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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Shaanxi Province

Name transcription(s)
 • Chinese陕西省 (Shǎnxī Shěng)
 • AbbreviationSN / or (pinyin: Shǎn or Qín)
Giant Wild Goose Pagoda in Xi'an
Map showing the location of Shaanxi Province
Map showing the location of Shaanxi Province
Coordinates: 35°36′N 108°24′E / 35.6°N 108.4°E / 35.6; 108.4Coordinates: 35°36′N 108°24′E / 35.6°N 108.4°E / 35.6; 108.4
(and largest city)
Divisions10 prefectures, 107 counties, 1745 townships
 • SecretaryHu Heping
 • GovernorLiu Guozhong
 • Total205,800 km2 (79,500 sq mi)
Area rank11th
Highest elevation
3,767.2 m (12,359.6 ft)
 • Total37,327,378
 • Rank16th
 • Density180/km2 (470/sq mi)
 • Density rank21st
 • Ethnic compositionHan – 99.5%
Hui – 0.4%
 • Languages and dialectsZhongyuan Mandarin, Southwestern Mandarin, Jin
ISO 3166 codeCN-SN
GDP (2017[3])CNY 2.19 trillion
USD 324.34 billion (15th)
 • per capitaCNY 57,266
USD 8,482 (12th)
HDI (2017)0.751[4] (High) (14th) (Simplified Chinese)
Shaanxi (Chinese characters).svg
"Shaanxi" in Simplified (top) and Traditional (bottom) Chinese characters
Chinese name
Simplified Chinese陕西
Traditional Chinese陝西
Hanyu PinyinAbout this soundShǎnxī
Literal meaning"West of the Shǎn (Pass)"
Dunganese name

Shaanxi (Chinese: 陝西; pinyin: Shǎnxī; Mandarin pronunciation: [ʂàn.ɕí] (About this soundlisten); formerly Shensi) is a landlocked province in Northwest China. It lies in central China, bordering the provinces of Shanxi (NE, E), Henan (E), Hubei (SE), Chongqing (S), Sichuan (SW), Gansu (W), Ningxia (NW), and Inner Mongolia (N).

Shaanxi covers an area of over 205,000 km2 (79,151 sq mi) with about 37 million people, the 16th highest in China. Xi'an – which includes the sites of the former Chinese capitals Fenghao and Chang'an – is the capital and largest city in the province. Xianyang, which served as the Qin dynasty capital, is located nearby. The other prefecture-level cities into which the province is divided are Ankang, Baoji, Hanzhong, Shangluo, Tongchuan, Weinan, Yan'an and Yulin.

Shaanxi comprises the Wei Valley and much of the surrounding fertile Loess Plateau, stretching from the Qin Mountains and Shannan in the south to the Ordos Desert in the north. Along with areas of adjacent Shanxi and Henan provinces, it formed the cradle of Chinese civilization, with its Guanzhong region sheltering the capitals of the Zhou, Han, Jin, Sui, and Tang dynasties in addition to the Qin. It does not include the full territory of the Yellow River's Ordos Loop, with the Great Wall of China separating it from the grasslands and deserts of Inner Mongolia.

The vast majority of the population of Shaanxi is Han Chinese. Mandarin is mainly spoken in Shaanxi, including Zhongyuan Mandarin and Southwestern Mandarin; another variety of Chinese, Jin, is also spoken.

Shaanxi is China's 15th largest economy, ranking within the middle among China's administrative divisions. The fossil fuel and high technology sectors compose the two largest industries in Shaanxi province. The high technology sector includes aircraft and aerospace industries, and Shaanxi produces more than 50% of the R&D and manufacturing equipment for the country's domestic commercial air industry.[5]

Xi'an, the capital of Shaanxi is one of the oldest cities in China, and the oldest of the Four Great Ancient Capitals.[6] Since the 1990s, as part of the economic revival of inland China especially for the central and northwest regions, the city of Xi'an has re-emerged as an important cultural, industrial and educational centre of Shaanxi and the central-northwest region. It is the most populous city in Northwest China.[7]


The name "Shaanxi" is an irregular romanization of the Mandarin pronunciation of the Chinese name 陕西, meaning "[Land] West of the Shan Pass". This pass in Henan, now part of Sanmenxia's Shanzhou District, was considered to be the place where the Yellow River left the Loess Plateau and entered the North China Plain.

Because the Mandarin pronunciation of Shaanxi and its eastern neighbor Shanxi differs only in tone, their spelling in pinyin romanization differs only by tone marks (Shǎnxī and Shānxī, respectively). The People's Republic of China therefore adopted the special official spelling "Shaanxi". The first syllable is derived from Gwoyeu Romatzyh romanization[citation needed], which reflects the tones of the words' vowels in their spelling.[8] Before the adoption of pinyin, Shaanxi was romanized as Shensi in the Chinese postal romanization scheme. When tone marks are noted, it is spelled Shǎnxī rather than Shǎanxī or Shaǎnxī.

The Shaanxi–Shanxi ambiguity only occurs in Mandarin and other northern varieties of Chinese that have lost the -m syllable ending. In Cantonese, for example, the two provinces' names are Sím-sāi and Sāan-sāi, and in Hokkien they are Siám-sai and Soaⁿ-sai.


Shaanxi is considered one of the cradles of Chinese civilization. Thirteen feudal dynasties established their capitals in the province during a span of more than 1,100 years, from the Zhou dynasty to the Tang dynasty.

The province's principal city and current capital, Xi'an, is one of the four great ancient capitals of China and is the eastern terminus of the Silk Road, which leads to Europe, the Arabian Peninsula and Africa.

Under the Han dynasty, the Northern Silk Road was expanded to advance exploration and military purposes to the west. This Northern Silk Road is the northernmost of the Silk Roads and is about 2,600 kilometres (1,600 mi) in length. It connected the ancient Chinese capital of Xi'an to the west over the Wushao Ling Pass to Wuwei and emerging in Kashgar before linking to ancient Parthia.[9]

Under the Ming dynasty, Shaanxi was incorporated into Gansu but was again separated in the Qing dynasty.

One of the most devastating earthquakes in history occurred near Hua Shan, in south-eastern part of Shaanxi Province on January 23, 1556, killing an estimated 830,000 people (see 1556 Shaanxi earthquake).

The end of the short-lived Jiangxi Soviet signaled the beginning of the Long March by Mao Zedong and the Chinese Communists to the Shaanxi Soviet at Yan'an.

Pre-historic site

The Lantian Man site, with hominin fossils of one million years ago, was found in Lantian County in northwestern Shaanxi province, near the city of Xi'an. Scientists classify Lantian Man as a subspecies of Homo erectus. The fossils are displayed at the Shaanxi History Museum, Xi'an, China.


The geography of the area is described as being part of the Ordos Desert in the north along the border with Inner Mongolia, the Loess Plateau in the central part of the province, the Qin Mountains (Qinling) running east to west in the south central part, and subtropical climate south of the Qinling. In between the Loess Plateau and the Qinling lies the Wei River Valley, or Guanzhong, a cradle of early Chinese civilization.

Going clockwise, Shaanxi borders Shanxi (E, NE), Henan (E), Hubei (SE), Chongqing (S), Sichuan (SW), Gansu (W), Ningxia (NW), and Inner Mongolia (N). In terms of number of bordering provincial-level divisions, Shaanxi ties Inner Mongolia.

Due to its large span in latitude, Shaanxi has a variety of climates. Under the Köppen climate classification, the northern parts, including the Loess Plateau, have either a cold arid (Köppen BWk) or cold semi-arid (Köppen BSk), with cold and very dry winters, dry springs and autumns, and hot summers. The area known as Guanzhong is mostly semi-arid, though there are a few areas with a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cwa), with cool to cold winters, and hot, humid summers that often see early-season heatwaves. The southern portion is much more humid and lies in the humid subtropical zone, with more temperate winters and long, hot, humid summers. Annual mean temperature is roughly between 8 to 16 °C (46 to 61 °F), with January temperatures ranging from −11 to 3.5 °C (12.2 to 38.3 °F) and July temperatures ranging from 21 to 28 °C (70 to 82 °F).

Besides the provincial capital of Xi'an, other cities include: Baoji, Hanzhong, Lintong, Tongchuan, Xianyang, Yan'an and Ankang.

Administrative divisions

Shaanxi consists of ten prefecture-level divisions: all prefecture-level cities (including a sub-provincial city):

Administrative divisions of Shaanxi
Shaanxi prfc map.png

     Prefecture-level city district areas      County-level cities

No. Division code[10] Division Area in km2[11] Population 2010[12] Seat Divisions[13]
Districts Counties CL cities
  610000 Shaanxi Province 205800.00 37,327,378 Xi'an city 30 71 6
1 610100 Xi'an city 10096.81 8,467,837 Weiyang District 11 2
6 610200 Tongchuan city 3884.81 834,437 Yaozhou District 3 1
3 610300 Baoji city 18116.93 3,716,731 Jintai District 3 9
8 610400 Xianyang city 10323.99 4,894,834 Qindu District 3 9 2
7 610500 Weinan city 13030.56 5,286,077 Linwei District 2 7 2
9 610600 Yan'an city 37030.54 2,187,009 Baota District 2 10 1
4 610700 Hanzhong city 27096.43 3,416,196 Hantai District 2 9
10 610800 Yulin city 42920.18 3,351,437 Yuyang District 2 9 1
2 610900 Ankang city 23536.31 2,629,906 Hanbin District 1 9
5 611000 Shangluo city 19587.31 2,341,742 Shangzhou District 1 6

The ten prefecture-level divisions of Shaanxi are subdivided into 107 county-level divisions (30 districts, 4 county-level cities, and 73 counties).

Urban areas

Population by urban areas of prefecture & county cities
# City Urban area[14] District area[14] City proper[14] Census date
1 Xi'an[a] 5,206,253 6,501,190 8,467,838 2010-11-01
(1) Xi'an (new districts)[a] 389,830 889,854 see Xi'an 2010-11-01
2 Baoji 871,940 1,437,802 3,716,737 2010-11-01
3 Xianyang[b] 730,704 945,420 5,096,001 2010-11-01
4 Tongchuan 463,866 743,277 834,437 2010-11-01
5 Yulin[c] 429,189 637,617 3,351,436 2010-11-01
(5) Yulin (new district)[c] 114,188 288,053 see Yulin 2010-11-01
6 Ankang 379,707 870,126 2,629,906 2010-11-01
7 Hanzhong[d] 350,167 534,923 3,416,196 2010-11-01
(7) Hanzhong (new district)[d] 144,596 471,634 see Hanzhong 2010-11-01
8 Weinan[e] 347,484 877,142 5,286,077 2010-11-01
(8) Weinan (new district)[e] 107,467 322,148 see Weinan 2010-11-01
9 Yan'an[f] 336,856 475,234 2,187,009 2010-11-01
(9) Yan'an (new district)[f] 74,945 171,552 see Yan'an 2010-11-01
(10) Shenmu[g] 282,650 455,493 see Yulin 2010-11-01
11 Xingping 247,539 541,554 see Xianyang 2010-11-01
12 Hancheng 196,574 391,164 see Weinan 2010-11-01
13 Shangluo 156,781 531,696 2,341,742 2010-11-01
14 Huayin 127,987 258,113 see Weinan 2010-11-01
(15) Binzhou[h] 106,710 171,462 see Xianyang 2010-11-01
16 Yangling[b] 104,944 201,172 see Xianyang 2010-11-01
  1. ^ a b New districts established after census: Gaoling (Gaoling County), Huyi (Huxian County). These new districts not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  2. ^ a b Yangling is a satellite urban area separated from Xianyang and it is not included in the urban area & district area count.
  3. ^ a b New district established after census: Hengshan (Hengshan County). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  4. ^ a b New district established after census: Nanzheng (Nanzheng County). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  5. ^ a b New district established after census: Huazhou (Huaxian County). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  6. ^ a b New district established after census: Ansai (Ansai County). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  7. ^ Shenmu County is currently known as Shenmu CLC after census.
  8. ^ Binxian County is currently known as Binzhou CLC after census.


Shaanxi People's Government
Shaanxi People's Government

The politics of Shaanxi is structured in a triple party-government system like all other governing institutions in mainland China.

The Governor of Shaanxi is the highest-ranking official in the People's Government of Shaanxi. However, in the province's dual party-government governing system, the Governor is considered to have less power than the Shaanxi Communist Party of China Provincial Committee Secretary (中共陕西省委书记), colloquially termed the "Shaanxi CPC Party Chief"; since the Governor is always ranked as the First-Deputy Secretary in the Shaanxi Communist Party of China Provincial Committee.

Shaanxi was established as a provincial government since Qing dynasty. On 10 January 1950, the People's Government of Shaanxi was established in Xi'an. Ma Minfang was then appointed as the first Governor of Shaanxi.


As of the mid-19th century, Shaanxi exported animal skins, wine, liquor, and musk. Money loans were also common, with Shaanxi business people involved in the Guangzhou loan business. Shaanxi commonly imported European animal skins, watches, Chinese language books, and cloth.[15]

The fossil fuel and high technology sectors compose the two largest industries in Shaanxi province. During 2009, the province ranked third in China for production of coal, natural gas and crude oil.[5] As the home of several of the leading universities and research institutes in Western China, Shaanxi province also plays a major role in China's burgeoning aircraft and aerospace industries, producing more than 50% of the R&D and manufacturing equipment for the country's domestic commercial air industry.[5] Nominal GDP for 2011 was 1,239 billion RMB (US$196.7 billion) and GDP per capita was 21,729 RMB (US$3,179), ranking 17th in the PRC.

In the first half of 2019, Shaanxi's total production value reached 1,162.557 billion yuan, a year-on-year increase of 5.4%. The added value of the primary industry was 55.319 billion yuan, an increase of 4.5%; the second industry was 557.935 billion yuan, an increase of 4.2%; the tertiary industry was 549.303 billion yuan, an increase of 6.8%.[16]

Economic and technological development zones

Baoji Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone

Established in 1992, Baoji Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone was approved as a national hi-tech zone by the State Council. It has a long-term planned area of 40 km2 (15 sq mi). The transportation system around the zone includes Xi'an-Xianyang International Airport and National Highway 310, and industries operating within the zone include auto parts, electronics, IT, pharmaceuticals and bioengineering industries and new materials.[17]

Shaanxi Xi'an Export Processing Zone

Shaanxi Xi'an Export Processing Zone (XEPZ) was approved on 21 June 2002 by the State Council for its establishment and was put on 5 April 2004. As the first state-level export processing zone in northwest China, XEPZ has become one of the seven pioneer EPZs with the function of bonded logistics in China. XEPZ is under the leadership of the Administrative Committee of Xi'an Economic and Technological Development Zone (XETDZ), which is designated by Xi'an municipal government to exercise economic and administrative power within the zone. XEPZ is a special economic zone. By now, there are more than 40 enterprises home and abroad settled in XEPZ. The pillar industries feature aviation, machinery, electronics and new energy.[18]

Western Triangle

The Western Triangle is a new economic zone composing the three major city-level economies of Western China: Xi'an, Chongqing and Chengdu. It is believed that the addition of Xi'an to the Triangle will spur economic growth in the region and allow the city an opportunity to capitalize on the commercial potential of its high-technology industries.[5]

Xi'an Economic and Technological Development Zone

Established in 1993, Xi'an Economic and Technology Development Zone was approved as a national zone in 2000. The zone is 20 minutes from Xi'an Xianyang International Airport, and national highways pass through. It has formed four pillar industries: automotive, electronics, food, and new materials industries. So far, the zone has attracted more than 1,700 enterprises.[19]

Xi'an High-tech Industrial Development Zone

Xi'an HTDZ opened its gates in 1991. It was established as a "pivotal location" for investment by high-tech industry companies in central and northwest China. Established in 1991, Xi'an Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone is a national high-tech zone. It is surrounded by national highways and it is 30 minutes from Xi'an International Airport. Furthermore, it is ranked in the top three high-tech zones in China.[20]

Xi'an Software Park

Xi'an Software Park, established in December 1998, is the professional park for Xi'an to develop scale software and service outsourcing industries. The park has been appraised as a software industry base under the National Torch Program, national software industry base, national software export base, city demonstrational area of national service outsourcing base. It is one of the four parks with "double bases" of software in China. Xi'an Software Park assembles 90% of enterprises engaging in software and service outsourcing in Xi'an. There were nearly 780 companies, of which foreign-funded enterprises account for 170, and over 71,000 jobholders in the park by the end of 2008.[21]

Yangling Agriculture Hi-Tech Industrial Zone

Yangling Agriculture Hi-Tech Industrial Zone was approved as a national-level hi-tech development zone by State Council in 1997. It is 82 km (51 mi) from Xi'an to the east and 70 km (43 mi) from Xi'an Xianyang International Airport.[22]


Nearly all the people in Shaanxi are ethnic Han Chinese, with pockets of Hui population in the northwestern region (adjacent to Ningxia). Shaanxi province is one of the centers of ancient Chinese civilization. The southern part of Shaanxi, known as Guanzhong, where the provincial capital Xi'an is located, is more populated compared to the northern part.

Historical population
1912[23] 9,364,000—    
1928[24] 11,802,000+26.0%
1936–37[25] 9,780,000−17.1%
1947[26] 10,011,000+2.4%
1954[27] 15,881,281+58.6%
1964[28] 20,766,915+30.8%
1982[29] 28,904,423+39.2%
1990[30] 32,882,403+13.8%
2000[31] 35,365,072+7.6%
2010[32] 37,327,378+5.5%
Xi'an part of Shaanxi Province until 1947; dissolved in 1954 and incorporated into Shaanxi Province.


Religion in Shaanxi[33][note 1]

  Christianity (1.57%)
  Other religions or not religious people[note 2] (90.85%)

The predominant religions in Shaanxi are Chinese folk religions, Taoist traditions and Chinese Buddhism. According to surveys conducted in 2007 and 2009, 7.58% of the population believes and is involved in ancestor veneration, while 1.57% of the population identifies as Christian.[33] The reports didn't give figures for other types of religion; 90.85% of the population may be either irreligious or involved in worship of nature deities, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, folk religious sects, and small minorities of Muslims.


Shaanxi cuisine
Shaanxi cuisine


Terracotta Army
Terracotta Army

Banpo Neolithic village, near Xi'an



Shaanxi Science and Technology Museum
Shaanxi Science and Technology Museum

Tertiary education


Professional sports teams based in Shaanxi include:

See also


  1. ^ The data was collected by the Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS) of 2009 and by the Chinese Spiritual Life Survey (CSLS) of 2007, reported and assembled by Xiuhua Wang (2015)[33] in order to confront the proportion of people identifying with two similar social structures: ① Christian churches, and ② the traditional Chinese religion of the lineage (i. e. people believing and worshipping ancestral deities often organised into lineage "churches" and ancestral shrines). Data for other religions with a significant presence in China (deity cults, Buddhism, Taoism, folk religious sects, Islam, et. al.) was not reported by Wang.
  2. ^ This may include:


  1. ^ "Doing Business in China – Survey". Ministry of Commerce – People's Republic of China. Retrieved 5 August 2013.
  2. ^ "Communiqué of the National Bureau of Statistics of People's Republic of China on Major Figures of the 2010 Population Census [1] (No. 2)". National Bureau of Statistics of China. 29 April 2011. Archived from the original on 27 July 2013. Retrieved 4 August 2013.
  3. ^ 陕西省2017年国民经济和社会发展统计公报 [Statistical Communiqué of Shaanxi on the 2017 National Economic and Social Development] (in Chinese). Statistical Bureau of Shaanxi. 2018-03-09. Retrieved 2018-06-22.
  4. ^ (in Chinese). United Nations Development Programme China. 2016 Retrieved 2014-01-05. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  5. ^ a b c d "China Economy @ China Perspective". Archived from the original on 2011-10-08. Retrieved 2011-10-25.
  6. ^ "Xi'an - MSN Encarta". 2008-02-28. Retrieved 2019-06-12.
  7. ^ "最新中国城市人口数量排名(根据2010年第六次人口普查)". Retrieved 2019-06-12.
  8. ^ The State Council of the People's Republic of China
  9. ^ Silk Road, North China, C.Michael Hogan, the Megalithic Portal, ed. A. Burnham
  10. ^ 中华人民共和国县以上行政区划代码 (in Chinese). Ministry of Civil Affairs.
  11. ^ Shenzhen Bureau of Statistics. 《深圳统计年鉴2014》 (in Chinese). China Statistics Print. Retrieved 2015-05-29.
  12. ^ Census Office of the State Council of the People's Republic of China; Population and Employment Statistics Division of the National Bureau of Statistics of the People's Republic of China (2012). 中国2010人口普查分乡、镇、街道资料 (1 ed.). Beijing: China Statistics Print. ISBN 978-7-5037-6660-2.
  13. ^ Ministry of Civil Affairs (August 2014). 《中国民政统计年鉴2014》 (in Chinese). China Statistics Print. ISBN 978-7-5037-7130-9.
  14. ^ a b c 国务院人口普查办公室、国家统计局人口和社会科技统计司编 (2012). 中国2010年人口普查分县资料. Beijing: China Statistics Print. ISBN 978-7-5037-6659-6.
  15. ^ Roberts, Edmund (1837). Embassy to the Eastern Courts of Cochin-China, Siam, and Muscat. New York: Harper & Brothers. p. 123.
  16. ^ "Shaanxi GDP in 1st Half of 2019: Up by 5.4% – Cilitech". Retrieved 2019-07-31.
  17. ^ | Baoji Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone
  18. ^ | Shaanxi Xi'an Export Processing Zone
  19. ^ | Xi'an Economic & Technological Development Zone
  20. ^ | Xi'an High-tech Industrial Development Zone
  21. ^ | Xi’an Software Park
  22. ^ | Yangling Agriculture Hi-Tech Industrial Zone
  23. ^ 1912年中国人口. Retrieved 6 March 2014.
  24. ^ 1928年中国人口. Retrieved 6 March 2014.
  25. ^ 1936–37年中国人口. Retrieved 6 March 2014.
  26. ^ 1947年全国人口. Retrieved 6 March 2014.
  27. ^ 中华人民共和国国家统计局关于第一次全国人口调查登记结果的公报. National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on 2009-08-05.
  28. ^ 第二次全国人口普查结果的几项主要统计数字. National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on 2012-09-14.
  29. ^ 中华人民共和国国家统计局关于一九八二年人口普查主要数字的公报. National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on 2012-05-10.
  30. ^ 中华人民共和国国家统计局关于一九九〇年人口普查主要数据的公报. National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on 2012-06-19.
  31. ^ 现将2000年第五次全国人口普查快速汇总的人口地区分布数据公布如下. National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on 2012-08-29.
  32. ^ "Communiqué of the National Bureau of Statistics of People's Republic of China on Major Figures of the 2010 Population Census". National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on 2013-07-27.
  33. ^ a b c China General Social Survey 2009, Chinese Spiritual Life Survey (CSLS) 2007. Report by: Xiuhua Wang (2015, p. 15) Archived 2015-09-25 at the Wayback Machine
  34. ^ Qian, Cai. General Yue Fei. Trans. Honorable Sir T.L. Yang. Joint Publishing (H.K.) Co., Ltd., 1995 (ISBN 978-962-04-1279-0)

External links

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