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United States Secretary of War

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

United States Secretary of War
Seal of the United States Department of War.png
Flag of the United States Secretary of the Army.svg
Flag of the Secretary of War
Last in office
Kenneth C. Royall

September 18, 1947 – April 27, 1949
United States Department of War
Style Mr. Secretary
Member of Cabinet
Reports to President of the United States
Seat Washington, D.C.
Appointer The President
with Senate advice and consent
Term length No fixed term
Precursor Secretary at War
Formation 1789
First holder Henry Knox
Final holder Kenneth C. Royall
Abolished 1947
Succession Secretary of the Army
Secretary of the Air Force

The Secretary of War was a member of the United States President's Cabinet, beginning with George Washington's administration. A similar position, called either "Secretary at War" or "Secretary of War", had been appointed to serve the Congress of the Confederation under the Articles of Confederation between 1781 and 1789. Benjamin Lincoln and later Henry Knox held the position. When Washington was inaugurated as the first president under the Constitution, he appointed Knox to continue serving as Secretary of War.

The Secretary of War was the head of the War Department. At first, he was responsible for all military affairs, including naval affairs. In 1798, the Secretary of the Navy was created by statute, and the scope of responsibility for this office was reduced to the affairs of the United States Army. From 1886 onward, the Secretary of War was in the line of succession to the presidency, after the Vice President of the United States, the Speaker of the House of Representatives, the President pro tem of the Senate and the Secretary of State.

In 1947, with the passing of the National Security Act of 1947, the Secretary of War was replaced by the Secretary of the Army and the Secretary of the Air Force, which, along with the Secretary of the Navy, have since 1949 been non-Cabinet subordinates under the Secretary of Defense. The Secretary of the Army's office is generally considered the direct successor to the Secretary of War's office although the Secretary of Defense took the Secretary of War's position in the Cabinet, and the line of succession to the presidency.

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Transcription

Contents

List of Secretaries

Secretary at War (1781–1789)

The office of Secretary at War was modelled upon Great Britain's Secretary at War, who was William Barrington, 2nd Viscount Barrington, at the time of the American Revolution. The office of Secretary at War was meant to replace both the Commander-in-Chief and the Board of War, and like the President of the Board, the Secretary wore no special insignia. The Inspector General, Quartermaster General, Commissary General, and Adjutant General served on the Secretary's staff. However, the Army itself under Secretary Henry Knox only consisted of 700 men.

No. Portrait Name State of residence Took office Left office Congress
1
General Benjamin Lincoln-restored.jpg
Benjamin Lincoln Massachusetts March 1, 1781 November 2, 1783 Congress of the Confederation
2
Henry Knox by Gilbert Stuart 1806.jpeg
Henry Knox Massachusetts March 8, 1785 September 12, 1789

Secretary of War (1789–1947)

Swearing in of Dwight F. Davis as Secretary of War in 1925. Former Secretaries John W. Weeks and Chief Justice William Howard Taft are standing beside him.
Swearing in of Dwight F. Davis as Secretary of War in 1925. Former Secretaries John W. Weeks and Chief Justice William Howard Taft are standing beside him.
Parties

  No party (1)   Federalist (3)   Democratic-Republican (8)   Democratic (14)   Whig (5)   Republican (25)

No. Portrait Name State of Residence Took office Left office President(s)
1
Henry Knox by Gilbert Stuart 1806.jpeg
Henry Knox Massachusetts September 12, 1789 December 31, 1794 George Washington
2
Timothy-Pickering.jpg
Timothy Pickering Pennsylvania[1] January 2, 1795 December 10, 1795
3
JMcHenry.jpg
James McHenry Maryland January 27, 1796 June 1, 1800[2]
John Adams
4
Samuel Dexter.jpg
Samuel Dexter Massachusetts June 1, 1800 January 31, 1801
5
Henry Dearborn by Gilbert Stuart.jpeg
Henry Dearborn Massachusetts March 5, 1801 March 4, 1809 Thomas Jefferson
6
William Eustis.jpg
William Eustis Massachusetts March 7, 1809 January 13, 1813 James Madison
7
John Armstrong Jr..jpg
John Armstrong, Jr. New York January 13, 1813 September 27, 1814
8
Jamesmonroe-npgallery.jpg
James Monroe Virginia September 27, 1814 March 2, 1815
9
WilliamHarrisCrawford5.jpg
William H. Crawford Georgia August 1, 1815 October 22, 1816
10
JCCalhoun-1822.jpg
John C. Calhoun South Carolina October 8, 1817 March 4, 1825 James Monroe
11
BarbourT.jpg
James Barbour Virginia March 7, 1825 May 23, 1828 John Quincy Adams
12
Peter Buell Porter.jpg
Peter Buell Porter New York May 23, 1828 March 9, 1829
13
John Eaton.jpg
John H. Eaton Tennessee March 9, 1829 June 18, 1831 Andrew Jackson
14
Lewis Cass 2.jpg
Lewis Cass Ohio August 1, 1831 October 5, 1836
15
Jrpoinsett.jpg
Joel Roberts Poinsett South Carolina March 7, 1837 March 4, 1841 Martin Van Buren
16
JBell.jpg
John Bell Tennessee March 5, 1841 September 13, 1841 William Henry Harrison
John Tyler
17
SpencerJohn.jpg
John Canfield Spencer New York October 12, 1841 March 4, 1843
18
PorterJM.jpg
James Madison Porter Pennsylvania March 8, 1843 February 14, 1844
19
William Wilkins United States Senator - Brady-Handy.jpg
William Wilkins Pennsylvania February 15, 1844 March 4, 1845
20
William L. Marcy.png
William Learned Marcy New York March 6, 1845 March 4, 1849 James K. Polk
21
GWCrawford2.jpg
George W. Crawford Georgia March 8, 1849 July 22, 1850 Zachary Taylor
22
Charles Magill Conrad.jpg
Charles Magill Conrad Louisiana August 15, 1850 March 4, 1853 Millard Fillmore
23
President-Jefferson-Davis.jpg
Jefferson Davis Mississippi March 7, 1853 March 4, 1857 Franklin Pierce
24
John Buchanan Floyd.jpg
John B. Floyd Virginia March 6, 1857 December 29, 1860 James Buchanan
25
Joseph Holt.jpg
Joseph Holt Kentucky January 18, 1861 March 4, 1861
26
Smn Cameron-SecofWar.jpg
Simon Cameron Pennsylvania March 5, 1861 January 14, 1862 Abraham Lincoln
27
Edwin McMasters Stanton Secretary of War.jpg
Edwin M. Stanton Pennsylvania January 20, 1862 May 28, 1868
Andrew Johnson
28
John Schofield.jpg
John McAllister Schofield Illinois June 1, 1868 March 13, 1869
29
John Aaron Rawlins - Brady-Handy.jpg
John Aaron Rawlins Illinois March 13, 1869 September 6, 1869 Ulysses S. Grant
30
WWBelknap.jpg
William W. Belknap Iowa October 25, 1869 March 2, 1876
31
Alphonso Taft seated.jpg
Alphonso Taft Ohio March 8, 1876 May 22, 1876
32
JDonaldC2.jpg
J. Donald Cameron Pennsylvania May 22, 1876 March 4, 1877
33
GWMcCrary.jpg
George W. McCrary Iowa March 12, 1877 December 10, 1879 Rutherford B. Hayes
34
Alexander Ramsey - Brady-Handy.jpg
Alexander Ramsey Minnesota December 10, 1879 March 4, 1881
35
Robert Todd Lincoln, Brady-Handy bw photo portrait, ca1870-1880.jpg
Robert Todd Lincoln Illinois March 5, 1881 March 4, 1885 James A. Garfield
Chester A. Arthur
36
William Endicott, bw photo portrait, 1886.jpg
William Crowninshield Endicott Massachusetts March 5, 1885 March 4, 1889 Grover Cleveland
37
Redfield Proctor, bw photo portrait, 1904.jpg
Redfield Proctor Vermont March 5, 1889 November 5, 1891 Benjamin Harrison
38
SBElkins.jpg
Stephen Benton Elkins West Virginia December 17, 1891 March 4, 1893
39
Daniel Lamont, bw photo portrait, 1904.jpg
Daniel S. Lamont New York March 5, 1893 March 4, 1897 Grover Cleveland
40
Russell Alexander Alger by by The Detroit Publishing Co..jpg
Russell A. Alger Michigan March 5, 1897 August 1, 1899 William McKinley
41
Elihu Root, bw photo portrait, 1902.jpg
Elihu Root New York August 1, 1899 January 31, 1904
Theodore Roosevelt
42
William Howard Taft.jpg
William Howard Taft Ohio February 1, 1904 June 30, 1908
43
Luke Edward Wright.jpg
Luke Edward Wright Tennessee July 1, 1908 March 4, 1909
44
Jacob Dickinson, bw photo portrait standing, 1909.jpg
Jacob M. Dickinson Tennessee March 12, 1909 May 21, 1911 William Howard Taft
45
HLStimson.jpg
Henry L. Stimson New York May 22, 1911 March 4, 1913
46
Lindley Garrison, BW photo portrait, 1913.jpg
Lindley Miller Garrison New Jersey March 5, 1913 February 10, 1916 Woodrow Wilson
47
Newton Baker, Bain bw photo portrait.jpg
Newton D. Baker Ohio March 9, 1916 March 4, 1921
48
John Wingate Weeks, Bain bw photo portrait.jpg
John W. Weeks Massachusetts March 5, 1921 October 13, 1925 Warren G. Harding
Calvin Coolidge
49
Dwight Davis, Bain bw photo portrait.jpg
Dwight F. Davis Missouri October 14, 1925 March 4, 1929
50
James William Good, Harris & Ewing bw photo portrait, 1919.jpg
James William Good Illinois March 6, 1929 November 18, 1929 Herbert Hoover
51
PJayHurl.jpg
Patrick J. Hurley Oklahoma December 9, 1929 March 4, 1933
52
George Dern, Bain bw photo portrait.jpg
George Dern Utah March 4, 1933 August 27, 1936 Franklin D. Roosevelt
53
Harry Hines Woodring, 53rd United States Secretary of War.jpg
Harry Hines Woodring Kansas September 25, 1936 June 20, 1940
54
Henry Stimson, Harris & Ewing bw photo portrait, 1929.jpg
Henry L. Stimson New York July 10, 1940 September 21, 1945
Harry S. Truman
55
Robert P. Patterson, 55th United States Secretary of War.jpg
Robert P. Patterson New York September 27, 1945 July 18, 1947
56
KCR portrait.jpg
Kenneth C. Royall North Carolina July 19, 1947 September 18, 1947

See also

References

Footnotes

  1. ^ http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/D?hlaw:7:./temp/~ammem_WqlO::
  2. ^ "Papers of the War Department". Wardepartmentpapers.org. Retrieved 2012-05-15.

Further reading

This page was last edited on 6 August 2018, at 03:07
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