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Senate of the Republic (Italy)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Senate of the Republic

Senato della Repubblica
19th legislature (list)
Ignazio La Russa, FdI
since 13 October 2022
Vice Presidents
Maurizio Gasparri (FI)
Gian Marco Centinaio (Lega)
Anna Rossomando (PD)
Maria Domenica Castellone (M5S)
since 19 October 2022
Seats206 (200 elected + 6 senators for life)
Political groups
Government (115)
  •   FdI (63)
  •   LegaPSd'Az (29)
  •   FI (17)
  •   CdI–NM–MAIE (6)[a]
115 / 205 (56%)

Opposition (90)

90 / 205 (44%)

Vacant (1)

Parallel voting: 74 FPTP seats, 126 PR seats with 3% electoral threshold (D'Hondt method)
Last election
25 September 2022
Next election
not later than 2027
Meeting place
Palazzo Madama, Rome

The Senate of the Republic (Italian: Senato della Repubblica), or simply the Senate (Italian: Senato), is the upper house of the bicameral Italian Parliament (the other being the Chamber of Deputies). The two houses together form a perfect bicameral system, meaning they perform identical functions, but do so separately. Pursuant to the Articles 57, 58, and 59 of the Italian Constitution, the Senate has 200 elective members, of which 196 are elected from Italian constituencies, and 4 from Italian citizens living abroad. Furthermore, there is a small number (currently 6) of senators for life (senatori a vita), either appointed or ex officio. It was established in its current form on 8 May 1948, but previously existed during the Kingdom of Italy as Senato del Regno (Senate of the Kingdom), itself a continuation of the Senato Subalpino (Subalpine Senate) of Sardinia established on 8 May 1848. Members of the Senate are styled Senator or The Honourable Senator (Italian: Onorevole Senatore)[1] and they meet at Palazzo Madama, Rome.

YouTube Encyclopedic

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  • The Roman Empire. Or Republic. Or...Which Was It?: Crash Course World History #10
  • When Did the Romans Become Italians? (Short Animated Documentary)


Hi, I’m John Green, this is crash course: world history and today we’re going to learn about the Roman Empire, which of course began when two totally nonfictional twins, Romulus and Remus, who’d been raised by wolves, founded a city on seven hills. Mr Green, Mr Green, what, what does SPQR stand for? It means shut piehole quickly, rapscallion. No, it means Senatus Populusque Romanus, one of the mottoes of the Roman Republic. So today we’re going to do some old school Great Man History and focus on Julius Caesar while trying to answer a question: When, if ever, is it OK to stab someone 23 times? [music intro] [music intro] [music intro] [music intro] [music intro] [music intro] Shakespeare answers that question by saying that Roman senators killed Caesar because he was going to destroy the Roman republic, but even if that’s true, we still have to answer whether: a. The Roman Republic was worth preserving, and b. whether Caesar actually destroyed it. One of the things that made the Roman republic endure, both in reality and in imagination was its balance. According to the Greek historian Polybius, "THE THREE kinds of government, monarchy, aristocracy and democracy, were all found united in Rome. And … it was no easy thing to determine with assurance, whether the entire state was an aristocracy, a democracy, or a monarchy.” At the heart of this blended system was the Senate, a body of legislators chosen from a group of elite families. (Rome was divided into two broad classes: the Patricians – the small group of aristocratic families and the Plebeians, basically everybody else. The Senators were drawn from the Patricians.) The Senate was a sort of a mixture of legislature and giant advisory council. Their main job was to set the policy for the Consuls. Each year the Senate would choose from among its ranks 2 co-Consuls to serve as sort of the chief executives of Rome. There needed to be two so they could check each other’s ambition, and also so that one could, you know, take care of Rome domestically, while the other was off fighting wars, and conquering new territory. There were two additional checks on power: First, the one-year term. I mean, how much trouble could you really do in a year, right? Unless you’re the CEO of Netflix, I mean he destroyed that company in like two weeks. And secondly, once a senator had served as consul, he was forbidden to serve as consul again for at least 10 years. Although that went a little bit like you say you’re only going to eat one Chipotle burrito per week, and then there are a few exceptions, and then all of a sudden you’re there every day, and YES, I know guacamole is more, JUST GIVE IT TO ME! But right, we were talking about the Romans. The Romans also had a position of dictator, a person who would who’d take over in the event the Republic was in imminent danger. The paradigm for this selfless Roman ruler was Cincinnatus, a general who came out of comfortable retirement at his plantation, took command an army, defeated whatever enemy he was battling, and then laid down his command and returned to his farm, safe in the knowledge that one day the second largest city in Ohio would be named for him. If that model of leadership sounds familiar to Americans by the way, it’s because George Washington was heavily influenced by Cincinnatus when he invented the idea of a two term presidency. So along comes Caesar. Gaius Ju- Gay-us? No it’s Gaius, I know from Battlestar Galactica. Gaius Julius Caesar was born around 100 BCE to one of Rome’s leading families. His birth was somewhat miraculous, requiring a surgical procedure that we know as Caesarian section. Coming as he did from the senatorial class, it was natural that Caesar would serve in both the army and the Senate, which he did. He rose through the ranks, and after some top-notch generalling, and a gig as the governor of Spain, he decided to run for consul. In order to win, Caesar needed financial help, which he got from Crassus, one of Rome’s richest men. Crassus ran a private fire company whose business model was essentially, “hey, I notice your house is on fire. Give me some money and I’ll help you out with that.” Caesar succeeded in becoming consul in 59 BC and thereafter sought to dominate Roman politics by allying himself with Crassus and also with Rome’s other most powerful man, the general Pompey. You’ll no doubt remember Pompey from his fascination with Alexander the Great. Pompey, Crassus, and Caesar were the so-called first triumvirate, and the alliance worked out super well, for Caesar. Not so well for the other two. Let’s go to the Thought Bubble. After a year as consul that included getting the senate to pass laws largely because of intimidation by Pompey’s troops, Caesar landed the governorship of Gaul, at least the southern part of Gaul that Rome controlled. He quickly conquered the rest of Gaul and his four loyal armies—or legions, as the Romans called them—became his source of power. Caesar continued his conquests, invading Britain and waging another successful war against the Gauls. While he was away, Crassus died in battle with the Parthians and Pompey, who had become Caesar’s rival and enemy, was elected Consul. Pompey and the Senate decided to try to strip Caesar of his command and recall him to Rome. If he returned to Rome without an army, Caesar would have been prosecuted for corrupt consuling and also probably exceeding his authority as governor, so instead he returned with the 13th Legion. He crossed the Rubicon River, famously saying, “the die is cast” or possibly, “Let the die be cast.” Sorry, Thought Bubble, sources disagree. Basically, Caesar was invading his own hometown. Pompey was in charge of Rome’s army but like a boss fled the city, and by 48 BCE Caesar was in total command of all of Rome’s holdings, having been named both dictator and consul. Caesar set out to Egypt to track down Pompey only to learn that he’d already been assassinated by agents of the Pharaoh Ptolemy. Egypt had its own civil war at the time, between the Pharaoh and his sister/wife Cleopatra. Ptolemy was trying to curry favor with Caesar by killing his enemy, but Caesar was mad in that the-only-person-who-gets-to-tease-my-little-brother-is-me kind of way, except with murder instead of teasing. So Caesar sided with—and skoodilypooped with—Cleopatra. Thank you, Thought Bubble. Cleopatra went on to become tBut before all that, Caesar made his way back from Egypt to Rome, stopping off to defeat a few kings in the east, and was declared dictator again. he last Pharaoh of Ancient Egypt and bet on Marc “I am the Wrong Horse” Antony instead of Emperor “There Is a Baby Attached to My Leg” Augustus. But before all that, Caesar made his way back from Egypt to Rome, stopping off to defeat a few kings in the east, and was declared dictator again. That position that was later extended for ten years, and then for life. He was elected consul in 46 and then again in 45 BCE, this last time without a co-consul. By 45 BCE Caesar was the undisputed master of Rome and he pursued reforms that strengthened his own power. He provided land pensions for his soldiers, restructured the debts of a huge percentage of Rome’s debtors, and also changed the calendar to make it look more like the one we use today. But by 44 BCE, many Senators had decided that Caesar controlled too much of the power in Rome, and so they stabbed him 23 times on the floor of the Roman senate. Caesar was duly surprised about this and all, but he never said, “Et Tu, Brute” when he realized Brutus was one of the co-conspirators. That was an invention of Shakespeare. The conspirators thought that the death of Caesar would bring about the restoration of the Republic, and they were wrong. For one thing, Caesar’s reforms were really popular with the Rome’s people, who were quick to hail his adopted son Octavian, along with his second in command Mark “I am the wrong horse” Antony and a dude named Lepidus, as a second triumvirate. This triumvirate was an awesome failure, degenerating into a second civil war. Octavian and Antony fought it out. Antony being the wrong horse lost. Octavian won, changed his name to Caesar Augustus, became sole ruler of Rome, attached a baby to his leg, adopted the title Emperor, and started printing coins identifying himself as Divini Filius: Son of God. More on that next week. Although Augustus tried to pretend that the forms of the Roman republic were still intact, the truth was that he made the laws and the Senate had become nothing more than a rubber stamp. Which reminds me, it’s time for the open letter. Movie magic! An open letter to the Roman Senate. Oh, but first, let’s see what’s in the secret compartment. Ah, it’s a harmonica! Stan, do you want me to play some old, Roman folk songs? Very well. Stan, I just want to thank you for doing such a good job of overdubbing there. Dear Roman Senate, whether you were rubber stamping the laws of Emperor Augustus, or stabbing Caesar on the floor of your sacred hall, you were always doing something! I don’t want to sound nostalgic for a time when people lived to be 30, a tiny minority of adults could vote, and the best fashion choice was bedsheets, but oh my god, at least you did something! You’re senate was chosen from among the Patrician class. Our senate here in the United States is chosen from among the obstructionist class. But don’t get me wrong Roman senate, you were terrible. Best wishes, John Green. So did Caesar destroy the Republic? Well, he started a series of civil wars, he seized power for himself, subverted the ideas of the republic, he changed the constitution, but he’s only really to blame if he was the first one to do that. And he wasn’t. Take the general Marius, for instance, who rose to power on the strength of his generalship and on his willingness to open up the army to the poor, who were loyal to him personally, and not to Rome,and whom he promised land in exchange for their good service in the army. This of course required the Romans to keep conquering new land so they could keep giving it to new legionnaires. Marius also was consul 5 times in a row 60 years before Caesar. Or look at the general Sulla who, like Marius, ensured that his armies would be more loyal to him personally than to Rome, but who marched against Rome itself, and then became its dictator, executing thousands of people in 81 BCE, 30 years before Caesar entered the scene. There is another way of looking at this question altogether if we dispense with great man history. Maybe Rome became an empire before it had an emperor. Like, remember the Persian Empire? You’ll remember that empire had some characteristics that made it, imperial. Like a unified system of government, continual military expansion, and a diversity of subject peoples. The Roman empire had all three of those characteristics long before it became The Roman Empire. Like Rome started In 219 BCE, Hannibal attacked a Roman town and then led an army across Spain, and then crossed the freaking Alps with elephants. out as a city, and then it became a city state, then a kingdom, and then a Republic, but that entire time, it was basically comprised of the area around Rome. By the 4th century BCE, Rome started to incorporate its neighbors like the Latins and the Etruscans, and pretty soon they had all of Italy under their control, but that’s not really diversity of subject peoples. I mean, nothing personal Italians, but you have a lot of things in common, like the constant gesticulations. If you want to talk about real expansion and diversity, you’ve got to talk about the Punic Wars. These were the wars that I remember, primarily because they involved Hannibal crossing the Alps with freaking war-elephants, which was probably the last time that the elephants could have risen up, and formed their awesome secret elephant society with elephant planes and elephant cars. In the First Punic War, Rome wanted Sicily, which was controlled by the Carthaganians. Rome won, which made Carthage cranky, so they started the second Punic war. In 219 BCE, Hannibal attacked a Roman town and then led an army across Spain, and then crossed the freaking Alps with elephants. Hannibal and his elephant army almost won, but alas, they didn’t and as a result the Romans got Spain. People in Spain are definitely NOT Romans (despite Russell Crowe’s character in Gladiator), which means that by 201 BCE Rome was definitely an empire. People in Spain are definitely NOT Romans (despite Russell Crowe’s character in Gladiator), which means that by 201 BCE Rome was definitely an empire. The third Punic War was a formality – Rome found some excuse to attack Carthage and then destroyed it so completely that these days you can’t even find it on a map. Eventually this whole area, and a lot more would be incorporated into a system of provinces and millions of people would be ruled by the Roman Empire. And it’s ridiculous to say that Rome was a Republic until Augustus became Rome’s first official emperor, because by the time he did that, Rome had been an empire for 200 years. There is a reason why I am arguing that the death of the Republic came before Caesar and probably around the time that Rome became an Empire. If anything destroyed the idea of Republican Rome, it was the concentration of power into the hands of one man. And this man was always a general. I mean, you can’t march on Rome without an army, after all. Why were there such powerful generals? Because Rome had decided to become an Empire, and empires need to expand militarily. Particularly, the Roman empire needed to expand militarily because it always needed new land to give its retired legionnaires. That expansion created the all-powerful general and the incorporation of diverse peoples made it easier for them to be loyal to him, rather than to some abstract idea of the Republic. Julius Caesar didn’t create emperors: Empire created them. Next week we’ll be discussing Christianity, so that shouldn’t be controversial. Until then, thanks for watching. Crash Course is produced and directed by Stan Muller, our script supervisor is Danica Johnson. The show is written by my high school history teacher Raoul Meyer and myself and our graphics team is Thought Bubble. Last week's Phrase of the Week was "Pre-Distressed Designer Jeans" If you want to guess at this week’s Phrase of the Week or suggest future ones, you can do so in Comments where you can also ask questions about today’s video which our team of historians will endeavor to answer. Thanks for watching Crash Course, and as we say in my hometown, don’t forget to be awesome. [scoots out of frame] [scoots out of frame] Whoah... Geez!


Number of senators assigned to each Region before 2020.

Article 57 of the Constitution of Italy originally established that the Senate of the Republic was to be elected on a regional basis by Italian citizens aged 25 or older (unlike the Chamber of the Deputies, which was elected on a national basis and by all Italian citizens aged 18 or older). No region could have less than 7 senators, except for the two smallest regions: Aosta Valley (1 senator) and Molise (2 senators). From 2006 to 2020, 6 out of 315 senators (and 12 out of 630 deputies) were elected by Italians residing abroad.

After two constitutional amendments were passed respectively in 2020 (by constitutional referendum) and 2021, however, there have been changes. The Senate is still elected on a regional basis, but the number of senators was reduced from 315 to 200, who are now elected by all citizens aged 18 or older, just like deputies (themselves being reduced from 630 to 400). Italians residing abroad now elect 4 senators (and 8 deputies).

The remaining 196 senators are assigned to each region proportionally according to their population. The amended Article 57 of the Constitution provides that no region can have fewer than 3 senators representing it, barring Aosta Valley and Molise, which retained 1 and 2 senators respectively.

Region Seats Region Seats Region Seats
 Abruzzo 4  Friuli Venezia Giulia 4  Sardinia 5
 Aosta Valley 1  Lazio 18  Sicily 16
 Apulia 13  Liguria 5  Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol 6
 Basilicata 3  Lombardy 31  Tuscany 12
 Calabria 6  Marche 5  Umbria 3
 Campania 18  Molise 2  Veneto 16
 Emilia-Romagna 14  Piedmont 14 Overseas constituencies 4

The senators for life are composed of former presidents of the Italian Republic who hold office ex officio, and up to five citizens who are appointed by Presidents of Italy "for outstanding merits in the social, scientific, artistic or literary field". The current life senators are:[2]

Senator for life Appointment Since Parliamentary group
Giorgio Napolitano
Politician, former President
Ex officio
(Previously appointed by Carlo Azeglio Ciampi)
23 September 2005 — 15 May 2006 (appointed)

14 January 2015 (ex officio)

For the Autonomies
Mario Monti
Economist, Former Prime Minister
Appointed by Giorgio Napolitano 9 November 2011 Mixed Group
Elena Cattaneo
Professor of pharmacology
30 August 2013 For the Autonomies
Renzo Piano
Pritzker Prize-winning architect
Mixed Group
Carlo Rubbia
Nobel Prize-winning particle physicist and inventor
For the Autonomies
Liliana Segre
Holocaust survivor
Appointed by Sergio Mattarella 19 January 2018 Mixed Group

The current term of the Senate is five years, except for senators for life that hold their office for their lifetime. Until a Constitutional change on 9 February 1963, the Senate was elected for six-year terms. The Senate may be dissolved before the expiration of its normal term by the president of the Republic (e.g. when no government can obtain a majority).

Electoral system and election of the Senate

According to article 58 of the Italian constitution, Italian citizens aged 18 onwards (until 2021 25 years) are enabled to vote for the Senate.[3]

The electoral system is a parallel voting system, with 37% of seats allocated using first-past-the-post voting (FPTP) and 63% using proportional representation, allocated with the largest remainder method, with one round of voting.

  • The 200 elected senators are elected in:
    • 74 in single-member constituencies, by plurality;
    • 122 in multi-member constituencies, by regional proportional representation;
    • 4 in multi-member abroad constituencies, by constituency proportional representation.

For Italian residents, each house members are elected by single ballots, including the constituency candidate and his/her supporting party lists. In each single-member constituency the deputy/senator is elected on a plurality basis, while the seats in multi-member constituencies will be allocated nationally. In order to be calculated in single-member constituency results, parties need to obtain at least 1% of the national vote. In order to receive seats in multi-member constituencies, parties need to obtain at least 3% of the national vote. Elects from multi-member constituencies will come from closed lists. The single voting paper, containing both first-past-the-post candidates and the party lists, shows the names of the candidates to single-member constituencies and, in close conjunction with them, the symbols of the linked lists for the proportional part, each one with a list of the relative candidates.

The voter can cast their vote in three different ways:

  • Drawing a sign on the symbol of a list: in this case the vote extends to the candidate in the single-member constituency which is supported by that list.
  • Drawing a sign on the name of the candidate of the single-member constituency and another one on the symbol of one list that supports them: the result is the same as that described above; it is not allowed, under penalty of annulment, the panachage, so the voter can not vote simultaneously for a candidate in the FPTP constituency and for a list which is not linked to them.
  • Drawing a sign only on the name of the candidate for the FPTP constituency, without indicating any list: in this case, the vote is valid for the candidate in the single-member constituency and also automatically extended to the list that supports them; if that candidate is however connected to several lists, the vote is divided proportionally between them, based on the votes that each one has obtained in that constituency.

Reform proposals

In 2016, the Italian Parliament passed a constitutional law that "effectively abolishes the Senate as an elected chamber and sharply restricts its ability to veto legislation".[4] The law was rejected on 4 December 2016 by a referendum, leaving the Senate unchanged.[5]


The membership of the Senate following the 2022 Italian general election:

Coalition Party Seats %
Centre-right coalition Brothers of Italy (FdI) 66 32.0
Lega 29 14.1
Forza Italia (FI) 18 8.7
Us Moderates (NM) 2 1.0
Total seats 115 55.8
Centre-left coalition Democratic Party – IDP (PD–IDP) 40 19.4
Greens–Left (AVS) 4 1.9
Total seats 44 21.4
Five Star Movement (M5S) 28 13.6
Action – Italia Viva (A–IV) 9 4.4
South Tyrolean People's PartyPATT (SVP–PATT) 2 1.0
South calls North (ScN) 1 0.5
Associative Movement of Italians Abroad (MAIE) 1 0.5
Senators for life 6 2.9
Total 206 100
Popular vote (S)
Distribution of the 200 elective parliamentary seats (S)


Under the current Constitution, the Senate must hold its first sitting no later than 20 days after a general election. That session, presided by the oldest senator, proceeds to elect the president of the Senate for the following parliamentary period. On the first two attempts at voting, an absolute majority of all senators is needed; if a third round is needed, a candidate can be elected by an absolute majority of the senators present and voting. If this third round fails to produce a winner, a final ballot is held between the two senators with the highest votes in the previous ballot. In the case of a tie, the elder senator is deemed the winner.

In addition to overseeing the business of the chamber, chairing and regulating debates, deciding whether motions and bills are admissible, representing the Senate, etc., the president of the Senate stands in for the president of the Republic when the latter is unable to perform the duties of the office; in this case the Senate is headed by a vice president.[6]

The current president of the Senate is Ignazio La Russa.

Name Period Legislature
Ivanoe Bonomi (PSDI) 8 May 1948 – 20 April 1951 I
Enrico De Nicola (PLI) 28 April 1951 – 24 June 1952
Giuseppe Paratore (PLI) 26 June 1952 – 24 March 1953
Meuccio Ruini (Independent) 25 March 1953 – 25 June 1953
Cesare Merzagora (Independent) 25 June 1953 – 7 November 1967 II, III, IV
Ennio Zelioli-Lanzini (DC) 8 November 1967 – 4 June 1968 IV
Amintore Fanfani (DC) 5 June 1968 – 26 June 1973 V, VI
Giovanni Spagnolli (DC) 27 June 1973 – 4 July 1976 VI
Amintore Fanfani (DC) 5 July 1976 – 1 December 1982 VII, VIII
Tommaso Morlino (DC) 9 December 1982 – 6 May 1983 VIII
Vittorino Colombo (DC) 12 May 1983 – 11 July 1983
Francesco Cossiga (DC) 12 July 1983 – 24 June 1985 IX
Amintore Fanfani (DC) 9 July 1985 – 17 April 1987
Giovanni Malagodi (PLI) 22 April 1987 – 1 July 1987
Giovanni Spadolini (PRI) 2 July 1987 – 14 April 1994 X, XI
Carlo Scognamiglio (FI) 16 April 1994 – 8 May 1996 XII
Nicola Mancino (PPI) 9 May 1996 – 30 May 2001 XIII
Marcello Pera (FI) 30 May 2001 – 27 April 2006 XIV
Franco Marini (PD) 29 April 2006 – 28 April 2008 XV
Renato Schifani (PdL) 29 April 2008 – 14 March 2013 XVI
Pietro Grasso (PD) 16 March 2013 – 22 March 2018 XVII
Elisabetta Casellati (FI) 24 March 2018 – 13 October 2022 XVIII
Ignazio La Russa (FdI) 13 October 2022 – Incumbent XIX

Historical composition

Since 1994

18 76 9 7 6 6 1 3 4 31 12 34 60 48
10 102 14 1 11 27 1 2 4 25 48 27 43
4 2 64 8 1 1 43 1 1 3 14 29 82 17 45
27 11 65 4 43 3 3 3 21 80 14 41
118 14 1 4 1 3 2 147 25
7 111 54 19 1 4 3 98 18
4 53 112 1 3 9 57 58 18
4 40 28 9 2 2 2 18 30 65

Palazzo Madama

Palazzo Madama as it appeared in 17th century
Palazzo Madama today

Since 1871, the Senate has met in Palazzo Madama in Rome, an old patrician palace completed in 1505 for the Medici family. The palace takes its name from Madama Margherita of Austria, daughter of Charles V and wife of Alessandro de' Medici. After the extinction of the Medici, the palace was handed over to the House of Lorraine. and, later, it was sold to Papal Government.

Later, in 1755, Pope Benedict XIV (whose coat of arms still dominates the main entrance) ordered major restructuring, entrusting the work to Luigi Hostini. In the following years there were installed the court offices and police headquarters. In 1849, Pius IX moved the Ministries of Finances and of the Public Debt here, as well as the Papal Post Offices. After the conquest of Rome by the newly formed Kingdom of Italy, the palace was chosen to become the seat of the Senato del Regno (Senate of the Kingdom).

Cicero Denounces Catiline

Palazzo Madama and the adjacent buildings underwent further restructuring and adaptation in the first decades of the 20th century. A radical transformation which involved, among other things, the modernization of the hemicycle, the full remaking of the prospectus on Via San Salvatore and Via Dogana Vecchia, and the establishment of a connection with the adjacent Palazzo Carpegna. The latter, owned by the Senate, was entirely rebuilt in an advanced position compared to its original position. The small church of San Salvatore in Thermis, dating to the 6th century, which stood in the street to the left of the palace, was first closed, expropriated and later razed for security reasons.

The current façade was built in the mid-1650s by both Cigoli and Paolo Maruccelli. The latter added the ornate cornice and whimsical decorative urns on the roof. Among the rooms one of the most significant (and perhaps the most impressive from the political point of view) is the "Sala Maccari," which takes its name from Cesare Maccari, the artist who decorated it in 1880 and created the frescoes, among which stands out the one that depicts Cicero making his indictment of Catiline, who listens isolated.

The chamber where the Senate met for the first time on 27 November 1871 was designed by Luigi Gabet. A plaque on the wall behind the speaker's chair commemorates the king's address to Parliament when first convened in the new seat of government:


"Italy is restored to herself and to Rome... Here, where we recognise the homeland of our thoughts, all things speak to us of greatness; but at the same time all things remind us of our duties..." - Victor Emmanuel II, 27 November 1871

Above this has been placed a plaque bearing the inscription:

IL 2 GIUGNO 1946
On 2 June 1946
by popular suffrage
in defence of public liberty
and a certainty of civic progress
was proclaimed
the Italian Republic

To the viewers' left stand the flags of the Italian Republic (with a ribbon embroidered with the words SENATO DELLA REPUBBLICA) and the European Union.

See also


  1. ^
  2. ^
  3. ^
  4. ^
  5. ^
    •   SI (2)
    •   EV (1)
    •   Ind. (1)
  6. ^


  1. ^ "onorevole [o-no-ré-vo-le] agg., s." Corriere della Sera. Dizionario di Italiano (in Italian). Retrieved 15 June 2020.
  2. ^ "Senatori a vita, XVIII Legislatura (dal 23 marzo 2018)" [Senators for life, 18th Legislature (since 23 March 2018)]. (in Italian). Retrieved 15 June 2020.
  3. ^ "Constitute". Retrieved 15 June 2020.
  4. ^ "Italy passes Renzi's flagship reform, opening way for referendum". Reuters. 12 April 2016. Retrieved 15 June 2020.
  5. ^ "Referendum costituzionale 2016: vince il No. I pro e contro della riforma" [Constitutional referendum 2016: "No" wins. The pros and cons of athe reform]. (in Italian). 5 December 2016. Retrieved 15 June 2020.
  6. ^ Giampiero Buonomo, Marco Cosentino (1999). "Il Vicario del Presidente nelle Assemblee parlamentari con particolare riferimento al Senato della Repubblica italiana" [The Vicar of the President in the Parliamentary Assemblies with particular reference to the Senate of the Italian Republic]. (in Italian). pp. 24–37. Retrieved 15 June 2020.

External links

41°53′57.09″N 12°28′27.4″E / 41.8991917°N 12.474278°E / 41.8991917; 12.474278

This page was last edited on 18 August 2023, at 17:44
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