To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

4,5
Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.
.
Leo
Newton
Brights
Milds

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Joshua Roll, Vatican Library. An illuminated scroll, probably of the 10th century, created in the Byzantine empire.
The Joshua Roll, Vatican Library. An illuminated scroll, probably of the 10th century, created in the Byzantine empire.
Scroll of the Book of Esther, Seville, Spain.
Ingredients used in making ink for Hebrew scrolls today.
Ingredients used in making ink for Hebrew scrolls today.

A scroll (from the Old French escroe or escroue), also known as a roll, is a roll of papyrus, parchment, or paper containing writing.[1]

YouTube Encyclopedic

  • 1/3
    Views:
    7 625 834
    307 391
    413 141
  • ✪ Before You Scroll Down, WATCH THIS! One of The Most Eye Opening Videos
  • ✪ The Secrets of the Dead Sea Scrolls | The Conspiracy Files
  • ✪ Dead Sea Scrolls Part 1: Voices of the Deserts (Biblical History Documentary) | Timeline

Transcription

the tycoons of social media have to stop pretending that they're friendly nerd gods building a better world and admit they're just tobacco farmers and t-shirts selling an addictive product to children because let's face it checking your likes is the new smoking Philip Morris just wanted your lungs the AppStore wants your soul there are two billion people more than two billion people on Facebook that's more than the number it's about the number of notional followers of Christianity people check their phones a hundred and fifty times a day the millennial sort of audience and so if you think about it from the moment you wake up it's like you're jacked in to this environment and thoughts starts streaming into your head designed by a few technology companies what we find is the typical person checks their phone every 15 minutes or less and half of the time they check their phone there's no alert no notification it's coming from inside their head telling them gee I haven't checked in Facebook in a while I haven't checked on this Twitter feed for a while I wonder if somebody commented on my Instagram post that then generates cortisol and it starts to make you anxious and eventually your goal is to get rid of that anxiety so you check in and apparently we feel stressed when we can't get our phone or when our battery is about to die you probably know this feeling and a research done in Australia among 3,000 people under the age of 30 founded nine out of every ten admit to feel this anxiety while having his battery dying Steve Jobs revolutionized the entire world with the iPhone and he never let his children use it because he did not want them dependent on technology right now an infant is getting their first laptop that's soft and squishy and makes noise right now a child is being born online and being favorited and retweeted the hyper generational segregation of our time is bizarre unhealthy and historically unprecedented you've never seen the like of people sitting at a table in a restaurant not talking to each other because they're texting and using their Facebook and Instagram and Twitter and they are they are at the table and don't even know each other in the house and can't even talk to each other and the pressure that's on us to be like everybody else is so great that everybody tries to live like their inner reality show there's a culture we don't have enough in common anymore and that's because the internet which was supposed to unite the world has become too adept at serving us personalized content do you know what I saw on Yahoo's front page this morning no you don't because mine isn't the same as yours people get newest feeds now that just spit back customized stories based on what we've clicked on in the past we are great consumer report produced we will buy what we can't afford with money that we don't have and to impress people we don't even know trying to be like everybody else get off of Facebook and put your face in a book right now a teenager is photoshopping their selfie because as a society we're telling them they're not good enough right now influencers encourage narcissism without knowing the breadth and depth of their impact on their audiences right now 40,000 spectators are in an Olympic football arena watching a competitive eSports competition because this is this generations football match there's always this narrative that technology's neutral it's up to us to choose how we use it this is just not true technology's not neutral it's not neutral they want you to use it in particular ways and for long periods of time because that's how they make their money and you don't realize it but you are being programmed it was unintentional but now you got to decide how much you're willing to give up how much of your intellectual independence if you feed the beast that beast will destroy you if you push back on it we have a chance to control it rein it in and it is a point in time where people need to hard break from some of these tools and the things that you rely on the short-term dopamine driven feedback loops that we have created are destroying how society works no civil discourse no cooperation misinformation miss truth and it's not an American problem this is not about Russian ads this is a global problem I challenge everyone to try going one week without social media don't let your phone and social media control you [Music] Subtitles by the Amara.org community

Contents

Structure

A scroll is usually divided up into pages, which are sometimes separate sheets of papyrus or parchment glued together at the edges, or may be marked divisions of a continuous roll of writing material. The scroll is usually unrolled so that one page is exposed at a time, for writing or reading, with the remaining pages rolled up to the left and right of the visible page. It is unrolled from side to side, and the text is written in lines from the top to the bottom of the page. Depending on the language, the letters may be written left to right, right to left, or alternating in direction (boustrophedon).

Some scrolls are simply rolled up pages; others may have wooden rollers on each end: Torah scrolls have rather elaborate rollers befitting their ceremonial function.

History of scroll use

Roman portraiture frescos from Pompeii, 1st century AD, depicting two different men wearing laurel wreaths, one holding the rotulus, the other a volumen

Scrolls were the first form of editable record keeping texts, used in Eastern Mediterranean ancient Egyptian civilizations. Parchment scrolls were used by the Israelites among others before the codex or bound book with parchment pages was invented by the Romans, which became popular around the 1st century AD.[2] Scrolls were more highly regarded than codices until well into Roman times, where they were usually written in single latitudinal column.

The ink used in writing scrolls had to adhere to a surface that was rolled and unrolled, so special inks were developed. Even so, ink would slowly flake off of scrolls.

Rolls

Shorter pieces of parchment or paper are called rolls or rotuli, although usage of the term by modern historians varies with periods. Historians of the classical period tend to use roll instead of scroll. Rolls may still be many meters or feet long, and were used in the medieval and Early Modern period in Europe and various West Asian cultures for manuscript administrative documents intended for various uses, including accounting, rent-rolls, legal agreements, and inventories. A distinction that sometimes applies is that the lines of writing in rotuli run across the width of the roll (that is to say, are parallel with any unrolled portion) rather than along the length, divided into page-like sections. Rolls may be wider than most scrolls, up to perhaps 60 cm or two feet wide. Rolls were often stored together in a special cupboard on shelves.

A special Chinese form of short book, called the "whirlwind book," consists of several pieces of paper bound at the top with bamboo and then rolled up.[3]

Scotland

In Scotland, the term scrow was used from about the 13th to the 17th centuries for scroll, writing, or documents in list or schedule form. There existed an office of Clerk of the Scrow (Rotulorum Clericus) meaning the Clerk of the Rolls or Clerk of the Register.[4]

Replacement by the codex

The Romans invented the codex form of the book, folding the scroll into pages which made reading and handling the document much easier. Legend has it that Julius Caesar was the first to fold scrolls, concertina-fashion, for dispatches to his forces campaigning in Gaul. Scrolls were awkward to read if a reader wished to consult material at opposite ends of the document. Further, scrolls were written only on one side, while both sides of the codex page were used.

Eventually, the folds were cut into sheets, or "leaves," and bound together along one edge. The bound pages were protected by stiff covers, usually of wood enclosed with leather. Codex is Latin for a "block of wood": the Latin liber, the root of "library," and the German Buch, the source of "book," both refer to wood. The codex was not only easier to handle than the scroll, but it also fit conveniently on library shelves. The spine generally held the book's title, facing out, affording easier organization of the collection.

The term codex technically refers only to manuscript books-those that, at one time, were handwritten. More specifically, a codex is the term used primarily for a bound manuscript from Roman times up through the Middle Ages.

From the fourth century on, the codex became the standard format for books, and scrolls were no longer generally used. After the contents of a parchment scroll were copied in codex format, the scroll was seldom preserved. The majority that did survive were found by archaeologists in burial pits and in the buried trash of forgotten communities.[5]

Recent Torah scroll discovery

The oldest complete Torah scroll was discovered stored in an academic library in Bolonia, Italy by Professor Mauro Perani in 2013. It had been mislabeled in 1889 as dating from the 17th century, but Perani suspected it was actually older as it was written in an earlier Babylonian script. Two tests conducted by laboratories at Italy’s University of Salento and at the University of Illinois confirmed that the scroll dates from the second half of the 12th century to the first quarter of the 13th century. Ancient Torah scrolls are rare because when they are damaged they stop being used for liturgies and are buried.

The scroll is made up of 58 sections of soft sheep leather. It is 36 meters long and 64 centimeters wide. [6][7]

Modern technology

Modern technology may be able to assist in reading ancient scrolls. In January 2015, computer software may be making progress in reading 2,000-year-old Herculaneum scrolls, computer scientists report. After working for more than 10 years on unlocking the contents of damaged Herculaneum scrolls, researchers may be able to progress towards reading the scrolls, which cannot be physically opened.[8]

See also

References

  1. ^ Beal, Peter. (2008) "scroll" in A Dictionary of English Manuscript Terminology 1450–2000 Online edition. Oxford University Press, 2008. http://www.oxfordreference.com Archived 2 June 2013 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved 21 November 2013.
  2. ^ "10 Innovations That Built Ancient Rome". history.com.
  3. ^ "IDP Education - Bookbinding". idp.bl.uk.
  4. ^ Beal, 2008, "scrow".
  5. ^ Murray, Stuart A.P. (2009) The Library: An Illustrated History. Chicago, IL. Skyhorse Publishing. (p.27)
  6. ^ Oldest complete scroll of Torah found in Italy Archived 7 April 2014 at the Wayback Machine. (2013). Christian Century, 130(13), 17
  7. ^ "Carbon Dating Confirms World's Oldest Torah Scroll". 31 May 2013. Archived from the original on 23 December 2017. Retrieved 22 December 2017.
  8. ^ Major breakthrough in reading ancient scrolls Archived 23 January 2015 at the Wayback Machine, Science Daily

External links

This page was last edited on 24 September 2019, at 22:58
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.