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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Pakistani President Sardar Ayub Khan and First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy with the prized gelding "Sardar".[1]
Pakistani President Sardar Ayub Khan and First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy with the prized gelding "Sardar".[1]
Sardar-I-Azam, Prince Abdol Majid Mirza of Qajar Persia c. 1920s.
Sardar-I-Azam, Prince Abdol Majid Mirza of Qajar Persia c. 1920s.
Grand Vizier Ahmet Tevfik Pasha, the last Ottoman Serdar-ı Azam.
Grand Vizier Ahmet Tevfik Pasha, the last Ottoman Serdar-ı Azam.
Serdar Janko Vukotić of the Principality and Kingdom of Montenegro.
Serdar Janko Vukotić of the Principality and Kingdom of Montenegro.
A plaque commemorating Sardar Ranoji Shinde Bahadur, Prince of Gwalior. The title of Sardar is used by the Maratha nobility of Gwalior State[2] and as such is used by the most senior Mahratta nobles.[citation needed]
A plaque commemorating Sardar Ranoji Shinde Bahadur, Prince of Gwalior. The title of Sardar is used by the Maratha nobility of Gwalior State[2] and as such is used by the most senior Mahratta nobles.[citation needed]

Sardar (Persian: سردار‎, Persian pronunciation: [sær'dɑr]; "Commander" literally; "Headmaster"), also spelled as Sirdar, Sardaar, Shordar or Serdar, is a title of nobility that was originally used to denote princes, noblemen, and other aristocrats. It has also been used to denote a chief or leader of a tribe or group. It is used as a Persian synonym of the Arabic title Emir.

The term and its cognates originate from Persian sardār (سردار) and have been historically used across Persia (Iran), Ottoman Empire and Turkey (as "Serdar"), Mesopotamia (now Iraq), Syria, South Asia (Pakistan, India, Bangladesh and Nepal), the Caucasus, Central Asia, the Balkans and Egypt (as "Sirdar").[3]

The term was widely used by Maratha nobility, who held important positions in various Maratha States of the imperial Maratha Empire.

After the decline of feudalism, Sardar later indicated a Head of State, a Commander-in-chief, and an Army military rank. As a military rank, a Sardar typically marked the Commander-in-Chief or the highest-ranking military officer in an Army, akin to the modern Field Marshal, General of the Army or Chief of Army. The more administrative title Sirdar-Bahadur denoted a Governor-General or Chief Minister of a remote province, akin to a British Viceroy.

In Himalayan mountaineering, a Sirdar is a local leader of the Sherpas.[4] Among other duties, he records the heights reached by the individual Sherpas, which factors into their compensation. Sardar is also colloquially used to refer to adult male followers of Sikhism, as a disproportionate number of Sikhs have served in high-ranking positions within the Indian Army.[citation needed] Sometimes, it has also been used to describe Punjabi Muslims.[5]

Princes

Noblemen

Aristocrats

  • In the Hazara Division of Pakistan, the word Sardar is used by the Karlal tribe before their names, traditionally, to stress their upper-caste status, e.g., Sardar Muhammad Aslam, Sardar Haider Zaman etc.
  • In the small district of Sudhanoti, Kashmir, Sardar is used by the hybrid Sudhan tribe to refer to their putative part-descent from the Sadduzai clan of King Ahmad Shah Durrani. Also, Poonch families in this region use Sardar at the beginning of their names.
  • Similarly Sardar is used by Khattar tribe noble men, native to the districts of Attock and adjacent areas of Rawalpindi.
  • Sardar was used for important political, tribal, military and religious officers rankings by the Sikhs during the period of Maharaja Ranjit Singh and this title was borrowed from Muslims.

Head of state

  • In Persian, Sardar i-Azam was occasionally used as an alternative title for the Shahanshah's Head of government, normally styled Vazir i-Azam, notably in 1904-06 for a Qajar prince, Prince Major General Abdol Majid Mirza.
  • Vallabhbhai Patel, the first Deputy Prime Minister of India was referred to as Sardar Patel; he is also now known as the "Iron Man of India".
  • Sadr-e-Riyasat was the title of one Constitutional Head of State of the princely state of Kashmir, Yuvaraj Shri Karan Singhji Bahadur, who was appointed as Heir Apparent in 1931. After his father had acceded to India, ending the sovereign Monarchy, Regent in 1949 to 1956. Sardar-i-Riyasat 1956 to 1965 (succeeded on the death of his father as Maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir, 1961, no longer carrying any hereditary power), next Governor of the Indian constitutive State of Jammu and Kashmir 1965 to 1967.
  • Mohammed Daoud Khan of Afghanistan had the title of Sardar as President.
  • Saparmurat Niyazov, the authoritarian ruler of Turkmenistan in 1990—2006, carried a few glorifying titles, one of which was Serdar (“Leader”).[7]

Military title

A Sikh sardar
A Sikh sardar

Modern usage

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "Jackie Kennedy receives horse from governor of Pakistan - Mar 23, 1962 - HISTORY.com". history.com. Archived from the original on 2016-03-17.
  2. ^ https://books.google.com/books?id=r2O3W7mkAwAC&pg=PA252&dq=title+of+sardar+maratha&hl=en&sa=X&ei=T12gUf_RJ4P4rQew-IC4CQ&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=title%20of%20sardar%20maratha&f=false
  3. ^ a b Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Sirdar" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 25 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 154.
  4. ^ Sayre, Woodrow Wilson (1964). Four Against Everest. Englewood Cliffs, NJ, USA: Prentice-Hall. p. 223. Library of Congress Catalog Card No: 64-15208.
  5. ^ Piara Singh Gill (1992), Up Against Odds: Autobiography of an Indian Scientist, p. 79, ISBN 9788170233640
  6. ^ "Royal Kapurthala Dynasty History".
  7. ^ Cummings, Sally N. (2010). Symbolism and Power in Central Asia: Politics of the Spectacular. Milton, United Kingdom: Routledge. pp. 91–92. ISBN 978-0415575676.
  8. ^ www.thesardarco.com. "What is a Sardar?". The Sardar Co. Retrieved 2020-04-03.
  9. ^ Sayre, Woodrow Wilson (1964). Four Against Everest. Englewood Cliffs, NJ, USA: Prentice-Hall. p. 223. Library of Congress Catalog Card No: 64-15208.

External links

This page was last edited on 1 September 2020, at 08:47
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