To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Free and Sovereign State of Sinaloa
Estado Libre y Soberano de Sinaloa (Spanish)
Coat of arms of Sinaloa
The Land of the 11 Rivers
Anthem: State of Sinaloa Anthem
State of Sinaloa within Mexico
State of Sinaloa within Mexico
Coordinates: 25°0′N 107°30′W / 25.000°N 107.500°W / 25.000; -107.500
Country Mexico
Capital and largest cityCuliacán
AdmissionOctober 14, 1830[1]
 • GovernorMorena logo (Mexico).svg Rubén Rocha Moya
 • Senators[2]
  • Morena logo (Mexico).svg Raúl de Jesús Elenes Angulo
  • Morena logo (Mexico).svg Imelda Castro Castro
  • PRI logo (Mexico).svg Mario Zamora Gastélum
 • Deputies[3]
 • Total58,328 km2 (22,521 sq mi)
 Ranked 17th
Highest elevation
[5] (Cerro La Cueva Gacha)
2,815 m (9,236 ft)
 • Total3,026,943
 • Rank16th
 • Density52/km2 (130/sq mi)
  • Rank18th
Time zoneUTC−7 (MST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−6 (MDT)
Postal code
Area code
ISO 3166 codeMX-SIN
HDIIncrease 0.804 very high Ranked 5th
GDPUS$ 13,749,376,250 [a]
WebsiteOfficial Web Site
^ a. The state's GDP was $175,992,016 thousand of pesos in 2008,[7] amount corresponding to $13,749,376.25 thousand of dollars, being a dollar worth 12.80 pesos (value of June 3, 2010).[8]

Sinaloa (Spanish pronunciation: [sinaˈloa] (listen)), officially the Estado Libre y Soberano de Sinaloa (English: Free and Sovereign State of Sinaloa), is one of the 31 states which, along with Mexico City, comprise the Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided into 18 municipalities and its capital city is Culiacán Rosales.

It is located in Northwestern Mexico, and is bordered by the states of Sonora to the north, Chihuahua and Durango to the east (separated from them by the Sierra Madre Occidental) and Nayarit to the south. To the west, Sinaloa faces Baja California Sur across the Gulf of California. The state covers an area of 58,328 square kilometers (22,521 sq mi), and includes the Islands of Palmito Verde, Palmito de la Virgen, Altamura, Santa María, Saliaca, Macapule and San Ignacio. In addition to the capital city, the state's important cities include Mazatlán and Los Mochis.


The most widely accepted etymology has established that Sinaloa is composed from two Cahitan words: sina and lobola, which respectively mean "pitaya" and "rounded." Sinalobola means "round pitaya."


Prior to the coming of the Spaniards, much of Sinaloa was inhabited by the Cáhita peoples.

In 1531, Nuño Beltrán de Guzmán with a force of over 10,000 men, defeated a force of 30,000 Cáhita warriors at the site of Culiacán. Beltrán de Guzmán established a Spanish and allied Indian outpost at San Miguel de Culiacán. Over the next decade, the Cahíta suffered severe depopulation from smallpox and other diseases the Spanish brought.

The Spanish organized Sinaloa as part of the gobierno of Nueva Galicia. In 1564, the area was realigned: the area of Culiacán and Cosalá remained in control of Nueva Galicia, while the areas to the north, south and west were made part of the newly formed Nueva Vizcaya province, making the Culiacán area an exclave of Nueva Galicia. The first capital of Nueva Vizcaya was located in San Sebastián, near Copala, but the capital moved to Durango in 1583.[9]

Starting in 1599, Jesuit missionaries spread out from a base at what is now Sinaloa de Leyva and by 1610, the Spanish influence had been extended to the northern edge of Sinaloa. In 1601, the Jesuits' movement into the eastern part of Sinaloa led to the Acaxee going to war. The Spanish eventually managed to reassert authority in the Sierra Madre Occidental region and executed 48 Acaxee leaders.[10]

After Mexican independence, Sinaloa was joined with Sonora as Estado de Occidente, but became a separate, sovereign state in 1830.

Geography and environment

The coastal plain is a narrow strip of land that stretches along the length of the state and lies between the Gulf of California and the foothills of the Sierra Madre Occidental mountain range, which dominates the eastern part of the state. Sinaloa is traversed by many rivers, which carve broad valleys into the foothills. The largest of these rivers are the Culiacán, Fuerte, and Sinaloa.

Sinaloa has a warm climate on the coast; moderately warm climate in the valleys and foothills; moderately cold in the lower mountains, and cold in the higher elevations. Its weather characteristics vary from subtropical and tropical, found on coastal plains, to cold in the nearby mountains. Temperatures range from 22 °C (72 °F) to 43 °C (109 °F) with rain and thunderstorms during the rainy season (June to October) and dry conditions throughout most of the year. Its average annual precipitation is 790 millimetres.[11]

Numerous species of plants and animals are found within Sinaloa. Notable among the tree species is the elephant tree, Bursera microphylla.[12]

Botanic garden "Benjamín F. Johnston" of Parque Sinaloa
Botanic garden "Benjamín F. Johnston" of Parque Sinaloa


Culturally, the state is known for its popular styles of music banda and norteño.[13]

Sinaloa is the only place in the continent where the ancient Mesoamerican ballgame is still played, in a handful of small, rural communities not far from Mazatlán. The ritual ballgame was central in the society, religion and cosmology of all the great Mesoamerican cultures including the Mixtecs, Aztecs, and Maya.[citation needed]

An ulama player in Sinaloa.
An ulama player in Sinaloa.

The Sinaloa version of the game is called ulama and is very similar to the original.[14] There are efforts to preserve this 3500-year-old unique tradition by supporting the communities and children who play it.[15]

Its rich cuisine[16] is well known for its variety[17] particularly in regard to mariscos (seafood) and vegetables.[18] Sinaloan sushi is a popular dish here.[19] Sinaloa is particularly famous for its aguachile.

Famous entertainers from Sinaloa include actor Pedro Infante, born in Mazatlán; singer Ana Gabriel, born in Guamúchil; singer and actress Lola Beltrán from Rosario; Cruz Lizárraga, the founder of Banda el Recodo; baseball player Jorge Orta, from Mazatlán; actress/comedian/singer Sheyla Tadeo, born in Culiacán; actress Sabine Moussier; actress/singer Lorena Herrera, from Mazatlán; and singer-songwriter Chalino Sánchez, from Las Flechas, Culiacán.

The Sinaloa Cartel (Cártel de Sinaloa or CDS) has significantly influenced the culture of Sinaloa.[20] The cartel is reportedly the largest drug trafficking, money laundering and organized crime syndicate in the Americas; it is based in the city of Culiacán, Sinaloa.[21]


Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
1895 261,050—    
1900 296,701+2.59%
1910 323,642+0.87%
1921 341,265+0.48%
1930 395,618+1.66%
1940 492,821+2.22%
1950 635,681+2.58%
1960 838,404+2.81%
1970 1,266,528+4.21%
1980 1,849,879+3.86%
1990 2,204,054+1.77%
1995 2,425,675+1.93%
2000 2,536,844+0.90%
2005 2,608,442+0.56%
2010 2,767,761+1.19%
2015 2,966,700+1.40%
2020 3,026,943+0.40%
Source: [6]

According to the 2020 census, Sinaloa is home to 3,026,943 inhabitants, 60% of whom reside in the capital city of Culiacán and the municipalities of Mazatlán and Ahome. It is a young state in terms of population, 56% of which is younger than 30 years of age.

Other demographic particulars report 87% of the state practices the Catholic faith. Also, 1% of those over five years of age speak an indigenous language alongside Spanish; the main indigenous ethnic group still residing in the state is the Mayo or "Yoreme" (Cáhita language) people. Life expectancy in the state follows the national tendency of higher rates for women than men, a difference of almost five years in the case of Sinaloa, at 72.5 and 77.4 years respectively.

In ethnic composition, Sinaloa has received large historic waves of immigration from Europe (mainly Spain, the United Kingdom, Ireland, France, Germany, Austria, Italy and Russia) and Asia (namely China, Japan, the Philippines, Lebanon and Syria). The latter two countries also make up most of the Arab Mexican community in the state. In recent years, retirees from the U.S., Canada and South America have arrived and made Sinaloa their home.

There was also a sizable influx of Ashkenazi and Sephardic Jews in the first decades of the twentieth century.

Greeks (ancestry from Greece) form a notable presence in Sinaloa, where one can find local cuisine with kalamari and a few Greek Orthodox churches along the state's coast.

Overall Sinaloa has one of the highest European Mexican rates in the whole country, estimated at 38%, although the Mexican Census didn't have a racial category count since 1921.

According to the 2020 Census, 1.39% of Sinaloa's population identified as Black, Afro-Mexican, or of African descent.[22]

Sinaloenses have moved to the United States in large numbers since 1970; a large community lives in the twin towns of Indio, California and Coachella, California about 25 miles east of Palm Springs, California in the desert resort industry.


In terms of education, average schooling reaches 8.27 years; 4.2% of those over 15 years of age are illiterate, and 3.18% of children under 14 years of age do not attend school.[23]

Institutions of higher education include Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa, TecMilenio University, Universidad Politécnica de Sinaloa, Universidad Politécnica del Mar y la Sierra, Universidad Politécnica del Valle del Evora, Universidad Autónoma de Durango, Instituto Tecnológico Superior de Sinaloa, Universidad Autónoma de Occidente and Universidad Casa Blanca.


Sinaloa is divided into 18 municipios (municipalities). See Municipalities of Sinaloa.

The state's major cities include the capital and largest city, Culiacán. Also Mazatlán, which is a world-famous tourist resort and destination. Los Mochis, an agricultural hub in the Northwestern region of Mexico.


The main economic activities of Sinaloa are agriculture, fishing, livestock breeding, commerce and industry. The products obtained from these activities are used for both local and national consumption. Sinaloa has on its license plates the image of a Tomato, as the state is widely recognized for harvesting this particular fruit in great abundance from Los Mochis in the North to Culiacan in the Central region of the state. Agriculture produce aside from tomatoes include cotton, beans, corn, wheat, sorghum, potatoes, soybeans, mangos, sugarcane, peanuts and squash. Sinaloa is the most prominent state in Mexico in terms of agriculture and is known as "Mexico's breadbasket". Additionally, Sinaloa has the second largest fishing fleet in the country.[24] Livestock produces meat, sausages, cheese, milk as well as sour cream.

Government and politics

The current governor of Sinaloa is Quirino Ordaz Coppel (PRI), elected for the period 2017–2022. The state is represented in the Mexican Congress by three Senators in the upper house and fourteen federal deputies in the lower house.


Newspapers of Sinaloa include: El Debate de Culiacán, El Debate de Guamuchil, El Debate de Guasave, El Debate de los Mochis, El Debate de Mazatlán, El Sol de Culiacán, El Sol de Sinaloa, La I Noticias para Mí Culiacán, Noroeste (Culiacán), Noroeste de Mazatlán, and Primera Hora.[25][26]

Notable residents

See also


  1. ^ "Ley. Reglas para la división del Estado de Sonora y Sinaloa" (in Spanish).
  2. ^ "Senadores por Sinaloa LXI Legislatura". Senado de la Republica. Retrieved April 6, 2011.
  3. ^ "Listado de Diputados por Grupo Parlamentario del Estado de Sinaloa". Camara de Diputados. Archived from the original on March 16, 2012. Retrieved April 6, 2011.
  4. ^ "Resumen". Cuentame INEGI. Archived from the original on May 14, 2013. Retrieved February 12, 2013.
  5. ^ "Relieve". Cuentame INEGI. Archived from the original on October 14, 2010. Retrieved April 6, 2011.
  6. ^ a b "México en cifras". January 2016.
  7. ^ "Mexico en Cifras". INEGI. Archived from the original on April 20, 2011. Retrieved April 6, 2011.
  8. ^ "Reporte: Jueves 3 de Junio del 2010. Cierre del peso mexicano". Retrieved August 10, 2010.
  9. ^ Peter Gerhard, The Northern Frontier of New Spain (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1982) p. 245
  10. ^ "History of Mexico - The State of Sinaloa".
  11. ^ "Clima de Sinaloa". Cuéntame... Información por entidad. INEGI. Retrieved 14 August 2019.
  12. ^ C. Michael Hogan. 2009
  13. ^ Lawrence Downes. "In Los Angeles, Songs Without Borders". The New York Times.
  14. ^ "The Game". Mesoamerican Heritage Chapter of the Asociacion de Gestores del Patrimonio Historico y Cultural de Mazatlan. Retrieved 31 March 2012.
  15. ^ Asociacion de Gestores del Patrimonio Historico y Cultural de Mazatlan. 2009
  16. ^ "Festivities and cuisine in Sinaloa".
  17. ^ "Traditional foods of Sinaloa".
  18. ^ "". {{cite web}}: Cite uses generic title (help)
  19. ^ "Oh No, There Goes Tokyo Roll—Sinaloa Style Sushi Invades Los Angeles". August 2013.
  20. ^ "Sinaloa Cartel Influence is Steadily Growing In Tijuana". Borderland Beat. 23 February 2011.
  21. ^ "Mexico's Sinaloa gang grows empire, defies crackdown". Reuters. 19 January 2011. Retrieved 18 September 2011.
  22. ^ "Panorama sociodemográfico de México".
  23. ^ Principales resultados de la Encuesta Intercensal 2015 Sinaloa (PDF) (Report). Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía (INEGI). 2005. pp. 27, 29, 33. Retrieved 26 April 2017.
  24. ^ "Sinaloa". SEDESOL Secretaría de Desarrollo Social. Secretaría de Desarrollo Social. Retrieved 14 August 2019.
  25. ^ "Publicaciones periódicas en Sinaloa". Sistema de Información Cultural (in Spanish). Gobierno de Mexico. Retrieved March 11, 2020.
  26. ^ "Latin American & Mexican Online News". Research Guides. US: University of Texas at San Antonio Libraries. Archived from the original on March 7, 2020.


External links

This page was last edited on 13 June 2022, at 16:58
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.