To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.

Sequential game

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Chess is an example of a sequential game.
Chess is an example of a sequential game.

In game theory, a sequential game is a game where one player chooses their action before the others choose theirs.[1] Importantly, the later players must have some information of the first's choice, otherwise the difference in time would have no strategic effect. Sequential games hence are governed by the time axis, and represented in the form of decision trees.

Sequential games with perfect information can be analysed mathematically using combinatorial game theory.

Decision trees are the extensive form of dynamic games that provide information on the possible ways that a given game can be played. They show the sequence in which players act and the number of times that they can each make a decision. Decision trees also provide information on what each player knows or does not know at the point in time they decide on an action to take. Payoffs of each player are also given at the decision nodes of the tree. Extensive form representations were introduced by Neumann and further developed by Kuhn in the earliest years of game theory between 1910–1930.[2]

Repeated games are an example of sequential games. Players play a stage game and the result of this game will determine how the game continues. At every new stage, both players will have complete information on how the previous stages had played out. A discount rate between the values of 0 and 1 is usually taken into account when considering the payoff of each player in these games. Repeated games can illustrate the psychological aspect of these games, including trust and revenge, as each player makes a decision at every stage game based on how the game has been played out so far.[2]

Unlike sequential games, simultaneous games do not have a time axis as players choose their moves without being sure of the other's, and are usually represented in the form of payoff matrices. Extensive form representations are usually used for sequential games, since they explicitly illustrate the sequential aspects of a game. Combinatorial games are usually sequential games.

Games such as chess, infinite chess, backgammon, tic-tac-toe and Go are examples of sequential games. The size of the decision trees can vary according to game complexity, ranging from the small game tree of tic-tac-toe, to an immensely complex game tree of chess so large that even computers cannot map it completely.[3]

In sequential games with perfect information, a subgame perfect equilibrium can be found by backward induction.[4]

YouTube Encyclopedic

  • 1/3
    19 298
    106 768
    2 177
  • Game Theory C: Nash, Dominant, and Sequential Games
  • Game Theory 101 MOOC (#16): Subgame Perfect Equilibrium
  • Simple Sequential Games


See also


  1. ^ Brocas; Carrillo; Sachdeva (2018). "The Path to Equilibrium in Sequential and Simultaneous Games". Journal of Economic Theory. 178: 246–274. doi:10.1016/j.jet.2018.09.011.
  2. ^ a b Aumann, R. J. Game Theory.[full citation needed]
  3. ^ Claude Shannon (1950). "Programming a Computer for Playing Chess" (PDF). Philosophical Magazine. 41 (314).
  4. ^ Aliprantis, Charalambos D. (August 1999). "On the backward induction method". Economics Letters. 64 (2): 125–131. doi:10.1016/s0165-1765(99)00068-3.
This page was last edited on 15 December 2020, at 22:38
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.