To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

4,5
Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.
.
Leo
Newton
Brights
Milds

Shuttle diplomacy

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

In diplomacy and international relations, shuttle diplomacy is the action of an outside party in serving as an intermediary between (or among) principals in a dispute, without direct principal-to-principal contact. Originally and usually, the process entails successive travel ("shuttling") by the intermediary, from the working location of one principal, to that of another.

The term was first applied to describe the efforts of United States Secretary of State Henry Kissinger, beginning November 5, 1973,[1] which facilitated the cessation of hostilities following the Yom Kippur War.

Negotiators often use shuttle diplomacy when one or both of two principals refuses recognition of the other prior to mutually desired negotiation.

Mediators have adopted the term "shuttle diplomacy" as well.[2]

Examples

An early form of shuttle diplomacy emerged at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919 when Italy briefly withdrew from the Conference in protest of the other international delegations' refusal to grant its irredentist territorial claims promised by the Treaty of London in 1915. Upon Italy's return, Colonel Edward House of the U.S. delegation attempted to solve its conflict with Yugoslavia by placing the two countries' delegates in separate rooms and attempting to broker a compromise between the two. House's efforts were ultimately unsuccessful, leading to the collapse of Italian Prime Minister Vittorio Orlando's government in Rome and Gabriele D'Annunzio's takeover of Fiume.[3]

Kissinger continued to participate in shuttle diplomacy in the Middle East during the Nixon and Ford administrations (1969–1977); it resulted in the Sinai Interim Agreement (1975) and arrangements between Israel and Syria on the Golan Heights (1974).[4] The term became widespread during Kissinger's service as Secretary of State.

Soon after Kissinger's efforts, shuttle diplomacy came to the United States in the form of Israel and Egypt conducting negotiations at Camp David. The negotiations were successfully facilitated by President Jimmy Carter.[5]

Turkey has carried out shuttle diplomacy, often involving Israel: Turkey was Israel's closest ally in the Muslim world, and some Arab countries (notably Syria, which has common borders with Turkey and with Israel) have been amenable to Turkey, with its own Muslim majority population.[6] Another Turkish mediation took place between Russia and Georgia in 2008.[7]

Alexander Haig used shuttle diplomacy between the United Kingdom and Argentina during the Falklands War in 1982.[8]

See also

References

  1. ^ George Lenczowski, American Presidents and the Middle East, (Duke University Press: 1990), p. 131
  2. ^ For example: Margulies, Robert E. (December 2002). "How to Win in Mediation" (PDF). New Jersey Lawyer. pp. 53–54. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-14. Retrieved 2010-03-21. After the opening session, the parties usually break into caucus groups, and the mediator utilizes shuttle diplomacy between the groups in order to identify interests and positions of the parties and help them create solutions.
  3. ^ MacMillan, Margaret (2001). Paris 1919: Six Months that Changed the World. New York: Random House. pp. 299–300. ISBN 0-375-76052-0.
  4. ^ Dhanani, Gulshan (1982-05-15). "Israeli Withdrawal from Sinai". Economic and Political Weekly. Economic and Political Weekly. 17 (20): 821–822. JSTOR 4370919. The high points in Kissinger's shuttle diplomacy were:[...] (2) May 1974; the Syrian and the Israeli armies agree to the Golan Heights disengagement
  5. ^ corissajoy (2016-07-12). "Shuttle Diplomacy". Beyond Intractability. Retrieved 2019-01-31.
  6. ^ http://www.naharnet.com/domino/tn/NewsDesk.nsf/getstory?openform&D64E33E506104D43C22575330051DFC0
  7. ^ "Turkey's Erdogan in shuttle diplomacy in Caucasus". Reuters. 2008-08-13.
  8. ^ https://www.csmonitor.com/1982/0408/040840.html
This page was last edited on 13 December 2019, at 01:18
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.