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September 1 is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. 121 days remain until the end of the year.

YouTube Encyclopedic

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  • ✪ The Polish German War - WW2 - 001 September 1 1939
  • ✪ C002 ~ September 1, 2018
  • ✪ September 1, 2013 "A Reason To Remain Righteous" Pastor Howard-John Wesley
  • ✪ C001 ~ September 1, 2018
  • ✪ C006 ~ September 1, 2018

Transcription

On September 1st, 1939 the German Army invaded Poland and the Polish-German War of 1939 had begun. Did you think I was gonna say something else? Because that's all it is. A war—an undeclared war—between two European nations. ♪ ('WW2 In Real Time' intro) WW2 IN REAL TIME My name is Indy Neidell and this channel, for the next six years, is going to cover the events of that war week by week, in real time, as it grows and spirals into the deadliest conflict in human history. There will also be special episodes that sum up how the world got to this point. Specials about the people, the weapons, the technology of the war and much more. There will be crossovers and collaborations with other channels and historians and even a series on the war against humanity fought in countries on both sides. If you'd really like to see how the world went from the end of the Great War to the beginning of this one though, we've made an entire series called "Between Two Wars" that not only covers the events of the interwar period, but specifically how they relate to the world situation in 1939. A link is in the description. I know that some of you will point out that the events in Japan and China, in the 1930s, are part and parcel of the Second World War. Some see the Spanish Civil War as a beginning point, and some see the years 1914 to 1945 as a second Thirty Years' War. All of these arguments have merit, but I'm going to start here on September 1st, 1939 at the beginning of the Polish-German War. Though it was actually supposed to begin already at the beginning of the week, on August 25th Adolf Hitler ordered the German attack to begin the 26th, but cancelled the order at the last minute after learning Britain and Poland had signed a formal alliance, and that Benito Mussolini would not bring Italy into a war at this point on Germany's side. But on the 31st, Hitler decides to invade the following day. He signs the order at noon and German troops move to the border. At 8 pm the radio station at Gleiwitz is "attacked". The attackers are SS men dressed in Polish uniforms. SS is "Schutzstaffel"—the Nazi paramilitary organization used for security, surveillance … and terror. Anyhow, they leave behind the bodies of some concentration camp inmates in Polish uniforms. When German troops begin their advance across the border the next morning, Hitler gives this Polish "attack" as one of the reasons for invasion. That operation was named after the SS chief who had helped come up with it: Operation Himmler. [Heinrich Himmler] [Reichsführer of the Schutzstaffel] That same evening, the Soviet Union who had signed a sort of neutrality pact with Germany just over a week ago, beat the Japanese army far to the east. In fighting on the Mongolian border, Georgy Zhukov's forces overcame the final resistance of the Japanese 6th Army at Khalkhin Gol. So as one war was coming to an end, another one was beginning. That Soviet-Japanese conflict was an undeclared war that had gone on for several months along the border, Although there'd been tension since Japan occupied Manchuria in 1931, and set up the puppet state of Manchukuo. And there were more and more frequent border clashes. I'll talk more about this in a few weeks and we also covered Japan's invasion and war with China in 'Between Two Wars'. But here in 1939, the Japanese on one side and the Mongolians and Russians on the other had different ideas as to what the actual border was. The fighting had escalated over the summer, but had become a stalemate by the end of July. Zhukov broke that stalemate by attacking on August 20th with artillery and aircraft, in the first fighter and bomber offensive in Soviet history. Over 50,000 Soviet and Mongolian troops were on the east bank of the Khalkhin Gol river. As the infantry crossed the river and it, the air force and the artillery pinned down the Japanese center, armored units went around the flanks and encircled the Japanese from both sides. They were unable to break free and the Russians kept hitting them with artillery, and by now Japanese forces on the Mongolian side of the border were destroyed. On September 15th, Japan and the Soviet Union will agree to a ceasefire. I mentioned that Germany and the Soviet Union had signed a pact and they had: the 'Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact', named after the two nations' foreign ministers who signed it. This was a non-aggression neutrality pact between the two and it laid out Poland, Lithuania, Romania, Latvia, Finland, and Estonia into German and Soviet spheres of interest anticipating some sort of possible territorial rearrangement of these countries in the very near future. Back in April, Joseph Stalin had actually proposed a military alliance with Britain and France, which was received with mixed feelings. In July they began talks, but they kept running into the stumbling block of Russian troops entering Polish soil if there was a need to contain Germany. The Poles figured—and rightly—that once there they would never leave. So those talks weren't really going anywhere. But a pact with Germany? Well, that would give Stalin what he wanted without having to fight, and for Hitler it would divide potential enemies. Neither Berlin nor Moscow saw Poland as a legitimate state and its borders had been established just 20 years ago in the Treaty of Versailles. True, the Poles had beaten the Soviet Red Army to secure their independence, famously demolishing it at the Battle of Warsaw, but Hitler and Stalin thought that Poland's whole existence was owed to Allied interference. The Poles for their part, though they were aware that Russia was the enemy, were not aware of any immediate Soviet plans for Poland and were focused on the obvious threat of Germany. They knew that their army was not up for the task of beating the Wehrmacht, the German armed forces. If an attack came, their hopes were for an Anglo-French offensive in the West that would split the German forces. Well that German attack now came. On September 1st at 4:45 a.m. local time, Germany invaded Poland with no declaration of war. Operation Fall Weiss (Plan White) was 53 German divisions including 6 armored. General Walther von Brauchitsch is the commander-in-chief but here's the roll call: Fedor von Bock leads Army Group North which is made up of the Third Army under Georg von Kuchler and the Fourth Army under Gunther von Kluge. General Gerd von Rundstedt leads Army Group South. Johannes Blaskowitz with the 8th Army, Walther von Reichennau the 10th and Wilhelm List the 14th. The Panzer Corps is under Heinz Guderian and Paul von Kleist. Air support, some 1,600 aircraft, is led by Albert Kesselring and Alexander Lohr. Rundstedt's forces advanced from Silesia and this is the main German attack. Blaskowitz is on the left heading towards Poznan, List on the right towards Cracow, with Reichennau the main thrust in the center to the Vistula River between Warsaw and Sandomierz. Kuchler from East Prussia heads south towards Warsaw and the Bug river to the east. Kluge will cross the Polish corridor and then head south. The Polish have 23 divisions, though 7 more being put together, one armored division, and not a whole lot of artillery. They do have a lot of cavalry, though this is a good time to dispel the myth that Polish cavalry spent the war attacking tanks with lances. Although this day did see a Polish cavalry charge to cover retreating Polish infantry, which scattered German infantry, but behind it was German armored cars with machine guns that killed half the attackers within minutes. There were two, and only two occasions according to Max Hastings, in which Polish horsemen engaged tanks. Anyhow, the Polish reserves were called up yesterday, so they're not yet mobilized. They have 500 planes but these are obsolete compared to the German ones. Polish commander Edward Rydz-Smigly has his strongest forces in the northwest, especially Poznan and the Polish corridor. His plan is to hold the Germans to only gradual gains. However, since he's put his men so far forward, he risks serious defeat if his units are overrun before reinforcements from the reserves can arrive. The German method of attack was anything but a repeat of 1914. First, sudden air attacks would try to destroy the Polish Air Force while it was still on the ground. Bombers would go for railways and roads, but also drop their payloads on civilian centers, creating mass panic and confusion. This chaos was made worse by aircraft also machine-gunning civilian refugees fleeing from advancing soldiers. Just in the first few hours the Polish government reported that 130 Poles were killed by air raids on Polish towns like Warsaw and Gdynia. Further attacks—this was all the Blitzkrieg, the "Lightning War"—came by land, of course. Waves of motorized infantry and light tanks pushed as far ahead as possible. Heavy tanks made their way through the countryside, bypassing fortified positions. Eventually, the infantry supported by artillery would come after to mop up whatever pockets of resistance remain. Hitler's plan here was not simply to regain territory lost in 1918 at the end of the Great War. He wanted to impose German rule on Poland. In fact, behind the infantry he had sent in three SS Death's Head regiments to take care of "police and security" measures in the new territory. Today, on September 1st, at Sachsenhausen concentration camp, one of their bases, their commander, Theodor Eicke, explained to his officers just what those measures were: "In protecting Hitler's Reich, Eicke explained, the SS would have to incarcerate or annihilate every enemy of Nazism, a task that would challenge even the absolute and inflexible severity which the Death's Head regiments had learned in the concentration camps." Britain and France demanded that Germany withdraw from Poland. The British Army is mobilized, and the evacuation of young children from London and other areas thought vulnerable begins, on this, Day 1 of the Polish-German War of 1939. Hitler wrote in 'Mein Kampf', his political manifesto/autobiography that not only should people of the same blood be in the same Reich, but that once this had been achieved, then Germany would have the moral right to take foreign territory. He lays out this policy on page one. But even though every German couple was required to buy a copy of Mein Kampf when they married, and even though he had steered Germany toward war for years, a great many people did not take him seriously and chose to believe his recent statements that he did not want war. They should have instead believed him when he wrote this about his plans once all the Germans were part of the Reich: "The plow is then the sword and the tears of war will produce the daily bread for generations to come." If you'd like to see the first episode of our "Between Two Wars" series you can click right here for that. And please support us on Patreon. We are currently three people doing this entire Series in our spare time: myself, Spartacus Olsson and Astrid Deinhard. Say "Hi," guys. >> Hi. >> That is it, but your support will allow us to hire more crews so we can make more uploads per week, better animations, more graphics, more specials, the whole shebang. So please support us and see you next time. [TimeGhost] [A TimeGhost Chronological Documentary] [by Indy Neidell & Spartacus Olsson] [Produced by Astrid Deinhard] [Supported by Constantine Sidamon-Eristoff Darren Leigh]

Contents

Events

Births

Deaths

Holidays and observances

References

  1. ^ Guzmán, L. (February 14, 2019). "Encuentran registros de megaterremoto ocurrido hace seis siglos en el norte de Chile". El Mercurio (in Spanish). Santiago, Chile. Retrieved June 8, 2019.
  2. ^ Manuel Abad, Tatiana Izquierdo, Miguel Cáceres, Enrique Bernárdez and Joaquín Rodríguez‐Vidal (2018). Coastal boulder deposit as evidence of an ocean‐wide prehistoric tsunami originated on the Atacama Desert coast (northern Chile). Sedimentology. Publication: december, 13th, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1111/sed.12570
  3. ^ "The Khartoum Resolutions". www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org. Retrieved 2018-10-29.
  4. ^ Aikhenvald, Alexandra. VIAF https://viaf.org/processed/LC%7Cn%20%2091061294. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  5. ^ "Burn Gorman". British Film Institute. 2018. Retrieved 1 September 2018.
  6. ^ https://www.allmusic.com/artist/ludwig-g%C3%B6ransson-mn0001717667
  7. ^ "Notable Deaths in 2018". CBS News. Retrieved 2018-09-04.

External links

This page was last edited on 5 July 2019, at 08:42
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