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Skanderbeg's rebellion

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Skanderbeg's rebellion
Gjergj Kastrioti.jpg

Skanderbeg's portrait
Date28 November 1443 — 17 January 1468
Result The rebellion ended with Skanderbeg's natural death. Ottomans captured all territories held by rebels by 1478, except Kruje which was taken by the Republic of Venice with Albanian support.

Coa Kastrioti Family.svg League of Lezhë (1444-50)
Coa Kastrioti Family.svg
Principality of Kastrioti

Arms of Jean dAnjou.svg
Kingdom of Naples (since 1450)
Fictitious Ottoman flag 2.svg
Ottoman Empire
Commanders and leaders

  • Murad II
  • Mehmed II

  • Units involved
    League of Lezhë (1444-1450)
    maximum 10,000-15,000[2] maximum 100,000-150,000
    Casualties and losses
    Unknown Heavy

    Skanderbeg's rebellion was an almost 25-years long anti-Ottoman rebellion led by renegade Ottoman sanjakbey Skanderbeg on the territory which belonged to the Ottoman sanjaks of Albania, Dibra and Ohrid (modern-day Albania and Macedonia). This rebellion was result of initial Christian victories in the Crusade of Varna in 1443. After Ottoman defeat in the Battle of Niš Skanderbeg, then sanjakbey of the Sanjak of Debar, mistakenly believed that Christians would succeed in pushing the Ottomans out of Europe. Like many other regional Ottoman officials, he deserted the Ottoman army to raise rebellion in his sanjak of Dibra and the surrounding region. Initially, his plan was successful and soon large parts of the Sanjak of Dibra and north-east parts of the Sanjak of Albania were captured by the rebels who also fought against regular Ottoman forces in the Sanjak of Ohrid.[3]

    The rebellion of Skanderbeg was a rare successful instance of resistance by Christians during the 15th century and through his leadership led Albanians in guerrilla warfare against the Ottomans.[4] Skanderbeg's rebellion was not however a general Albanian uprising; many Albanians did not join it and some even fought against it for the Sultan, nor were his forces exclusively drawn from Albanians. Rather, his revolt represents a reaction by certain sections of local society and feudal lords against the loss of privilege and the exactions of the Ottoman government which they resented. In addition the rebels fought against members of their own ethnic groups because the Ottoman forces, both commanders and soldiers, were also composed of local people (Albanians, Slavs, Vlachs, Greeks and Turkish timar holders).

    Skanderbeg managed to capture Krujë using a forged letter of the sultan and, according to some sources, impaled captured Ottoman officials who refused to be baptized into Christianity. On 2 March 1444 the regional Albanian and Serbian chieftains united against the Ottoman Empire and established an alliance (League of Lezhë) which was dissolved by 1450.

    Because of the frequent conflicts between rival families in Albania during Skanderbeg's rebellion, particularly between Skanderbeg and Leke Dukagjini, this period was more of an Albanian civil war.[5]

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    By 1522, the great Christian fortress of Rhodes had been taken, and the Ottomans had regained dominance in the Mediterranean Sea, so all their resources could now be redirected towards the mainland. Their target was the Kingdom of Hungary, a fragile land rife with internal chaos - a nation ripe for the picking. Welcome to our video on the Battle of Mohacs, one of the most significant clashes in the history of Europe. This video was sponsored by Vikings War of Clans! This game was inspired by the famous strategy games of the 90ss like the Command and Conquer series and has a similar style to the games​ that we all loved playing growing up, been a fan of and which we remember with a nostalgia now. What makes Vikings world so addictive is that more 20 million online players are constantly changing the way the game evolves by participating in the never-ending fighting over resources, forging new alliances and competing in live events! Help Support our channel by downloading Vikings for FREE only from our links in the description and get the special bonus of 200 gold coins and a protective shield which will be extremely useful for the start! It had been the ambition of the Ottomans to conquer the heartlands of Europe ever since Sultan Mehmed II. Suleyman I knew that the Kingdom of Hungary was the door that would lead them into the core of Christendom, and with the current political climate in Europe, the Hungarians would receive little to no aid against this pending Turkish invasion. Suleyman’s reign began with the conquest of the Hungarian controlled city of Belgrade in 1521. With the fall of Rhodes in 1522 he was able to refocus his resources back onto mainland Europe. Europe was a divided continent whose great powers were locked in perpetual feuds. Among these were the Kingdom of France, and the Holy Roman Empire, ruled by the Charles V of the famous Habsburg dynasty. These states were too engaged in a struggle over control of Italy to pay mind to the Muslim empire at their doorstep. This was something the Ottomans intended to exploit to their advantage. In 1525, the Habsburgs of Spain and Germany crushed a French army at Pavia, and captured the French King, Francis I. Francis was forced to make territorial concessions to the Habsburgs and relinquish his claims to Italy. And out of desperation, France began looking for an ally to aid in their struggle against the Habsburgs. Francis turned to the Ottomans. He implored Suleyman for an alliance and pleaded for him to attack the Habsburgs. This sent shockwaves throughout Europe. Suleyman was delighted at the prospect, for an alliance with France increased his legitimacy as a European Emperor, and gave him a pretext to carry out an invasion he had planned on leading anyways. In order for the Ottomans to strike at Habsburg territory like the French wished, they would need to first go through Hungary. This new alliance gave Suleyman extra incentive to finish what he’d started in 1521, and begin rallying his army for an invasion of the Hungarian Kingdom. It is here we should turn the clock back a bit to explain the state of Hungary leading up to the Ottoman invasion. Since 1490, the country had been stuck in a downward spiral. King Vladislaus II was an ineffective king who sought to placate his nobility by selling almost all his Royal Estates to them, but succeeded only in empowering the Hungarian magnates to take advantage of his weakness. Centralized power declined, and the standing army of Hungary was disbanded by the lords, eager to increase their own profits. Things only became worse in 1514, when a man at arms named György Dózsa formed a peasant Crusade of 40,000 farmers, originally intended to attack the Ottomans. During harvest season, the Hungarian nobles tried to force the peasants to return to their homes, and harassed their families to coerce them to do so. All that accomplished was to incite the peasants into full-scale revolt, resulting in a war that would ravage all Hungary. The rebellion was brutally put down by the Voivode of Transylvania, John Zapolya, and over 70,000 peasants would be captured and tortured in the aftermath. The young King Louis II ascended to the Hungarian throne in 1516, and over time realized the threat the Ottomans posed to his realm’s existence. His pleas for unity fell upon deaf ears, for the peasants, lords, and royal house of Hungary all had enmity for one another. The land was divided, and vulnerable. On the 23rd of April, 1526, Sultan Suleyman I left Constantinople at the head of a massive army, accompanied by his most trusted vizier Ibrahim Pasha. Varying sources put the total numbers of this force between 50,000 to 100,000. It was made up of labourers, cavalry and elite Janissaries alongside 300 cannon. The Ottomans embarked upon an 80-day march up the Balkans, during which torrential rains flooded the Danube river, making maintaining of supply lines difficult. Nevertheless, through the iron discipline of the vizier Ibrahim, the Ottomans reached Belgrade. From Belgrade, Suleyman sent Ibrahim ahead to capture the fortress of Petrovaradin. Ottoman sappers detonated mines beneath the walls, and the Janissaries charged in, taking the fortress while only losing 25 men. The bulk of the Ottoman army joined the strike force, and moved on. Suleyman knew that the best place for the Hungarians to make a stand was the mouth of the River Drava below the town of Osijek, and so he diverted his army towards it. The town of Ilok fell on August 8th with little resistance. When Suleyman and his army arrived where the Drava met the Danube, he expected to come face to face with a huge Hungarian host, but instead was surprised to find that no enemy was there. King Louis II had mustered an army of around 25,000 men in the town of Tolna. It was made up Hungarians, Croatians and Bohemians, with a core of men-at-arms and armoured knights. Much like Suleyman, King Louis knew the importance of the mouth of the river Drava, and ordered his deputy, Stefan Bathory to lead a vanguard there, and defend it at all costs. However, the nobles refused to submit to Bathory’s command, declaring they would follow only the King himself. The vanguard plan was abandoned, and the Hungarian King instead led his quarreling army to a field just outside a little riverside hamlet known as Mohacs, where they awaited their enemy. On August 26th, the Ottoman host reached Mohacs, and the two armies came face to face. The Hungarians had set up a camp between the river Borza and Mohacs proper. They stood in two lines, the first line being made up of 10,000 infantrymen divided into two wings, supplemented by divisions of mounted knights. King Louis himself led the second line, surrounded by 1,000 of his personal armoured cavalry, and the troops of his noblemen. Meanwhile, the Ottomans had managed to advance themselves into a position well protected by woods and ridges, and set up an encampment there. Suleyman ordered his troops in a tiered defense, made up of three lines. The first two lines were made up of 30,000 Rumelian and Anatolian cavalry, supplemented by 4000 Janissaries and 150 cannons. They were led by Ibrahim Pasha. The third line was led by Sultan Suleyman himself, and was made up of 15,000 Janissaries and sipahis. They guarded the bulk of the Ottoman artillery, which was protected by a circle of wagons. Lightly armed Akinji horsemen occupied the left flank, close to the Hungarian line, and a rearguard of heavy cavalry and footmen remained back in the encampment in reserve. On August the 29th, fighting began. The Hungarians were the first to strike, and commenced their assault at 3:00 in the afternoon, knowing the Muslims in Suleyman’s army would be occupied with their afternoon prayer. A crescendo of Hungarian artillery fired across the battlefield. The right wing of the Hungarian first line charged the Ottomans. The Rumelian cavalry were not prepared for the assault, and the heavily armoured Hungarian footmen broke through the first two lines of the Ottoman defense, and fought their way towards the Ottoman’s third line. Inspired by this initial success, the second line of Hungarian mounted knights charged into battle, joining the fierce melee at the fringes and encircling the Rumelian cavalry from the outside, pushing them back towards their camp. Meanwhile, the Hungarian left wing stabbed at the center of the disordered Ottoman first line. The Hungarians fought bravely, breaking through to the Sultan’s position, who was now in danger of being cut down. However, this success was unsustainable. As the Hungarians came within range of the Ottoman wagon fortress, a volley of guns and artillery inflicted heavy damage upon the first line. Soon after, the Janissaries formed ranks around their Sultan, and charged the Hungarian knights, overwhelming them with superior numbers and martial discipline. The tide had begun to turn, after two hours of fighting, the Ottoman reserves back at camp had finally rallied onto the battlefield and joined the Ottoman lines. Meanwhile, the Rumelian cavalry began to regroup. With Vizier Ibrahim at the head, the Ottomans launched a fierce counterattack, pushing the Knights in the second line back towards their camp. From here, the Ottoman army advanced on both flanks to finish off the remaining foes. The Rumelian cavalry encircled the knights from behind, while the Janissaries and reserves overwhelmed what remained of the footmen. The Hungarians were utterly swarmed by overwhelming Ottoman numbers, surrounded in seperate little pockets, and massacred. The battle had ended in a great victory for Suleyman, and a complete disaster for the Hungarians. When the battle seemed lost, King Louis had attempted to flee. In the chaos, his horse had thrown him into the flooded Csele brook, and his heavy armour had dragged him to a watery grave. The Battle at Mohacs was an abject disaster for the Hungarian Kingdom, whose government was now effectively annihilated. While sources vary, it is generally accepted that anywhere from 14,000 to 20,000 Hungarian soldiers were slaughtered in the initial battle, with thousands being taken prisoner and beheaded the next day. The Ottomans only lost between 1000 to 2000 men. Suleyman could not believe he’d destroyed the entire Hungarian army so quickly; he had expected more out of a Kingdom that was once a formidable and powerful foe. He kept his forces stationed at Mohacs for a few days after the battle, expecting more enemy forces to arrive. When none came, he advanced to the city of Buda, taking it with almost no resistance. While Suleyman ordered the city to be spared, sources claim that his army looted and burned it anyways. The victorious Ottoman army then withdrew back to Constantinople, carrying with them the spoils of war. After the battle, the mortified Hungarian nobles were so divided and panicked, they elected two new Kings simultaneously. One was Ferdinand I of Austria- brother of the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, the other was John Zapolya. With the support of the Habsburgs, Ferdinand took advantage of the ensuing power vacuum and seized Hungarian territory in Bohemia, and the northwestern part of Hungary proper. Meanwhile, Zapolya endeared himself to Suleyman, agreeing to vassalize under the Ottomans, who became the suzerains of his realm in Transylvania. The Battle of Mohacs marked the end of Hungarian independence, with all of its former territory now under Habsburg or Turkish dominion. For Suleyman, the victory had not created a springboard for the invasion of Europe as he had hoped, but instead formed a borderland between the Ottomans and the Holy Roman Empire that set the stage for centuries of Habsburg - Ottoman warfare. But perhaps the most significant legacy of this defining engagement is the effect it has on the national conscience of the Hungarian people, who to this day when faced with bad fortune, utter the words: “More was lost at Mohacs.” We have recorded a podcast on the early structure and administration of the Ottoman empire as an addendum to this video and you can listen to it via the link in the description or the pinned comment. New videos in this series are on the way, so make sure you are subscribed to our channel and pressed the bell button. We would like to express our gratitude to our Patreon supporters and channel members, who make the creation of our videos possible. Now, you can also support us by buying our merchandise via the link in the description. This is the Kings and Generals channel, and we will catch you on the next one.



    In Albania, the rebellion against the Ottomans had already been smouldering for years before Skanderbeg deserted the Ottoman army.[6] The most notable earlier revolt was revolt of 1432–36 led principally by Gjergj Arianiti. Although Skanderbeg was summoned by his relatives during this rebellion, he remained loyal to the sultan and did not fight the Ottomans.[7] After this rebellion was suppressed by the Ottomans, Arianiti again revolted against the Ottomans in the region of central Albania in August 1443.[8]

    Skanderbeg decided to leave his position of Ottoman sanjakbey and revolt against the Ottomans only after the victorious Crusade of Varna in 1443.[9] Successes of the crusaders inspired revolt of Skanderbeg and revolt of Constantine XI Palaiologos in the Despotate of the Morea.[10] In early November 1443, Skanderbeg deserted the forces of Sultan Murad II during the Battle of Niš, while fighting against the crusaders of John Hunyadi.[11] Skanderbeg quit the field along with 300 other Albanians serving in the Ottoman army.[12] He immediately led his men to Krujë, where he arrived on November 28,[13] and by the use of a forged letter from Sultan Murad to the Governor of Krujë he became lord of the city.[14] To reinforce his intention of gaining control of the former domains of Zeta, Skanderbeg proclaimed himself the heir of the Balšić family. After capturing some less important surrounding castles (Petrela, Prezë, Guri i Bardhë, Svetigrad, Modrič and others) and eventually gaining control over more than his father Gjon Kastrioti's domains, Skanderbeg abjured Islam and proclaimed himself the avenger of his family and country.[15] He raised a red flag with a black double-headed eagle on it: Albania uses a similar flag as its national symbol to this day.[16]


    Skanderbeg's rebellion was not a general uprising of Albanians. People from the big cities in Albania on the Ottoman-controlled south and Venetian-controlled north did not support him while his followers beside Albanians were also Slavs, Vlachs and Greeks.[17] The rebels did not fight against "foreign" invaders but against members of their own ethnic groups because the Ottoman forces, both commanders and soldiers, were also composed of local people (Albanians, Slavs, Vlachs and Turkish timar holders).[18] Dorotheos, the Archbishop of Ohrid and clerics and boyars of Ohrid Archbishopric together with considerable number of Christian citizens of Ohrid were expatriated by sultan to Istanbul in 1466 because of their anti-Ottoman activities during Skanderbeg's rebellion.[19] Skanderbeg's rebellion was also supported by Greeks in the Morea.[20] According to Fan Noli, the most reliable counselor of Skanderbeg was Vladan Jurica.[21]

    League of Lezhë (1444–1450)

    On 2 March 1444 the regional Albanian and Serbian chieftains united against the Ottoman Empire.[22] This alliance (League of Lezhë) was forged in the Venetian held Lezhë.[23] A couple of months later Skanderbeg's forces stole cattle of the citizens of Lezhë and captured their women and children.[24] The main members of the league were the Arianiti, Balšić, Dukagjini, Muzaka, Spani, Thopia and Crnojevići. All earlier and many modern historians accepted Marin Barleti's news about this meeting in Lezhë (without giving it equal weight), although no contemporary Venetian document mentions it.[25] Barleti referred to the meeting as the generalis concilium or universum concilium [general or whole council]; the term "League of Lezhë" was coined by subsequent historians.[26]

    Early battles

    Kenneth Meyer Setton claims that majority of accounts on Skanderbeg's activities in the period 1443–1444 "owe far more to fancy than to fact."[27] Soon after Skanderbeg captured Krujë using the forged letter to take control from Zabel Pasha, his rebels managed to capture many Ottoman fortresses including strategically very important Svetigrad (Kodžadžik) taken with support of Moisi Arianit Golemi and 3,000 rebels from Debar.[28] According to some sources, Skanderbeg impaled captured Ottoman officials who refused to be baptized into Christianity.[29][30]

    The first battle of Skanderbeg's rebels against the Ottomans was fought on 10 October 1445, on mountain Mokra. According to Setton, after Skanderbeg was allegedly victorious in the Battle of Torvioll, the Hungarians are said to have sung praises about him and urged Skanderbeg to join the alliance of Hungary, the Papacy and Burgundy against the Ottomans.[27] In the spring of 1446, using help of Ragusan diplomats, Skanderbeg requested support from the Pope and Kingdom of Hungary for his struggle against the Ottomans.[31]

    War against Venice

    Marin Span was commander of Skanderbeg's forces which lost fortress Baleč to Venetian forces in 1448 during Skanderbeg's war against Venice. Marin and his soldiers retreated toward Dagnum after being informed by his relative Peter Span about the large Venetian forces heading toward Baleč.[32]

    Treaty of Gaeta

    On 26 March 1450 a political treaty was stipulated in Gaeta between Alfonso V for the Kingdom of Naples and Stefan, Bishop of Krujë, and Nikollë de Berguçi, ambassadors of Skanderbeg. In the treaty Skanderbeg would recognize himself a vassal of the Kingdom of Naples, and in return he would have the Kingdom's protection from the Ottoman Empire. After Alfonso signed this treaty with Skanderbeg, he signed similar treaties with other chieftains from Albania: Gjergj Arianiti, Gjin Muzaka, George Stresi Balsha, Peter Spani, Paul Dukagjini, Thopia Muzaka, Peter of Himara, Simon Zanebisha and Karlo Toco. By the end of 1450 Skanderbeg also agreed peace Ottomans and obliged himself to pay tribute to the sultan.[33]

    To follow the treaty of Gaeta, Naples sent a detachment of 100 Napolitan soldiers commanded by Bernard Vaquer to the castle of Kruje in the end of May 1451.[34] Vaquer was appointed as special commissioner[35] and took over Kruje on behalf of the Kingdom of Naples and put its garrison under his command.[36]


    Ivan Strez Balšić was perceived by Venice as Skanderbeg's successor.[37] After Skanderbeg's death Ivan and his brother Gojko Balšić, together with Leke, Progon and Nicholas Dukagjini, continued to fight for Venice.[38] In 1469 Ivan requested from the Venetian Senate to return him his confiscated property consisting of Castle Petrela, woivodate of "Terra nuova" of Kruje (unknown position), territory between Kruje and Durrës and villages in the region of Bushnesh (today part of the Kodër-Thumanë municipality).[39] Venice largely conceded to the wishes of Ivan Balšić and installed him as Skanderbeg's successor.[40]

    See also


    1. ^ Studime Filologjike. Akademia e Shkencave e RPSSH, Instituti i Ghuhesise dje i Letersise. 1972. p. 49. Vrana Konti me krahun e lidhur dhe Vladan Jurica me kokën e pështjeUur ...
    2. ^ Jacques, Edwin. The Albanians: an ethnic history from prehistoric times to the present. ISBN 978-0-89950-932-7.
    3. ^ Kosta Balabanov; Krste Bitoski (1978). Ohrid i Ohridsko niz istorijata. Opštinsko sobranie na grad Ohrid. p. 62. Скендербег ја исползувал настанатата ситуација, дезертирал од фронтот, решен да подигне општенародно востание во својата област. Планот наполно му успеал, тако што, наскоро, голем дел од Средна Албанија, заедно са пошироката Дебарска област, преминале на раците во устаниците. На таков начин Охридскиот санџак се претворил во поприште на жестоки судари помегу регуларната османска војска и востаниците предводени....
    4. ^ Jean W Sedlar (1994). East Central Europe in the Middle Ages, 1000-1500. University of Washington Press. pp. 393–. ISBN 978-0-295-97291-6. A rare example of successful Christian resistance to the Turks in the 15th century, although in a fairly remote part of Europe , was provided by Skanderbeg, the Albanian mountain chieftain who became the leader of a national revolt. For over a quarter-century until his death in 1468, he led the Albanians in surprisingly effective guerrilla warfare against the Turkish occupiers.
    5. ^ Elsie, Robert (2005), "Muslim literature", Albanian literature: a short history, London: I.B. Tauris in association with the Centre for Albanian Studies, pp. 33, 34, ISBN 1845110315, retrieved January 18, 2011, Much legendry has been attached to the name of Scanderbeg...based on embellishments by historian Marinus ... according to legendry, Scanderbeg successfully repulsed thirteen Ottoman incursions, including three major Ottoman sieges of the citadel of Kruja led by the Sultans themselves...In fact, this period was more of an Albanian civil war between rival families, in particular between Skanderbeg and Leke Dukagjini
    6. ^ Bury, John Bagnell; Whitney, James Pounder; Tanner, Joseph Robson; Charles William Previté-Orton; Zachary Nugent Brooke (1966). The Cambridge Medieval History. Macmillan. p. 383. In Albania, where rebellion had been smouldering for several years, the heroic Skanderbeg (George Castriota) revolted and under ...
    7. ^ Fine 1994, p. 535

      In 1432 Andrew Thopia revolted against his Ottoman overlords ... inspired other Albanian chiefs, in particular George Arianite (Araniti) ... The revolt spread ... from region of Valona up to Skadar ... At this time, though summoned home by his relatives ... Skanderbeg did nothing, he remained ... loyal to sultan

    8. ^ Jireček, Konstantin (1923). Istorija Srba. Izdavačka knjižarnica G. Kona. p. 147. Искусни вођа Арнит (Арианит) поче у средњој Албанији већ у августу 1443 године поново борбу против турака.
    9. ^ Kenneth M. Setton; Harry W. Hazard; Norman P. Zacour (1 June 1990). A History of the Crusades: The Impact of the Crusades on Europe. Univ of Wisconsin Press. p. 293. ISBN 978-0-299-10744-4. One result of the victorious campaign of 1443 was the successful revolt of Albanians under George Castriota
    10. ^ Fine, John V. A.; Fine, John Van Antwerp (1994). The Late Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century to the Ottoman Conquest. University of Michigan Press. p. 548. ISBN 0-472-08260-4. The crusaders' successes inspired two other major revolts, ... the revolt of Skanderbeg in Albania...
    11. ^ Frasheri, Kristo. Gjergj Kastrioti Skënderbeu: jeta dhe vepra, 1405–1468. ISBN 99927-1-627-4.
    12. ^ Frasheri, Kristo. Gjergj Kastrioti Skënderbeu: jeta dhe vepra, 1405–1468. ISBN 99927-1-627-4.
    13. ^ Drizari, Nelo. Scanderbeg; his life, correspondence, orations, victories, and philosophy.
    14. ^ Frasheri, Kristo. Gjergj Kastrioti Skënderbeu: jeta dhe vepra, 1405–1468.
    15. ^ Gibbon, Edward. Volume 12. The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. p. 168.
    16. ^ Frasheri, Kristo. Gjergj Kastrioti Skënderbeu: jeta dhe vepra (1405-1468).
    17. ^ Schmitt 2012, p. 55

      in seiner Gefolgschaft fanden sich neben Albanern auch Slawen, Griechen und Vlachen.

    18. ^ Schmitt, Oliver Jens (September 2009), Skanderbeg. Der neue Alexander auf dem Balkan (PDF), Verlag Friedrich Pustet, ISBN 978-3-7917-2229-0, archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-07
    19. ^ Shukarova, Aneta; Mitko B. Panov; Dragi Georgiev; Krste Bitovski; Ivan Katardziev; Vanche Stojchev; Novica Veljanovski; Todor Chepreganov (2008), Todor Chepreganov, ed., History of the Macedonian People, Skopje: Institute of National History, p. 133, ISBN 9989159246, OCLC 276645834, retrieved 26 December 2011, deportation of the Archbishop of Ohrid, Dorotei, to Istanbul in 1466, to-gether with other clerks and bolyars who probably were expatriated be-cause of their anti Ottoman acts during the Skender-Bey’s rebellion.
    20. ^ Judith Herrin (2013). Margins and Metropolis: Authority Across the Byzantine Empire. Princeton University Press. p. 11. ISBN 978-0-691-15301-8. A revolt against Turkish authority in Albania, led by George Castriota (Iskender Bey or “Skanderbeg”) was successful for a brief period and was supported by dissident Greeks in the Morea.
    21. ^ Noli, Fan Stylian (1968). Vepra të plota: Gjergj Kastrioti Skënderbeu (1405-1468). Rilindija. p. 138. ...Vladan Jurica, këshilltari i tij më i besueshëm, ...
    22. ^ Babinger, Franz (1992). Mehmed the Conqueror and His Time. Princeton University Press. p. 153. ISBN 0-691-01078-1. ... a solid military alliance was concluded among all the Albanian and Serbian chieftains along the Adriatic coast from southern Epirus to the Bosnian border.
    23. ^ "A Timeline of Skanderbeg's Campaigns". Archived from the original on March 28, 2011. Retrieved March 28, 2011.
    24. ^ Božić 1979, p. 358

      Представник млетачких власти, и да je хтео, није био у стању да ce одупре одржавању таквог скупа, као што ни неколико месеци доцније није могао да ce супротстави Скендербеговим људима који су no граду лљачкали стоку и одводили жене и децу.

    25. ^ Božić 1979, p. 363

      Мада ниједан савремени млетачки документ не помиње овај скуп, сви старији и многи новији историчари прихватили су Барлецијеве вести не придајући им, разуме се, исти значај.

    26. ^ Biçoku, Kasem (2009). Kastriotët në Dardani. Prishtinë: Albanica. pp. 111–116. ISBN 978-9951-8735-4-3.
    27. ^ a b Setton p. 73.
    28. ^ Stojanovski, Aleksandar (1988). Istorija na makedonskiot narod. Makedonska kniga. p. 88.
    29. ^ II, Pope Pius (1 November 2013). Europe (c.1400-1458). CUA Press. p. 114. ISBN 978-0-8132-2182-3. George Skanderbeg, a man of noble birth, received his inheritance. ... fortress of Krujë by stratagem and declared himselfa Christian, going so far as to impale the Ottoman officials who refused to accept baptism; see Fine, LMB, 521–22, 556.
    30. ^ (Firm), John Murray (1872). A Handbook for Travellers in Greece: Describing the Ionian Islands, Continental Greece, Athens, and the Peloponnesus, the Islands of the Ægean Sea, Albania, Thessaly, and Macedonia. J. Murray. p. 478. The names of religion and liberty provoked a general revolt of the Albanians, who indulged the Ottoman garrisons in the choice of martyrdom or baptism ; and for 23 years Skanderbeg resisted the powers of the Turkish Empire, — the hero of ...
    31. ^ Jovan Radonić (1905). Zapadna Evropa i balkanski narodi prema Turcima u prvoj polovini XV veka. Izd. Matice srpske. p. 249. Retrieved 21 June 2013. ...с пролећа 1946 обраћао за помоћ папи и Угарској преко републике дубровачке...
    32. ^ Srpska Akademija Nauka i Umetnosti 1980, p. 39: "...да поруше обновљени Балеч с таквим снагама као да је у питању највећа тврђава. То је Петар Спан јавио свом рођаку Марину и овај је у последњем тренутку сакупио војнике и спустио се према Дању".
    33. ^ Spremić, Momčilo (1968). Zbornik Filozofskog fakulteta. Naučno delo. pp. 253, 254. Retrieved 19 June 2013. Тај мир је склопљен до краја 1450 јер је Скендербег почетком 1451, када је ступао у вазални однос с напуљским краљем Алфонском Арагонским, већ имао уговор са султаном и плаћао му харач.
    34. ^ Tibbetts, Jann (30 July 2016). 50 Great Military Leaders of All Time. Vij Books India Pvt Ltd. p. 571. ISBN 978-93-85505-66-9. Following the Treaty of Gaeta, in the end of May 1451, a small detachment of 100 Catalan soldiers, headed by Bernard Vaquer, was established at the castle of Kruje.
    35. ^ Gegaj, Athanas (1937). L'Albanie et l'Invasion turque au XVe siècle (in French). Bureaux du Recueil, Bibliothéque de l'Université. p. 88. Retrieved 19 December 2017. En vertu du traité, Alphonse V envoya en Albanie, au mois de juin 1451, un officier de sa trésorerie, Bernard Vaquer, avec les pouvoirs de commissaire spécial.
    36. ^ Marinescu, Constantin (1994). La politique orientale d'Alfonse V d'Aragon, roi de Naples (1416-1458). Institut d'Estudis Catalans. pp. 181, 182. ISBN 978-84-7283-276-3.
    37. ^ Jens Schmitt, Oliver; Konrad Clewing, Edgar Hösch (2005), "Die venezianischen Jahrbücher des Stefano Magno (ÖNB Codd 6215–6217) als Quelle zur albanischen und epirotischen Geschichte  im späten Mittelalter (1433–1477)", Südosteuropa : von vormoderner Vielfalt und nationalstaatlicher Vereinheitlichung : Festschrift für Edgar Hösch (in German), Oldenbourg Verlag, p. 167, ISBN 978-3-486-57888-1, OCLC 62309552, ...Ivan Strez Balsics, des von Venedig anerkannten Nachfolgers Skanderbegs,...
    38. ^ Schmitt 2001, p. 297

      die Skanderbegs Personlichkeit gelassen hatte, nicht zu füllen. Deshalb muste Venedig wie in den Jahrzehnten vor Skanderbeg mit einer Vielzahl von Adligen zusammenarbeiten; neben Leka, Progon und Nikola Dukagjin gehörten zu dieser Schicht auch Comino Araniti, wohl derselbe, der 1466 Durazzo überfallen hatte; die Söhne von Juani Stexi, di Johann Balsha, Machthaber zwischen Alessio und Kruja; Gojko Balsha und seine söhne der woiwode Jaran um Kruja (1477), und auch der mit seinem Erbe überforderte Johann Kastriota.

    39. ^ Jens Schmitt, Oliver; Konrad Clewing, Edgar Hösch (2005), "Die venezianischen Jahrbücher des Stefano Magno (ÖNB Codd 6215–6217) als Quelle zur albanischen und epirotischen Geschichte  im späten Mittelalter (1433–1477)", Südosteuropa : von vormoderner Vielfalt und nationalstaatlicher Vereinheitlichung : Festschrift für Edgar Hösch (in German), Oldenbourg Verlag, p. 168, ISBN 978-3-486-57888-1, OCLC 62309552, Ivan Strez Balsa, ein Neffe Skanderbegs, verlangte dabei seinen enteigneten Besitz zurück, und zwar die Burg Petrela, das nicht weiter zu lokalisierende Woiwodat von „Terra nuova" um Kruja (kaum gemeint sein kann das ebenfalls als Terra nuova bezeichnete osmanische Elbasan), die Dörfer des Gebietes von „Bonese" (Bushnesh, WNW von Kruja gelegen), schließlich das Land zwischen Kruja und Durazzo.
    40. ^ Jens Schmitt, Oliver; Konrad Clewing, Edgar Hösch (2005), "Die venezianischen Jahrbücher des Stefano Magno (ÖNB Codd 6215–6217) als Quelle zur albanischen und epirotischen Geschichte  im späten Mittelalter (1433–1477)", Südosteuropa : von vormoderner Vielfalt und nationalstaatlicher Vereinheitlichung : Festschrift für Edgar Hösch (in German), Oldenbourg Verlag, p. 168, ISBN 978-3-486-57888-1, OCLC 62309552, Tatsächlich kam Venedig den Wünschen Ivan Strezs weitgehend entgegen und setzte ihn damit zum Nachfolger Skanderbegs ein. [Venice largely conceded to the wishes of Ivan Strezs and installed him as Scanderbeg's successor]


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