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## From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

In physics, the Schwinger model, named after Julian Schwinger, is the model describing 1+1D (1 spatial dimension + time) Lorentzian quantum electrodynamics which includes Electrons, coupled to Photons.

The model has a Lagrangian

${\mathcal {L}}=-{\frac {1}{4g^{2}}}F_{\mu \nu }F^{\mu \nu }+{\bar {\psi }}(i\gamma ^{\mu }D_{\mu }-m)\psi$ Where $F_{\mu \nu }=\partial _{\mu }A_{\nu }-\partial _{\nu }A_{\mu }$ is the $U(1)$ photon field strength, $D_{\mu }=\partial _{\mu }-iA_{\mu }$ is the gauge covariant derivative, $\psi$ is the fermion spinor, $m$ is the fermion mass and $\gamma ^{0},\gamma ^{1}$ form the two-dimensional representation of the Clifford algebra.

This model exhibits confinement of the fermions and as such, is a toy model for QCD. A handwaving argument why this is so is because in two dimensions, classically, the potential between two charged particles goes linearly as $r$ , instead of $1/r$ in 4 dimensions, 3 spatial, 1 time. This model also exhibits a spontaneous symmetry breaking of the U(1) symmetry due to a chiral condensate due to a pool of instantons. The photon in this model becomes a massive particle at low temperatures. This model can be solved exactly and is used as a toy model for other more complex theories.

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