To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
Show all languages
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.

Seal of Maryland

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Great Seal of the State of Maryland
Seal of Maryland (reverse).svg
The reverse of the seal of Maryland
Seal of Maryland (obverse).png
The obverse of the seal of Maryland
Coat of arms of Maryland.svg
The coat of arms of Maryland
ArmigerState of Maryland
UseTo represent the government of the State of Maryland in official contexts and to authenticate certain official documents

The Great Seal of the State of Maryland is the official government emblem of the U.S. state of Maryland. Its official service is to authenticate acts by the General Assembly of Maryland (state legislature), but it is also used for display purposes at most state buildings. Although the state seal has been changed in design several times throughout history, the current model represents the reverse side of the original seal.

The seal consists of two sides, a reverse and an obverse. In official contexts, only the reverse side is used.


The historical coat of arms of Maryland in 1876
The historical coat of arms of Maryland in 1876

The first seal was stolen in 1645 by Richard Ingle during a rebellion, but a similar one was sent as a replacement by Cecil Calvert, 2nd Baron Baltimore (1605-1675). This seal was used except for a period from 1692–1715 until a new one was adopted in 1794. That seal used republican imagery, such as a woman holding scales of justice on the obverse and on the reverse the motto "Industry the Means, Plenty the Result".[1]

In 1817 and 1854, symbols of the eagle were used along with a version of the original reverse on the 1854 version. The original Calvert seal was brought back into use in 1874, and has had various corrections made to its image and meaning in 1959 and 1969.

Obverse side

Maryland has the distinction of having a dual-sided seal, rare among U.S. states and the world. The obverse side of the state seal, which was described by statute in 1959 (Chapter 396, Acts of 1959), shows Lord Baltimore as a knight in full armor mounted on a charger with a drawn sword in hand. The caparisons of the horse on which Lord Baltimore is mounted bear his family coat of arms. The inscription on the rim of the seal shows the phrase, Cecilius Absolutus Dominus Terræ Mariæ et Avaloniæ Baro de Baltimore, which translates to "Cecil, Absolute Lord of Maryland and Avalon, Baron of Baltimore" (Chapter 79, Acts of 1969; Sections 13-101 through 13-105 of the State Government Article of the Annotated Code of Maryland).

Reverse side

The reverse of the seal shows the Calvert arms, described as follows:

Quarterly first and fourth, a paly of six Or and Sable, a bend counterchanged; quarterly second and third, quarterly Argent and Gules a cross bottony counterchanged. Above the shield an earl's coronet surmounted by a barred helm affronté Argent.

The supporters are a plowman (dexter) and a fisherman (sinister), the former holding a spade and the latter a fish; the mantling of ermine (reverse Gules) is entire and surrounds the whole composition. The crest is a crown with two pennants, the dexter Or and the sinister Sable.[2]

The state motto, Fatti maschii, parole femine (pronounced [ˈfatti ˈmaski: paˈrɔle ˈfɛmine]), has its origin in the archaic Italian and translates as "Manly deeds, womanly words", or more generally, "Strong deeds, gentle words", which is the translation the government of Maryland cites officially.[3][N 1] Maryland is the only state with a motto in Italian. The saying is the motto of the Calvert family (the Barons Baltimore), who first founded the Colony of Maryland. George Calvert, 1st Baron Baltimore (1579-1632), made it his family's motto in 1622 and it appears that the saying was well known in 17th-century England.

The Latin text encircling the seal, Scuto bonæ voluntatis tuæ coronasti nos, is from verse 12 of Psalm 5 from the Vulgate; it translates to "With favor Wilt Thou Compass Us as with a Shield"[4] The founding date of 1632 completes the circle.

Though the reverse side has been the only part of the seal to be cut and is the part that is primarily used on official government documents, the obverse side can be found displayed around the state, especially on state government buildings, including the Maryland State House.

See also


  1. ^ The modern spelling would be "Fatti maschi, parole femmine".


  1. ^ State of Maryland (June 17, 2004). "Maryland Seal of 1794". Maryland at a Glance. State of Maryland. Archived from the original on January 4, 2013. Retrieved January 4, 2013.
  2. ^ "Article - State Government §13–102" (PDF). Code of Maryland. General Assembly of Maryland. Retrieved September 24, 2014.
  3. ^ State of Maryland (2004). "Maryland Kids Page". Maryland Office of the Secretary of State. State of Maryland. Archived from the original on June 29, 2004. Retrieved June 29, 2004.
  4. ^ State of Maryland (April 21, 2005). "Great Seal of Maryland (reverse)". Maryland State Archives. Archived from the original on January 4, 2013. Retrieved January 4, 2013.

External links

This page was last edited on 1 May 2020, at 03:49
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.