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A painting of Captain Kidd with a red sash around his waist
A painting of Captain Kidd with a red sash around his waist

A sash is a large and usually colorful ribbon or band of material worn around the body, draping from one shoulder to the opposing hip, or else running around the waist. The sash around the waist may be worn in daily attire, but the sash from shoulder to hip is worn on ceremonial occasions only. Ceremonial sashes are also found in a V-shaped format, draping from both shoulders to the stomach like a large necklace.

Military use

Elaborately embroidered sash from 1635 to 1642
Elaborately embroidered sash from 1635 to 1642

In the mid- and late-16th century waist and shoulder sashes came up as mark of (high) military rank or to show personal affection to a political party or nation. During the Thirty Years' War the distinctive sash colour of the House of Habsburg was red while their French opponents wore white or blue sashes and the Swedish voted for blue sashes.

Since then sashes have been part of formal military attire (compare the sword-belt known as a baldric, and the cummerbund). Thus several other modern armies retain waist-sashes for wear by officers in ceremonial uniforms. These include the armies of Norway (crimson sashes), Sweden (yellow and blue), Greece (light blue and white), the Netherlands (orange), Portugal (crimson) and Spain (red and gold for generals, light blue for general staff and crimson for infantry officers).[1] The Spanish Regulares (infantry descended from colonial regiments formerly recruited in Spanish Morocco) retain their historic waist-sashes for all ranks in colours that vary according to the unit.[2]

The sashes of the French Foreign Legion are blue.
The sashes of the French Foreign Legion are blue.

Sashes are a distinctive feature of some regiments of the modern French Army for parade dress. They are worn around the waist in the old Algerian or zouave style ("ceinture de laine"). Traditionally these sashes were more than 4 m (13 ft) in length and 40 cm (16 in) in width. In the historic French Army of Africa, sashes were worn around the waist in either blue for European or red for indigenous troops.[3]

The modern British Army retains a scarlet sash for wear in certain orders of dress by sergeants and above serving in infantry regiments, over the right shoulder to the left hip. A similar crimson silk net sash is worn around the waist by officers of the Foot Guards in scarlet full dress and officers of line infantry in dark blue "Number 1" dress. The same practice is followed in some Commonwealth armies.

The present-day armies of India and Pakistan both make extensive use of waist-sashes for ceremonial wear. The colours vary widely according to regiment or branch and match those of the turbans where worn. Typically two or more colours are incorporated in the sash, in vertical stripes. One end hangs loose at the side and may have an ornamental fringe. The practice of wearing distinctive regimental sashes or cummerbunds goes back to the late nineteenth century.[4]

Cross-belts resembling sashes are worn by Drum Majors in the Dutch, British and some Commonwealth armies. These carry scrolls bearing the names of battle honours.

In the United States Army sashes were worn by sergeants and officers from the early days on. In 1821 the red sashes (crimson for officers) were limited to first sergeants and above. In 1872 the sashes were abolished by all ranks but generals who continued to wear their buff silk sashes in full dress until 1917. Waist sashes (in combination with a sabre) in the old style are still worn by the officers and senior NCOs of the Commander-in-Chief's Guard of the 3rd U.S. Infantry Regiment (The Old Guard) as well by the West Point Band drum major along with the West Point cadet officers.[5][6] The drum major of the Old Guard Fife and Drum Corps also still wears a waist sash, but no sidearms.

At the time of the American Civil War (1861–65) generals of the regular US Army wore silk sashes in buff. Officers were authorized silk sashes in crimson (medical officers: emerald) while red woolen sashes were entitled to senior non-commissioned officers (Army Regulations of 1861). In the Confederate Army sashes were worn by all sergeant ranks and officers. The colour indicated the corps or status of the wearer. For example: yellow for cavalry, burgundy for infantry, black for chaplains, red for sergeants, green or blue for medics, and grey or cream for general officers.

Until 1914 waist-sashes in distinctive national colours were worn as a peace-time mark of rank by officers of the Imperial German, Austro-Hungarian and Russian armies, amongst others. Japanese officers continued the practice in full dress uniform until 1940.[7]

Modern civilian and cultural use

Prince Louis, Duke of Nemours wearing a red sash (Legion of Honour) together with his ceremonial military uniform. Date 1840s.
Prince Louis, Duke of Nemours wearing a red sash (Legion of Honour) together with his ceremonial military uniform. Date 1840s.
Winner of a beauty pageant wearing two sashes
Winner of a beauty pageant wearing two sashes
President of Republic of Suriname wearing a ceremonial V-style sash
President of Republic of Suriname wearing a ceremonial V-style sash

With the genesis of complex systems of military and civilian awards during the 18th century in most European countries, sashes became a distinguishing part of decorations and are mostly worn along with medals or orders. Today most of the European royal families wear sashes as a part of their royal (and/or military) regalia. Some orders such as the Légion d'honneur include sashes as part of the seniormost grades' insignia. Likewise, Italian military officers wear light blue sashes over the right shoulder on ceremonial occasions.

In Latin America and some countries of Africa, a special presidential sash indicates a president's authority. In France and Italy, sashes, featuring the national flag tricolours and worn on the right shoulder, are used by public authorities and local officials, such as legislators, in public ceremonial events.

In the United States, the sash has picked up a more ceremonial and less practical purpose. Sashes are used at higher education commencement ceremonies, by high school homecoming parade nominees, in beauty pageants, as well as by corporations to acknowledge high achievement.

In Canada, hand-woven sashes (called ceintures fléchées and sometimes "L'Assomption sash" after a town in which they were mass-produced) were derived from Iroquoiuan carrying belts sometime in the 18th century. As a powerful multi-use tool this sash found use in the fur trade which brought it into the North West. In this period the weave got tighter and size expanded, with some examples more than four metres in length. Coloured thread was widely used. Today it is considered to be primarily a symbol of the 1837 Lower Canada Rebellion Patriotes and the Métis peoples.

In Ireland, especially Northern Ireland, the sash is a symbol of the Orange Order. Orange Order sashes were originally of the ceremonial shoulder-to-hip variety as worn by the British military. Over the 20th century, the sash has been mostly replaced by V-shaped collarettes, which are still generally referred to as sashes. The item is celebrated in the song 'The Sash my Father Wore'.

Sashes are also worn by Girl Scouts, Boy Scouts and Beauty Pageant Participants. Badges are sewn onto the sash, to indicate achievements of the Scout.

Sashes are part of the diplomatic uniform of many countries.

Many modern schools of Chinese martial arts use sashes of various colors to denote rank as a reflection of the Japanese ranking system using belts.

The Japanese equivalent of a sash, obi, serves to hold a kimono or yukata together.

Honorific orders

Sashes are indicative of holding the class of Grand Cross or Grand Cordon in a chivalric order or an order of merit. The sash is usually worn from the right shoulder to the left hip. A few orders do the contrary, according to their traditional statute.

Prince William, Duke of Cambridge wearing Garter Riband and Star
Prince William, Duke of Cambridge wearing Garter Riband and Star
Knight of the Garter in the 1720s with Garter sash
Knight of the Garter in the 1720s with Garter sash

Orders with the sash worn on the left shoulder

Europe :

Asia :

Malaysia :

Malaysia Federation of Malaysia
Decorations Post-nominal Grade Ribbon Sources
The Most Exalted and Most Illustrious Royal Family Order of Malaysia
Darjah Kerabat Diraja Malaysia
DKM Recipient
MY Darjah Kerabat Diraja Malaysia - Royal Family Order of Malaysia - DKM.svg
The Most Exalted Order of the Crown of the Realm
Darjah Utama Seri Mahkota Negara
DMN Recipient
MY Darjah Utama Seri Mahkota Negara (Crown of the Realm) - DMN.svg
Kedah Sultanate of Kedah
The Most Illustrious Royal Family Order of Kedah
Darjah Kerabat Yang Amat Mulia Kedah
DK Member
MY-KED Royal Family Order of Kedah (DK).svg
[citation needed]
Kelantan Sultanate of Kelantan
The Most Esteemed Royal Family Order (Kelantan) (Al-Yunusi Star)
Darjah Kerabat Yang Amat di-Hormati (Bintang al-Yunusi)
DK Recipient
MY-KEL Royal Family Order - Star of Yunus - DK.svg
[citation needed]
Negeri Sembilan Sultanate of Negeri Sembilan
The Most Illustrious Royal Family Order of Negeri Sembilan
Darjah Kerabat Neegri Sembilan Yang Amat di-Mulia
DKNS Member
MY-NEG Royal Family Order of Negeri Sembilan - DKNS.svg
[citation needed]
The Order of Negeri Sembilan - Darjah Negeri Sembilan
Darjah Tertinggi Negeri Sembilan DTNS Paramount
MY-NEG Order of Negeri Sembilan - DTNS.svg
[citation needed]
Darjah Mulia Negeri Sembilan DMNS Illustrious
MY-NEG Order of Negeri Sembilan - DMNS.svg
Pahang Sultanate of Pahang
The Most Illustrious Royal Family Order of Pahang
Darjah Kerabat Yang Maha Mulia Utama Kerabat di-Raja Pahang
DKP Member (Ahli)
MY-PAH Royal Family Order of Pahang - DKP.svg
[citation needed]
The Most Esteemed Family Order of the Crown of Indra of Pahang
Darjah Kerabat Sri Indra Mahkota Pahang Yang Amat di-Hormati
DK I Member 1st class
MY-PAH Family Order of the Crown of Indra of Pahang - DK I.svg
Perak Sultanate of Perak
The Most Esteemed Royal Family Order of Perak
Darjah Kerabat di-Raja Yang Amat di-Hormati
DK Member (Ahli)
MY-PERA Royal Family Order of Perak - DK (before 2001).svg

(before 2001)
MY-PERA Royal Family Order of Perak - DK.svg

(after 2001)
[citation needed]
The Most Esteemed Perak Family Order of Sultan Azlan Shah
Darjah Kerabat Sultan Azlan Shah Perak Yang Amat di-Hormati
DKSA Superior class
MY-PERA Perak Family Order of Sultan Azlan Shah - DKSA.svg
[citation needed]
The Most Esteemed Azlanii Royal Family Order
Darjah Yang Teramat Mulia Darjah Kerabat Azlanii
DKA I Member First Class
MY-PERA Azlanii Royal Family Order - Member First Class - DKA I.svg
[citation needed]
Perlis Sultanate of Perlis
The Most Esteemed Royal Family Order of Perlis
Darjah Kerabat di-Raja Perlis Yang Amat Amat di-Hormati
DKP Recipient
MY-PERL Royal Family Order of Perlis - DKP.svg
[citation needed]
The M. Est. Perlis Family Order of the Gallant Prince Syed Putra Jamalullail
Darjah Kerabat Perlis Baginda Tuanku Syed Putra Jamalullail Yang Amat Amat di-Hormati
DK Recipient
MY-PERL Perlis Family Order of the Gallant Prince Syed Putra Jamalullail - DK.svg
[citation needed]
Selangor Sultanate of Selangor
The Most Esteemed Royal Family Order of Selangor - Darjah Kerabat Selangor Yang Amat di-Hormati
Darjah Kerabat Selangor Pertama DK I First Class
MY-SEL Royal Family Order of Selangor - DK I.svg
[citation needed]
Darjah Kerabat Selangor Kedua DK II Second Class
MY-SEL Royal Family Order of Selangor - DK II.svg
Terengganu Sultanate of Terengganu
The Most Exalted Supreme Royal Family Order of Terengganu (10/03/1981)
Darjah Utama Kerabat di-Raja Terengganu Yang Amat di-Hormati
DKT Member (Ahli)
MY-TER Supreme Royal Family Order of Terengganu - DKT.svg
[citation needed]
The Most Distinguished Family Order of Terengganu (19/06/1962)
Darjah Kebesaran Kerabat Terengganu Yang Amat Mulia
DK I Member 1st class
Ahli Yang Pertama
MY-TER Family Order of Terengganu 1st class - DK I.svg
[citation needed]

Classified examples of current orders' sashes

Colours classified in
the order of the rainbow :
White Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Indigo Violet Black
DNK Order of Danebrog Knight BAR.png
Order of the Dannebrog
MCO Order of Grimaldi - Knight BAR.png
Order of Grimaldi
LTU Order of Vytautas the Great - Knight's Cross BAR.png
Order of Vytautas the Great
Order of Isabella the Catholic - Sash of Collar.svg
ESP Isabella Catholic Order CROSS.svg
Order of Isabella the Catholic
PRT Order of Liberty - Knight BAR.svg
Order of Liberty
Order of the Golden Fleece Rib.gif
Order of the Golden Fleece
PRT Order of Christ - Knight BAR.svg
Order of Christ
Legion Honneur Chevalier ribbon.svg
Order of the Legion of Honour
FIN Order of the Lion of Finland 5Class BAR.png
Order of the Lion of Finland
LUX Order of Merit of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg - Knight BAR.png
Order of Merit of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
AUT Honour for Services to the Republic of Austria - Bronze Medal BAR.png
Decoration of Honour for Services to the Republic of Austria
MCO Order of Saint-Charles - Knight BAR.png
Order of Saint-Charles
ARG Order of May - Knight BAR.png
Order of May
Order of the White Lion.svg
(Czech Republic)
Order of the White Lion
Order of the Crown of Tonga - ribbon bar.gif
Order of the Crown of Tonga
Tonga - Order of Pouono - ribbon bar.svg
Royal Order of Pouono
Order Sint Olaf 5 kl.png
Order of St. Olav
The Royal Order of King Sobhuza II. Sash.gif
Royal Order of King Sobhuza II
Military Order of weSwatini.gif
Military Order of Swaziland
KHM Ordre Royal du Cambodge - Chevalier BAR.png
Royal Order of Cambodia
GER Bundesverdienstkreuz 2 BVK.svg
Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany
Order of Logohu - Grand Companion (Papua New Guinea) ribbon.png
Order of Logohu (Papua New Guinea) ribbon.png
(Papua New Guinea)
Order of Logohu
Order of the White Elephant - Medal (Thailand) ribbon.svg
Order of the White Elephant
PHL Order of the Golden Heart Member BAR.png
Order of the Golden Heart
Order of the Burning Spear.svg
Order of the Burning Spear
Order Chrysantemum Sash.svg
Order of the Chrysanthemum
Order of Merit of the Principality of Liechtenstein
Star of Romania Ribbon.PNG
Order of the Star of Romania
Order of St. Gregory the Great.png
(Holy See)
Order of Saint Gregory the Great
Ordo Militia Aurata or Ordine dello Speron d'Oro o Milizia Aurata.png
(Holy See)
Order of the Golden Spur
Order of the Bath UK ribbon.png
(United Kingdom)
Order of the Bath
BEL Kroonorde Ridder BAR.svg
Order of the Crown
EST Order of the White Star - 5th Class BAR.png
Order of the White Star
Order of the Most Holy Annunciation BAR.svg
(Kingdom of Italy)
Supreme Order of the Most Holy Annunciation
Order of Chula Chom Klao - Special Class (Thailand) ribbon.svg
Order of Chula Chom Klao
The Order of the Phoenix of Tonga.gif
Order of the Phoenix
Ribbon bar Order of the House of Orange.jpg
Order of the House of Orange
Ribbon bar Order of the House of Orange.jpg
Order for Loyalty and Merit
BHT Order of the Dragon King Ribbon.svg
Order of the Dragon King
BHT National Order of Merit of Bhutan Ribbon.svg
National Order of Merit
JPN Hokan-sho blank BAR.svg
Order of the Precious Crown
LTU Order of the Lithuanian Grand Duke Gediminas - Knight's Cross BAR.png
Order of the Lithuanian Grand Duke Gediminas
Neth odrorangenassau rib.png
Order of Orange-Nassau
Order of the Crown (Netherlands).svg
Order of the Crown
GRE Order of the Phoenix - Silver Cross BAR.png
Order of the Phoenix
MEX Order of the Aztec Eagle 5Class BAR.png
Order of the Aztec Eagle
Order of the Royal House of Chakri (Thailand) ribbon.svg
Order of the Royal House of Chakri
Royal Order of the Ndlovukazi.gif
Royal Order of the Great She-Elephant
BHT Druk Ugyel Ribbon.svg
Medal of Victory of the Thunder Dragon
KHM Royal Order of Monisaraphon - Knight.png
Order of Moniseraphon
The Royal Household Order of Tonga.gif
Royal Household Order of Tonga
Order of the Rajamitrabhorn (Thailand) ribbon.svg
Order of the Rajamitrabhorn
MLI National Order - Knight BAR.png
National Order of Mali
Order of Merit (Cameroon).svg
Order of Merit
Royal Family Order (Swaziland).gif
Royal Household Order of Swaziland
Order of the Gold Lion of the House of Nassau
GRE Order of Beneficence - Silver Cross BAR.png
Order of Beneficence
GBR Family Order Elizabeth II BAR.png
(United Kingdom)
Royal Family Order of Queen Elizabeth II
Order of the Golden Heart of Kenya.svg
Order of the Golden Heart
POR Ordem da Instrucao Publica Medalha BAR.svg
Order of Public Instruction
Order of the Thistle UK ribbon.png
(United Kingdom)
Order of the Thistle
PRT Military Order of Aviz - Knight BAR.svg
Order of Aviz
BOL Order of Condor of the Andes - Knight BAR.png
Order of the Condor of the Andes
Cavaliere SSML BAR.svg
Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus
SEN Order of the Lion - Knight BAR.png
Order of the Lion
MCO Order of the Crown (Monaco) - Knight BAR.png
Order of the Crown
ITA OMRI 2001 Cav BAR.svg
Order of Merit of the Italian Republic
HUN Order of Merit of the Hungarian Rep (civil) 5class BAR.svg
Order of Merit of the Republic of Hungary
Order of the Direkgunabhorn (Thailand) ribbon.svg
Order of the Direkgunabhorn
Order of the Star of Jordan ribbon bar.png
Order of the Star of Jordan
NOR Royal Norwegian Order of Merit - Knight 2nd Class BAR.png
Royal Norwegian Order of Merit
Order of the White Rose Ribbon.PNG
Order of the White Rose of Finland
EST Order of the Cross of Terra Mariana - 5th Class BAR.png
Order of the Cross of Terra Mariana
Ribbon bar Order of the Tower and Sword.jpg
Order of the Tower and Sword
POL Order Zaslugi RP kl5 BAR.svg
Order of Merit of the Republic of Poland
Fr Nat Order of Merit ribbon.jpg
Ordre national du Mérite
CHL Order of Merit of Chile - Knight BAR.png
Order of the Merit of Chile
Order of the Garter UK ribbon.png
(United Kingdom)
Order of the Garter
Ordre du Saint-Esprit Chevalier ribbon.svg
Order of the Holy Spirit
POL Order Orła Białego BAR.svg
Order of the White Eagle
Seraphimerorden ribbon.svg
Royal Order of the Seraphim
The Most Illustrious Order of Queen Salote Tupou III Member.gif
Order of Queen Salote Tupou III
Order of the Elephant Ribbon bar.svg
Order of the Elephant
Order of the Southern Cross Knight (Brazil) Ribbon.png
Order of the Southern Cross
Most Dignified Order of Moshoeshoe (1987).gif
Most Dignified Order of Moshoeshoe
BRA Medalha do Merito de Rio Branco BAR.svg
Order of Rio Branco
GRE Order Redeemer 5Class.png
Order of the Redeemer
ARG Order of the Liberator San Martin - Knight BAR.png
Order of the Liberator General San Martín
ESP Order of Civil Merit - Collar.svg
ESP Order of Civil Merit Minor Grades.svg
Order of Civil Merit
Order of Charles III - Sash of Collar.svg
ESP Charles III Order CROSS.svg
Order of Charles III
Order of Faithful Service (Romania) - ribbon bar.gif
Order of Faithful Service
BEL Order of the African Star - Knight BAR.png
(Belgium-Congo Free State)
Order of the African Star
ISL Icelandic Order of the Falcon - Knight BAR.png
Order of the Falcon
UK Royal Victorian Order ribbon.svg
(United Kingdom)
Royal Victorian Order
Order of the Crown of Thailand - Special Class (Thailand) ribbon.svg
Order of the Crown of Thailand - Medal (Thailand) ribbon.svg
Order of the Crown of Thailand
MY Darjah Yang Mulia Pangkuan Negara (Defender of the Realm) - SMN.svg
MY Darjah Yang Mulia Pangkuan Negara (Defender of the Realm)- PMN.svg
Order of the Defender of the Realm
Order of Loyalty to the Crown of Malaysia - SSM.svg
Order of Loyalty to the Crown of Malaysia - PSM.svg
Order of Loyalty to the Crown of Malaysia
UK Order St-Michael St-George ribbon.svg
(United Kingdom)
Order of St Michael and St George
UK Order St-Michael St-George ribbon.svg
Order of the White Double Cross
VA Ordine Piano BAR.svg
(Holy See)
Order of Pius IX
LUX Order of Adolphe of Nassau ribbon bar.svg
Order of Adolphe of Nassau
GRE Order of Honour Silver Cross BAR.png
Order of Honour
Order of the Netherlands Lion
LVA Order of the Three Stars - Commander BAR.png
Order of the Three Stars
Order of Prince Yaroslav the Wise 1st 2nd and 3rd Class of Ukraine.png
Order of Prince Yaroslav the Wise
SWE Order of the Polar Star (after 1975) - Knight 2nd Class BAR.png
Order of the Polar Star
BEL Order of Leopold II - Knight BAR.png
Order of Leopold II
MY Darjah Yang Mulia Pangkuan Negara (Defender of the Realm) - SMN.svg
Order of the Crown of the Realm
EGY Order of the Nile - Knight BAR.png
Order of the Nile
PRT Order of Saint James of the Sword - Knight BAR.png
Order of Saint James of the Sword
Chevalier Ordre de Leopold.png
Order of Leopold
PER Order of the Sun of Peru - Knight BAR.png
Order of the Sun
JOR Al-Hussein ibn Ali Order BAR.svg
Order of al-Hussein bin Ali
Order of Queen Maria Luisa (Spain) - ribbon bar.png
Order of Queen Maria Luisa
Order of Independence Jordan.svg
Order of Independence
PAN Order of Vasco Nunez de Balboa - Knight BAR.png
Order of Vasco Núñez de Balboa
BEL Royal Order of the Lion - Knight BAR.png
(Belgium-Congo Free State)
Royal Order of the Lion
JPN Bunka-kunsho BAR.svg
Order of Culture
Legion of Merit ribbon.svg
(United States)
Legion of Merit
OESSG Cavaliere BAR.jpg
(Holy See)
Order of the Holy Sepulchre
(Sovereign Military Order of Malta)
Sovereign Military Order of Malta
Order of Rama 6th Class ribbon.svg
Order of Rama
POR Ordem do Merito Medalha BAR.svg
Order of Merit
Order of Pope Sylvester BAR.svg
(Holy See)
Order of Saint Sylvester
Order of the Star of Melanesia.png
(Papua New Guinea)
Order of the Star of Melanesia
PRT Order of Prince Henry - Knight BAR.png
Order of Prince Henry
Star of the Solomon Islands.png
(Solomon Islands)
Star of the Solomon Islands
Royal Order of the Crown (Swaziland).gif
Order of the Crown
BHT Royal Order of Bhutan Ribbon.svg
Royal Order of Bhutan
Supreme Order of the Renaissance
Ribbon of an order of king Tomislav.png
Grand Order of King Tomislav
Ribbon of a Grand Order of Queen Jelena.png
Grand Order of Queen Jelena
Order of Freedom of Ukraine.png
Order of Liberty
Most Courteous Order of Lesotho (1987).gif
Most Courteous Order of Lesotho

See also


  1. ^ Rinaldo D'Ami, "World Uniforms in Colour - the European Nations", ISBN 0-85059-031-0
  2. ^ José Bueno, Ejército Español, Uniformes Contemporáneos",ISBN 84-7140-186-X
  3. ^ André Jouineau, "The French Army in 1914", pages 45-63, ISBN 978-2-352-50104-6
  4. ^ John Gaylor, "Sons of John Company - the Indian and Pakistan Armies", ISBN 0-946771-98-7
  5. ^ Fredrick Todd, "Cadet Gray: A pictorial history of life at West Point as seen through its uniforms", Sterling Publishing 1955, p. 40
  6. ^ West Point Band
  7. ^ Ritta Nakanishi, "Japanese Military Uniforms 1930-1945, 1991 Dai Nippon Kaiga
  8. ^ Royal Cabinet Website Archived 2008-04-24 at the Wayback Machine
  9. ^ Royal Cabinet Website
  10. ^ Royal Cabinet Website, Order of the White Elephant  Archived 2005-09-24 at the Wayback Machine
  11. ^ Royal Cabinet Website, Order of the Crown of Thailand Archived 2007-07-17 at the Wayback Machine
  12. ^ a b General visual table of decorations
  13. ^ Selangor Official Website, DK II


External links

  • Media related to Sashes at Wikimedia Commons
This page was last edited on 27 November 2020, at 01:47
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