To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

4,5
Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
Languages
Recent
Show all languages
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.
.
Leo
Newton
Brights
Milds

Second School War

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A Catholic demonstration against the Collard law in Antwerp in 1955
A Catholic demonstration against the Collard law in Antwerp in 1955

The Second School War (French: Deuxième guerre scolaire, Dutch: Tweede schoolstrijd) was a political crisis in Belgium over the issue of religion in education. The conflict lasted between 1950 and 1959 and was ended by a cross-party agreement, known as the School Pact, which clarified the role of religion in the state. It followed a crisis over the same issue in the 19th century, known as the First School War.

Crisis

After victory in the 1950 elections, a Christian Social Party (PSC-CVP) majority government came to power in Belgium for the first time since the end of World War II. The new education minister, Pierre Harmel, used the PSC-CVP's position to increase the wages paid to teachers in private (mainly Roman Catholic) schools and introduced laws linking the subsidies for private schools to the number of pupils. These measures were perceived by the traditionally-anticlerical Liberals and Socialists as a "declaration of war" on the traditionally contentious issue of religion in education.

The 1954 elections reversed the PSC-CVP victory and brought to power a coalition of Socialists and Liberals under Achille Van Acker. The new Education Minister, Leo Collard, immediately set out to reverse the measures taken by Harmel, founding a large number of secular schools and only permitting the instatement of teachers with a diploma, which forced many unqualified priests out of the profession. These measures sparked mass protests from the Catholic bloc. A compromise was eventually reached by the following government (a Catholic minority led by Gaston Eyskens) and the War was concluded by an agreement, known as the School Pact, on 6 November 1958.[1]

School Pact

The School War was finally ended by the "School Pact" (Pacte scolaire or Schoolpact). Under the agreement, parents could choose the system they preferred for their children. Publicly, the pact did not satisfy anyone including many in the Catholic camp, especially the Belgian Cardinal van Roey.[2]

See also

References

  1. ^ Aries, Jacques (dir.) (2005). La laïcité histoires nationales - perspectives européennes. Lyon: J.André. ISBN 9782915009651.[page needed]
  2. ^ Vincent Dujardin, Michel Dumoulin (2008). L'union fait-elle encore la force?. Éd. Le Cri.[page needed]

Further reading

  • Witte, Els; De Groof, Jan; Tyssens, Jeffrey, eds. (1999). Het schoolpact van 1958 : ontstaan, grondlijnen en toepassing van een Belgisch compromis. Leuven: Garant. ISBN 9789053509371.

External links

This page was last edited on 13 January 2021, at 15:08
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.