the British in Jamaica; and the Quilombo dos Palmares of Brazil flourished under Ganazumba (Ganga Zumba). The 1811 German Coast Uprising in the Territory of Orleans was the largest rebellion in the continental United States; Denmark Vesey rebelled in South Carolina, and Madison Washington during the Creole case in the 19th century United States.

Ancient Sparta had a special type of serf called helots who were often treated harshly, leading them to rebel.[1] According to Herodotus (IX, 28–29), helots were seven times as numerous as Spartans. Every autumn, according to Plutarch (Life of Lycurgus, 28, 3–7), the Spartan ephors would pro forma declare war on the helot population so that any Spartan citizen could kill a helot without fear of blood or guilt in order to keep them in line (crypteia).

In the Roman Empire, though the heterogeneous nature of the slave population worked against a strong sense of solidarity, slave revolts did occur and were severely punished.[2] The most famous slave rebellion in Europe was led by Spartacus in Roman Italy, the Third Servile War. This war resulted in the 6000 surviving rebel slaves being crucified along the main roads leading into Rome.[3] This was the third in a series of unrelated Servile Wars fought by slaves against the Romans.

The English peasants' revolt of 1381 led to calls for the reform of feudalism in England and an increase in rights for serfs. The Peasants' Revolt was one of a number of popular revolts in late medieval Europe. Richard II agreed to reforms including fair rents and the abolition of serfdom. Following the collapse of the revolt, the king's concessions were quickly revoked, but the rebellion is significant because it marked the beginning of the end of serfdom in medieval England.[4]

In Russia, the slaves were usually classified as kholops. A kholop's master had unlimited power over his life. Slavery remained a major institution in Russia until 1723, when Peter the Great converted the household slaves into house serfs. Russian agricultural slaves were formally converted into serfs earlier in 1679.[5] During the 16th and 17th centuries, runaway serfs and kholops known as Cossacks, ("outlaws") formed autonomous communities in the southern steppes. There were numerous rebellions against slavery and serfdom, most often in conjunction with Cossack uprisings, such as the uprisings of Ivan Bolotnikov (1606–1607), Stenka Razin (1667–1671),[6] Kondraty Bulavin (1707–1709), and Yemelyan Pugachev (1773–1775), often involving hundreds of thousands and sometimes millions.[7] Between the end of the Pugachev rebellion and the beginning of the 19th century, there were hundreds of outbreaks across Russia.[8]

Numerous African slave rebellions and insurrections took place in North America during the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries. There is documented evidence of more than 250 uprisings or attempted uprisings involving 10 or more slaves. Three of the best known in the United States during the 19th century are the revolts by Gabriel Prosser in the Richmond, Virginia area in 1800, Denmark Vesey in Charleston, South Carolina, in 1822, and Nat Turner in Southampton County, Virginia, in 1831. Slave resistance in the antebellum South did not gain the attention of academic historians until the 1940s, when historian Herbert Aptheker started publishing the first serious scholarly work on the subject. Aptheker stressed how rebellions were rooted in the exploitative conditions of the southern slave system. He traversed libraries and archives throughout the South, managing to uncover roughly 250 similar instances.

YouTube Encyclopedic

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  • ✪ Forgotten Rebellion: Black Seminoles and the Largest Slave Revolt in U.S. History
  • ✪ The Creole Affair: The Slave Rebellion that Led the U.S. and Great Britain to the Brink of War
  • ✪ Nat Turner & The Rebellion That Shook the South
  • ✪ Haitian Slave Revolt | 3 Minute History
  • ✪ Gabriel's Rebellion, The Slave Revolt That Never Was, Richmond Virginia 1800


It's hard to imagine that Hollywood hasn't jumped all over this, you would think it would be box office gold because it's part Spartacus and part Braveheart and part Amistad and part Glory with a little bit of Dances with Wolves thrown in. A story, decades long, of oppression and freedom fighting, I don't understand why there hasn't been more attention to John Horse and the Black Seminoles, but hopefully we can correct this. John Horse and the Black Seminoles deserve to be remembered for a number of reasons. They created the largest haven in the U.S. South for runaway slaves. They led the largest slave revolt in U.S. history. They secured the only emancipation of rebellious slaves prior to the U.S. Civil War, and they formed the largest mass exodus of slaves across the United States, moving from the Florida Everglades through Indian Territory—what would become Oklahoma—eventually locating in Mexico where they secured title to their own land. It's a remarkable story. It's overlooked not just by film makers; it's not well known in popular culture, and in fact it's been overlooked by historians of slavery, if you can believe it. In the early 18th Century, two groups in particular fled the colonial South into Spanish Florida, into the Everglades. One of these groups were Seminoles who were migrating from the various colonies, just trying to avoid white encroachment basically, trying to move some place that white colonists weren't. And the other group was runaway slaves, people who were fleeing and trying to create a free life for themselves. Both were welcome in Florida and in fact the Spanish crown offered runaway slaves their freedom if they would defend the land for the crown, for the Spanish. So a mixed society emerged in the Everglades of intermarriage, family intermingling between these runaway slaves and the Seminoles. And in fact the first legally sanctioned black free town in the North American continent was in the Spanish Florida Everglades. After the American Revolution, people living in the Southern States didn't really like living that close to a large armed population of former slaves, particularly when they were in league with the local Native American nation, the large, armed group of free Seminoles. And they knew that their own slaves felt free to run away and be harbored by this group. They knew that they were welcomed. And so from George Washington's administration on there was questions of what do we do about the problem of the Florida Everglades. In 1818, this was James Monroe's administration, General Andrew Jackson actually moved into Florida, invaded it. Not authorized to do so, he was actually pursuing justice against those who'd attacked Fort Scott in Georgia, but he did it anyway. He went into Florida and claimed it for the United States. When he seized the peninsula he took the opportunity to execute some of the people who opposed him and also to clean out some of the areas of former slaves and Seminoles because he felt this would make it better for annexation. The United States then soon actually bought Florida from the Spanish. When Jackson became president he decided to make sure that the Black Seminole communities were moved out by force. So he pursued this in his policy, his larger policy of Indian removal. This led to the Second Seminole War, which was 1835--1842, and became the largest and costliest of the so called, Indian wars. Because the two communities were tied together—that is the former slaves and the Seminoles—when the Seminoles were attacked in the Seminole War, this led to an uprising of the former slaves. In April of 1836, Black Seminoles and their Indian allies moved together to create what was the largest slave rebellion in U.S. history. This wasn't just a matter of runaway slaves. More than 385 plantation slaves ran away from their masters and joined the Black Seminoles, essentially in laying waste to the Florida sugar mills, which were some of the most valuable areas, plantations, in the whole continent. One Seminole leader at the time was the leader Osceola, who is justly remembered by history. Another leader who rose up at this time was John Horse, who was ethnically a Black Seminole and who would ultimately lead his people on a long and trying exodus for freedom. In 1838, John Horse and the Black Seminoles agreed to stop fighting the U.S. government in exchange for moving to what was then considered to be Indian Territory, which is now today the State of Oklahoma and for legal recognition of their freedom. So despite the fact that many of them were runaway slaves, they would have the opportunity to start over again as free individuals. Once they moved from the Everglades to Indian Territory, however, they found that their freedom was under attack both by whites and by other Native Americans. In 1848, a decade after they had made the agreement with the U.S. government, the U.S. attorney general announced that the government never had the authority, the power, to recognize their freedom, and in fact they were still, those who had been slaves, still enslaved. This was like opening season on them, basically declaring that they were there for the picking. And so they did the only thing that they could do, they fled once again. Without security in Indian Territory, Horse and his Seminole ally Coacoochee promptly went to Mexico where slavery was already illegal and had been for a couple of decades. There Horse became famous as a general in the Mexican army and his people found a way to make a life. Once they relocated to Mexico, things changed. When slave catchers from the Republic of Texas went over the border to try to find the runaway slaves, now free men, they met resistance not only from the Black Seminoles but also from the Mexicans and the Mexican Army itself. Eventually the Black Seminoles, led by Horse, gained legally recognized Mexican land, Nacimiento. Why isn't this recognized today? Well for one thing, historians tend to be historians of Native American history or historians of slavery, but there's not many that move among these subjects. And it's a bit confusing because you have both the issue of runaway slaves and the issue of Native Americans kind of blended together so it seems to fall through the cracks. Tradition is that Nat Turner's rebellion is the big turning point in the history of slavery and slave revolt. That happened before the rebellion of the Black Seminoles, so it doesn't really fit the traditional trajectory. And perhaps most importantly, it really represents a blemish on U.S. history. Not only because of the poor treatment of Native America as represented by the Seminole War, not only the poor treatment of African Americans through the device of slavery, but also because this group really did manage to negotiate a separate peace with the U.S. government and 10 years later the government turned their backs on them. So it's, in multiple ways, a difficult story for people of the United States to tell, but it's worth remembering that a community of freedom fighters trekked from Florida to Oklahoma to Mexico and found, ultimately, peace and freedom and prosperity in lives that they could direct as their own. I recommend highly the website for more information.


Middle East

The Zanj Rebellion was the culmination of a series of small revolts. It took place near the city of Basra, in southern Iraq over fifteen years (869−883 AD). It grew to involve over 500,000 slaves, who were imported from across the Muslim empire.

Europe and the Mediterranean

In the 3rd century BCE, Drimakos (or Drimachus) led a slave revolt on the slave entrepot of Chios, took to the hills and directed a band of runaways in operations against their ex-masters.[9][10]

The Servile Wars (135 to 71 BCE) were a series of slave revolts within the Roman Republic.

Other slave revolts occurred elsewhere.

A number of slave revolts occurred in the Mediterranean area during the early modern period:

  • 1748: Hungarian, Georgian and Maltese slaves on board the Ottoman ship Lupa revolted and sailed the ship to Malta.[11]
  • 1749: Conspiracy of the Slaves – Muslim slaves in Malta planned to rebel and take over the island, but plans leaked out beforehand and the would-be rebels were arrested and many were executed.[11]
  • 1760: Christian slaves on board the Ottoman ship Corona Ottomana revolted and sailed the ship to Malta.[11]

São Tomé and Príncipe

On 9 July 1595, Rei Amador, and his people, the Angolars, allied with other enslaved Africans of its plantations, marched into the interior woods and battled against the Portuguese. It is said that day, Rei Amador and his followers raised a flag in front of the settlers and proclaimed Rei Amador as king of São Tomé and Príncipe, making himself as "Rei Amador, liberator of all the black people".

Between 1595 and 1596, the island of São Tomé was ruled by the Angolars, under the command of Rei Amador. On 4 January 1596, he was captured, sent to prison and was later executed by the Portuguese. Still today, they remember him fondly and consider him a national hero of the islands.

In the first decades of the 17th century, there were frequent slave revolts in the Portuguese colony of São Tomé and Príncipe, off the African shore, which damaged the sugar crop cultivation there.

South America and the Caribbean

Haitian coin (20 gourdes) bearing the image of François Mackandal,  leader of a slave rebellion
Haitian coin (20 gourdes) bearing the image of François Mackandal, leader of a slave rebellion

Quilombo dos Palmares in Brazil, 1605 to 1694.

St. John, 1733, in what was then the Danish West Indies. The St. John's Slave Rebellion is one of the earliest and longest lasting slave rebellions in the Americas. It ended with defeat, however, and many rebels, including one of the leaders Breffu, committed suicide rather than being recaptured.[12]

The most successful slave uprising was the Haitian Revolution, which began in 1791 and was eventually led by Toussaint L'Ouverture, culminating in the independent black republic of Haiti.[13]

Panama also has an extensive history of slave rebellions going back to the 16th century. Slaves were brought to the isthmus from many regions in Africa, including the modern day countries of the Congo, Senegal, Guinea, and Mozambique. Immediately before their arrival on shore, or very soon after, many enslaved Africans revolted against their captors or participated in mass maroonage or desertion. The freed Africans founded communities in the forests and mountains, organized guerrilla bands known as Cimarrones. They began a long guerrilla war against the Spanish Conquistadores, sometimes in conjunction with nearby indigenous communities like the Kuna and the Guaymí. Despite massacres by the Spanish, the rebels fought until the Spanish crown was forced to concede to treaties that granted the Africans a life without Spanish violence and incursions. The leaders of the guerrilla revolts included Felipillo, Bayano, Juan de Dioso, Domingo Congo, Antón Mandinga, and Luis de Mozambique.

Tacky's War (1760) was a slave uprising in Jamaica, which ran from May to July before it was put down by the British colonial government.

The Suriname slave rebellion was marked by constant guerrilla warfare by Maroons and in 1765-1793 by the Aluku. This rebellion was led by Boni.

The Berbice slave revolt in Guyana in 1763 was led by Cuffy.

Cuba had slave revolts in 1795, 1798, 1802, 1805, 1812 (the Aponte revolt), 1825, 1827, 1829, 1833, 1834, 1835, 1838, 1839–43 and 1844 (the La Escalera conspiracy and revolt).

Revolts of the Caribbean Islands

Vincent Brown, a professor of History and of African and African-American Studies at Harvard, has made a study of the Transatlantic Slave Trade. In 2013, Brown teamed up with Axis Maps to create an interactive map of Jamaican slave uprisings in the 18th century called, “Slave Revolt in Jamaica, 1760-1761, A Cartographic Narrative.”[14] Brown's efforts have shown that the slave insurrection in Jamaica in 1760-61 was a carefully planned affair and not a spontaneous, chaotic eruption, as was often argued (due in large part to the lack of written records produced by the insurgents).[15]

Later, in 1795, several slave rebellions broke out across the Caribbean, influenced by the Haitian Revolution:


Many slave rebellions occurred in Brazil, most famously the Bahia Rebellion of 1822-1830[19] and the Malê Revolt of 1835[19] by the predominantly Muslim West African slaves at the time. The term malê was commonly used to refer to Muslims at the time from the Yoruba word imale.

North America

Numerous black slave rebellions and insurrections took place in North America during the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries. There is documentary evidence of more than 250 uprisings or attempted uprisings involving ten or more slaves. Three of the best known in the United States during the 19th century are the revolts by Gabriel Prosser in Virginia in 1800, Denmark Vesey in Charleston, South Carolina in 1822, and Nat Turner's Slave Rebellion in Southampton County, Virginia, in 1831.

Drapetomania was a supposed mental illness described by American physician Samuel A. Cartwright in 1851 that caused black slaves to flee captivity. Today, drapetomania is considered an example of pseudoscience, and part of the edifice of scientific racism.

Slave resistance in the antebellum South did not gain the attention of academic historians until the 1940s, when historian Herbert Aptheker started publishing the first serious scholarly work[citation needed] on the subject. Aptheker stressed how rebellions were rooted in the exploitative conditions of the Southern slave system. He traversed libraries and archives throughout the South, managing to uncover roughly 250 similar instances.[citation needed]

The 1811 German Coast Uprising, which took place in rural southeast Louisiana, at that time the Territory of Orleans, early in 1811, involved up to 500 insurgent slaves. It was suppressed by white militias and a detachment of the United States Army. In retaliation for the deaths of two white men and the destruction of property, the authorities killed at least 40 black men in a violent confrontation (the numbers cited are inconsistent); at least 29 more were executed (combined figures from two jurisdictions, St. Charles Parish and Orleans Parish). There was a third jurisdiction for a tribunal and what amounted to summary judgments against the accused, St. John the Baptist Parish. Fewer than 20 men are said to have escaped; some of those were later caught and killed, on their way to freedom.[citation needed]

Although only involving about seventy slaves and free Blacks, Turner's 1831 rebellion is considered to be a significant event in American history. The rebellion caused the slave-holding South to go into a panic. Fifty-five men, women, and children were killed, and enslaved Blacks freed on multiple plantations in Southampton County, Virginia, as Turner and his fellow rebels attacked the White institution of plantation slavery. Turner and the other rebels were eventually stopped by state White militias (Aptheker, 1993).[full citation needed] The rebellion resulted in the hanging of about 56 slaves, including Nat Turner himself. Up to 200 other blacks were killed during the hysteria which followed, few of whom likely had anything to do with the uprising.[20] Fears afterwards led to new legislation passed by Southern states prohibiting the movement, assembly, and education of slaves, and reducing the rights of free people of color. In addition, the Virginia legislature considered[when?] abolishing slavery to prevent further rebellions. In a close vote, however, the state decided to keep slaves.[citation needed]

The abolitionist John Brown had already fought against pro-slavery forces in Bleeding Kansas for several years when he decided to lead a raid on a Federal arsenal in Harpers Ferry, Virginia. This raid was a joint attack by former slaves, freed blacks, and white men who had corresponded with slaves on plantations in order to create a general uprising among slaves. Brown carried hundreds of copies of the constitution for a new republic of former slaves in the Appalachians. But they were never distributed, and the slave uprisings that were to have helped Brown did not happen. Some believe that he knew the raid was doomed but went ahead anyway, because of the support for abolition it would (and did) generate. The U.S. military, led by Lieutenant Colonel Robert E. Lee, easily overwhelmed Brown's forces. But directly following this, slave disobedience and the number of runaways increased markedly in Virginia.[21]

The historian Steven Hahn proposes that the self-organized involvement of slaves in the Union Army during the American Civil War composed a slave rebellion that dwarfed all others.[22] Similarly, tens of thousands of slaves joined British forces or escaped to British lines during the American Revolution, sometimes using the disruption of war to gain freedom. For instance, when the British evacuated from Charleston and Savannah, they took 10,000 slaves with them. They also evacuated slaves from New York, taking more than 3,000 for resettlement to Nova Scotia, where they were recorded as Black Loyalists and given land grants.[23]

North American slave revolts


In 1808 and 1825, there were slave rebellions in the Cape Colony, newly acquired by the British. Although the slave trade was officially abolished in the British Empire by the Slave Trade Act of 1807, and slavery itself a generation later with the Slavery Abolition Act 1833, it took until 1850 to be halted in the territories which were to become South Africa. [29]

Slave ship revolts

There are 485 recorded instances of slaves revolting on board slave ships.[30] A few of these ships endured more than one uprising during their career.[30]

Most accounts of revolts aboard slave ships are given by Europeans. There are few examples of accounts by slaves themselves. William Snelgrave reported that the slaves that revolted on the British ship Henry in 1721 claimed that those who had captured them were "Rogues to buy them" and that they were bent on regaining their liberty.[31] Another example that Richardson gives is that of James Towne who gives the account of slaves stating that Europeans did not have the right to enslave and take them away from their homeland and "wives and children."[32]

Richardson compares several factors that contributed to slave revolts on board ships: conditions on the ships, geographical location, and proximity to the shore.[31] He suggests that revolts were more likely to occur when a ship was still in sight of the shore. The threat of attack from the shore by other Africans was also a concern. If the ship was hit by disease and a large portion of the crew had been killed, the chances of insurrection were higher.[31] Where the slaves were captured also had an effect on the amount of insurrections.[31] In many places, such as the Bight of Benin and the Bight of Biafra, the percentage of revolts and the percentage of the slave trade match up.[31] Yet ships taking slaves from Senegambia experienced 22 percent of shipboard revolts while only contributing to four and a half percent of the slave trade.[32] Slaves coming from West Central Africa accounted for 44 percent of the trade while only experiencing 11 percent of total revolts.[32]

Lorenzo J. Greene gives many accounts of slave revolts on ships coming out of New England. These ships belonged to Puritans who controlled much of the slave trade in New England.[33] Most revolts on board ships were unsuccessful. The crews of these ships, while outnumbered, were disciplined, well fed, and armed with muskets, swords, and sometimes cannons, and they were always on guard for resistance.[34] The slaves on the other hand were the opposite, armed only with bits of wood and the chains that bound them.[35]

However, some captives were able to take over the ships that were their prisons and regain their freedom. On October 5, 1764 the New Hampshire ship Adventure captained by John Millar was successfully taken by its cargo.[34] The slaves on board revolted while the ship was anchored off the coast and all but two of the crew, including Captain Millar, had succumbed to disease.[36] Another successful slave revolt occurred six days after the ship Little George had left the Guinea coast. The ship carried ninety-six slaves, thirty-five of which were male.[34] The slaves attacked in the early hours of the morning, easily overpowering the two men on guard. The slaves were able to get one of the cannons on board loaded and fired it at the crew. After taking control of the ship they sailed it up the Sierra Leone River and escaped.[34] After having defended themselves for several days below decks with muskets the crew lowered a small boat into the river to escape. After nine days of living off of raw rice they were rescued.[37]

There is one factor that is not addressed by either Richardson or Greene. That is of enslaved sailors on slave ships. While Mariana P. Candido doesn't write explicitly on revolts, she does discuss there being enslaved Africans working on the ships that transported other Africans into slavery. These men, 230 in all,[38] were used onboard of slave ships for their ability to communicate with the slaves being brought on board and to translate between Captain and Slaver.[39] Enslaved sailors were able to alleviate some of the fears that newly boarded slaves had, such as being eaten.[40] This was a double-edged sword. The enslaved sailors sometimes joined other slaves in the revolts against the captain they served. In 1812 enslaved sailors joined a revolt on board the Portuguese ship Feliz Eugenia just off the coast of Benguela.[38] The revolt took place below decks. The sailors, along with many of the children that were on board, were able to escape using small boats.[41]


  • Herbert Aptheker, American Negro Slave Revolts, 6. ed., New York: International Publ., 1993 - classic
  • Matt D. Childs, The 1812 Aponte Rebellion in Cuba and the Struggle Against African Slavery, Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2006
  • David P. Geggus, ed., The Impact of the Haitian Revolution in the Atlantic World, Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 2001
  • Eugene D. Genovese, From Rebellion to Revolution: Afro-American Slave Revolts in the Making of the Modern World, Louisiana State University Press 1980
  • Joao Jose Reis, Slave Rebellion in Brazil: The Muslim Uprising of 1835 in Bahia (Johns Hopkins Studies in Atlantic History and Culture), Johns Hopkins Univ Press 1993
  • Rodriguez, Junius P., ed. Encyclopedia of Slave Resistance and Rebellion. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 2007.
  • Rodriguez, Junius P., ed. Slavery in the United States: A Social, Political, and Historical Encyclopedia. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 2007.

See also

References and notes

  1. ^ "Sparta - A Military City-State". Retrieved 2013-10-04.
  2. ^ "Resisting Slavery in Ancient Rome By Professor Keith Bradle". Retrieved 2013-10-04.
  3. ^ "The Sicilian Slave Wars and Spartacus". Retrieved 2013-10-04.
  4. ^ "Chronology Of Slavery". Archived from the original on October 23, 2009. Retrieved 2013-10-04.CS1 maint: unfit url (link)
  5. ^ "Ways of ending slavery". 1910-01-31. Retrieved 2013-10-04.
  6. ^ "Russia before Peter the Great". Retrieved 2013-10-04.
  7. ^ "Rebellions". Retrieved 2013-10-04.
  8. ^ "The Slave Revolts". Retrieved 2013-10-04.
  9. ^ Cartledge, Paul A.; Harvey, F. David, eds. (1985). Crux: Essays in Greek History Presented to G.E.M. De Ste. Croix on His 75th Birthday. History of Political Thought. 6 (Reprint ed.). Duckworth. p. 39. ISBN 9780715620922. Retrieved 2018-11-14. [Drimakos] took to the mountains of Chios and organized a band of runaways to carry out guerilla operations against the landed property of their former masters.
  10. ^ Urbainczyk, Theresa (2008). "Maintaining resistance". Slave Revolts in Antiquity. London: Routledge (published 2016). pp. 30–31. ISBN 9781315478807. Retrieved 2018-11-14.
  11. ^ a b c Castillo, Dennis Angelo (2006). The Maltese Cross: A Strategic History of Malta. Westport: Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 91. ISBN 9780313323294.
  12. ^ Holly Kathryn Norton (2013). Estate by Estate: The Landscape of the 1733 St. Jan Slave Rebellion (PhD). Syracuse University. p. 90.
  13. ^ "An Historical Account of the Black Empire of Hayti: Comprehending a View of the Principal Transactions in the Revolution of Saint Domingo: with Its Ancient and Modern State". World Digital Library. Retrieved 23 April 2013.
  14. ^
  15. ^
  16. ^ "The fédons of Grenada, 1763-1814" Archived 2008-08-31 at the Wayback Machine. Posted by Curtis Jacobs. Retrieved March 10, 2013, to 18: 25 pm.
  17. ^ McGowan, Winston (2006). "The 1763 and 1823 slave rebellions". Starbucks News. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. Retrieved December 7, 2006.
  18. ^ "Slave revolts in Puerto Rico: conspiracies and uprisings, 1795-1873"; by: Guillermo A. Bar alt; Publisher Markus Wiener Publishers; ISBN 1-55876-463-1, ISBN 978-1-55876-463-7
  19. ^ a b "A Continuity of the 19th Century Jihaad Movements of Western Sudan". Muhammad Sharif.
  20. ^ "Nat Turner's Rebellion". PBS. Retrieved November 15, 2014.
  21. ^ Louis A. DeCaro Jr., John Brown – The Cost of Freedom: Selections from His Life & Letters (New York: International Publishers, 2007), p. 16.
  22. ^ Hahn, Steven (2004). "The Greatest Slave Rebellion in Modern History: Southern Slaves in the American Civil War". Retrieved August 22, 2010.
  23. ^ Peter Kolchin, American Slavery: 1619–1877, New York: Hill and Wang, 1993, pp. 73–77
  24. ^ Joseph Cephas Carroll, Slave Insurrections in the United States, 1800–1865, p. 13
  25. ^ Rasmussen, Daniel (2011). American Uprising: The Untold Story of America's Largest Slave Revolt. HarperCollins. p. 288.
  26. ^ J.B. Bird, author and designer. "Black Seminole slave rebellion, introduction - Rebellion". Retrieved 2013-10-04.
  27. ^ "Unidentified Young Man". World Digital Library. 1839–1840. Retrieved 2013-07-28.
  28. ^ "Slave Revolt of 1842". Archived from the original on 2012-11-03. Retrieved 2013-10-04.
  29. ^ Giliomee, Hermann (2003). "The Afrikaners", Chapter 4 - Masters, Slaves and Servants, the fear of gelykstelling, Page 93,94
  30. ^ a b Richardson, David (January 2001). "Shipboard Revolts, African Authority, and the Atlantic Slave Trade". The William and Mary Quarterly. 3. 58 (1): 72.
  31. ^ a b c d e Richardson, David (January 2001). "Shipboard Revolts, African Authority, and the Atlantic Slave Trade". The William and Mary Quarterly. 3. 58 (1).
  32. ^ a b c Richardson, David. "Shipboard Revolts, African Authority, and the Atlantic Slave Trade". The William and Mary Quarterly.
  33. ^ Greene, Lorenzo. Mutiny on Slave Ships. p. 346.
  34. ^ a b c d Greene, Lorenzo. Mutiny on Slave Ships.
  35. ^ Greene. Mutiny on Slave Ships. p. 347.
  36. ^ Greene. Mutiny on Slave Ships. p. 349.
  37. ^ Greene. Mutiny on Slave Ships. p. 351.
  38. ^ a b Candido, Mariana P. (September 2010). "Different Slave Journeys: Enslaved African Seamen on Board Portuguese Ships c. 1760-1820's". 31 (3): 400. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  39. ^ "Candido": 397. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  40. ^ Candido, Mariana P. (September 2010). "Different Slave Journeys: Enslaved African Seamen on Board Portuguese Ships c. 1760-1820's". 31 (3). Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  41. ^ "Candido": 398. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)

Further reading

External links

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