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Santa Catarina (state)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

State of Santa Catarina
Flag of State of Santa Catarina
Flag
Coat of arms of State of Santa Catarina
Coat of arms
Anthem: Hino do Estado de Santa Catarina
Location of State of Santa Catarina in Brazil
Location of State of Santa Catarina in Brazil
Coordinates: 27°15′S 50°20′W / 27.250°S 50.333°W / -27.250; -50.333
Country Brazil
Largest cityJoinville
CapitalFlorianópolis
Government
 • GovernorComandante Moisés (PSL)
 • Vice GovernorDaniela Reiner (PSL)
 • SenatorsDário Berger (MDB)
Esperidião Amin (PP)
Jorginho Mello (PR)
Area
 • Total95,346.181 km2 (36,813.366 sq mi)
Area rank20th
Population
 (2014)[1]
 • Total6,727,000
 • Rank11th
 • Density71/km2 (180/sq mi)
 • Density rank9th
Demonym(s)Catarinense or Barriga-Verde (Green Belly)
GDP
 • Year2015 estimate
 • TotalUS$133 billion (PPP) US$75 billion (nominal) (6th)
 • Per capitaUS$19.084 (PPP) US$10.783 (nominal)(4th)
HDI
 • Year2017
 • Category0.808[2] - very high (3rd)
Time zoneUTC-3 (BRT)
Postal Code
87000-000 to 89990-000
ISO 3166 codeBR-SC
Websitesc.gov.br

Santa Catarina (Portuguese pronunciation: [ˈsɐ̃tɐ kataˈɾinɐ], "Saint Catherine") is a state in the South Region of Brazil. It is the 7th smallest state in total area and the 11th most populous.[3][4] Additionally, it is the 9th largest settlement, with 295 municipalities. The state, which has 3.4% of the Brazilian population, is responsible for 3.8% of the Brazilian GDP..[5]

Santa Catarina is bordered by Paraná to the north, Rio Grande do Sul to the south, the Atlantic Ocean to the east, and to the west by the Argentine province of Misiones. The coastal path is over 450 km, i.e., about half of Portugal's mainland coast. The host city of the state executive, legislative and judiciary powers is the capital Florianópolis. Joinville, however, is the most populous city in the state. Besides Espírito Santo, Santa Catarina is the only state whose capital is not the most populous city.[6] South of the Tropic of Capricorn, situated in the planet's southern temperate zone, the state has a humid subtropical climate (Cfa) in the east and west and an oceanic climate (Cfb) in the center.[7] Climatic conditions vary according to the relief of the region: in the west and mountainous plateau, it is relatively frequent that frosts and snow occur, while on the coast the climate is warmer, being possible to reach high temperatures in summer.[7]

The territory of Santa Catarina was one of the oldest states in Brazil, separated from São Paulo in 1738, its first governor being José da Silva Pais. The state was created for one reason only: to extend the Portuguese domains to southern Brazil until reaching the Rio de la Plata region. It is also the oldest state of the South Region of Brazil, older than Rio Grande do Sul (1807) and Paraná (1853). The state of Santa Catarina was very settled by European immigrants: the coast was colonized by the Azorean Portuguese in the 18th century; the Itajaí Valley a portion of the southern region and northern Santa Catarina was settled by the Germans in the mid 19th century.[8][9] The south of the state was populated by the Italians in the last years of the 19th century. Children and grandchildren of Italian and German immigrants who moved from Rio Grande do Sul settled the west of Santa Catarina in the mid 20th century. Descendants of Africans and Indigenous also populated the state.[10]

The state's social indexes are among the best in Brazil. It has the highest rate of life expectancy in the country (just like the Federal District),[11] the lowest infant mortality rate and is also the state with the lowest economic inequality and illiteracy in Brazil.[12][13] Santa Catarina has the 6th highest GDP in the country,[14] with a diverse economy and strong affinities to industrialization.

Geography

Aerial view of Florianópolis
Aerial view of Florianópolis

Santa Catarina is in a very strategic position in Mercosul, the South American Common Market. Its position in the map is situated between the parallel 25º57'41" and 29º23'55" of the Southern latitude and between the meridians 48º19'37" and 53º50'00" of Western longitude. Florianópolis, its capital, is 1,673 km (1,040 mi) from Brasilia, 705 km (438 mi) from São Paulo, 1,144 km (711 mi) from Rio de Janeiro and 1,850 km (1,150 mi) from Buenos Aires.

The Serra Geral, a southern extension of the Serra do Mar, runs north and south through the state parallel to the Atlantic coast, dividing the state between a narrow coastal plain and a larger plateau region to the west.

The Atlantic coast of Santa Catarina has many beaches, islands, bays, inlets, and lagoons. The humid tropical Serra do Mar coastal forests cover the narrow coastal zone, which is crossed by numerous short streams from the wooded slopes of the serras.[15]

The central part of the state is home to the Araucaria moist forests, dominated by emergent Brazilian pines (Araucaria angustifolia). The drainage of the plateau is westward to the Paraná River, the rivers being tributaries of the Iguaçu, which forms its northern boundary, and of the Uruguay River, which forms its southern boundary.[15] The semi-deciduous Paraná-Paraíba interior forests occupy the westernmost valleys of the Iguaçu and Uruguay rivers.

The highest point of the state is the Morro da Boa Vista, with an altitude of 1,827 m, and the second highest point is the Morro da Igreja, in the town of Urubici, with an altitude of 1,822 m.

History

See also: History of Santa Catarina (state) [pt]
Pomerode, A Pomeranian-German colony in Santa Catarina
Pomerode, A Pomeranian-German colony in Santa Catarina

European settlement began with the Spanish settlement of Santa Catarina island in 1542. The Portuguese took control in 1675 and established the captaincy of Santa Catarina in 1738, bringing families from the Azores to populate the shore.

In 1839, during the Ragamuffin War, there was an unsuccessful attempt for Santa Catarina to secede from the Empire of Brazil to form the independent Juliana Republic (allied with the Riograndense Republic to the south) which was defeated after four months.

Map of the State of Santa Catarina, 1907. National Archives of Brazil.

Between early 19th century and mid 20th century, a great number of European immigrants arrived to Santa Catarina; these immigrants were taken in order to populate the south of the Nation by Imperial initiative. About 50% of these immigrants were from Germany and Austria.[16] The rest came mainly from Italy, Poland, Russia, Ukraine, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Luxembourg, Switzerland, Lithuania, France, Finland, Croatia, Serbia, Estonia, Slovenia and Latvia;[16] these immigrants created an abundance of small, family-held farms, many of which continue to exist in the interior of the state.[citation needed]

Late in March 2004, the state was hit by the first hurricane ever recorded in the South Atlantic. Because there is no naming system for such an event in Brazil, Brazilian meteorologists called it Hurricane Catarina, after the state.

Demographics

According to the IBGE of 2008, there were 6,091,000 people residing in the state. The population density was 61.53 inhabitants per square kilometre (159.4/sq mi).

Urbanization: 83% (2006); Population growth: 2% (1991–2000); Houses: 1,836,000 (2006).[17]

The last PNAD (National Research for Sample of Domiciles) census revealed the following numbers: 5,297,000 White people (86.96%), 608,000 Brown (Multiracial) people (9.98%), 160,000 Black people (2.63%), 15,000 Asian people (0.25%), 5,000 Amerindian people (0.09%).[18]

People of Portuguese ancestry, mostly Azoreans, predominate on the coast. People of German descent predominate in the northeast region (Itajaí Valley) and in the north (Joinville region). There are many German communities in the west. People of Italian descent predominate in the south, as well in many areas in the west. People of African, Amerindian or Japanese origin are present in small communities in a few towns.[19]

According to a genetic study with 20 samples (for 6.7 million people) from 2013, the population of Santa Catarina is made up by 79.7% European, 11.4% African and 8.9% Amerindian ancestry groups.[20] A genetic study found out an isolated Azorean-Brazilian community from Santa Catarina to have between 80.6% to 93.5% European input, along with 12.6% to 6.8% African and 4.1% to 2.4% Native American ancestries.[21][22]


European settlement

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
1872159,802—    
1890283,769+3.24%
1900320,289+1.22%
1920668,743+3.75%
19401,178,340+2.87%
19501,560,502+2.85%
19602,146,909+3.24%
19702,930,411+3.16%
19803,687,652+2.33%
19914,538,248+1.90%
20005,349,580+1.84%
20106,248,436+1.57%
20177,001,161+1.64%
source:[24]

One of the Brazilian states that exhibits the most evident signs of 19th-century European immigration, Santa Catarina, where the vast majority of the population descends from European settlers, is also the state with the highest percentage of European phenotype citizens.

The state is also famous for having towns where most of the population belongs to a single main ancestry thanks to the settlement program with European colonists. Here are a few examples of such towns in the Southern region:

Some southern Brazilian towns with a notable main ancestry
Town name State Main ancestry Percentage
Nova Veneza Santa Catarina Italian 95%[25]
Pomerode Santa Catarina German 90%[26]
Treze Tílias Santa Catarina Austrian 60%[27]

Santa Catarina where over 50% of the population has German, Austrian and Luxembourgish ancestry[28][29][30] (the local Hunsrückisch is known as Katharinensisch,[31] East Pomeranian is still spoken in the town of Pomerode and Southern Austro-Bavarian by the Tyrolean population in Treze Tílias) was also the main destination for Danes in Brazil and the state that was sparsely populated and had its shore mainly inhabited by Azoreans in the 18th century (e.g. Laguna born Anita Garibaldi, wife and comrade-in-arms of Italian Unification revolutionary Giuseppe Garibaldi), also received Italians, French, Swedes, Norwegians, Swiss, Lithuanians and Latvians, Estonians, Finns, Poles, Slovenians, Croatians, Belgians, American Confederates and Spaniards to populate its interior during the 19th century. The town of Brusque founded by Austrian Baron von Schneeburg bringing German families from the Grand Duchy of Baden to settle in the northeast of Santa Catarina, besides receiving additional waves of Italians from the Tyrol–South Tyrol–Trentino Euroregion, Poles and Swedes, was also one of the destinations in the South and Southeast for American Confederate settlers in 1867, differing from São Paulo and Paraná colonies, where the American Confederate presence gave birth to new towns such as Americana in São Paulo. Neighboring towns such as Nova Trento founded in 1875, similarly received subjects from the Austro-Hungarian Empire because Italian-speaking Tyroleans known as trentinos and Germans from the Kingdom of Prussia, historic Swabia and Baden faced an immense crisis in the agricultural sector caused by the conflicts of the unification of Italy and Germany respectively, that weakened local trade. Istrian Italians under the Austrian Empire rule also fled Istria to settle in Brazil, and a few towns like Nova Veneza, founded in 1891 still have an over 90% Venetian population of which many still speak the Talian dialect. Most Venetians settled after the Third Italian War of Independence in 1866, when Venice, along with the rest of the Veneto, became part of the newly created Kingdom of Italy.[32][33][34][35][36][37][29][30][38][39]

Portuguese

The Portuguese started arriving in the 1750s, mainly from the Azores islands, and colonized the coast. In the late 18th century, half of Santa Catarina's population was Portuguese-born. These Portuguese established many important towns in the state, such as Florianópolis, the capital.

Germans and Austrians

German people started arriving in 1828, after Brazilian independence. These were peasants attracted by the opportunity to have their own land, as Germanic countries were overpopulated and many people had no land to work. German immigration was very low until the 1850s, when waves started arriving in southern Brazil. To stimulate the German colonization of southern Brazil, the Brazilian government created many German colonies: these were ethnically Germanic areas where people from many parts of what is now Germany, Austria, Czech Republic and Poland settled. Initially, these colonies were in rural areas, where immigrants were able to cultivate their own farms. Many of these German colonies developed greatly and became large cities, Joinville and Blumenau a, among them.

Joinville, the largest city of Santa Catarina, settled by Germans in 1851.
Joinville, the largest city of Santa Catarina, settled by Germans in 1851.

Germans were isolated in rural communities for decades. They did not have much contact with the other peoples of Brazil, and for generations they were able to speak the German language and maintain German traditions in Brazil. This situation changed in 1942, during World War II, when Brazil declared war on Germany, and German immigrants and their descendants were required to learn Portuguese and to culturally integrate their respective states.

Still, German influence in the state remains very strong and visible. Many towns and cities retain notable aspects of German culture: in Pomerode, for example, a small town in which nine-tenths of the population is of German-Brazilian descent, most inhabitants still speak German fluently; and Oktoberfest continues to be celebrated in Blumenau and in many other towns in the region. Architecture, too, shows German influence, as do popular customs and local cuisine.

Italians

Stone house in Nova Veneza, southern Santa Catarina, landmark of Italian immigration.
Stone house in Nova Veneza, southern Santa Catarina, landmark of Italian immigration.

Italian settlers started arriving in Santa Catarina in 1875 and immigrated in large numbers until the 1910s. They were peasants from Northern Italy and established themselves in ethnically Italian colonies close to the coast. In the beginning, Italian settlements failed, because many Italians died of tropical diseases or left the colonies to find better conditions. However, in the Vale do Tubarão region (southern Santa Catarina), Italian immigrants found cooler weather and better lands, and the settlements prospered. Many Italians worked in the coal industry and, unlike the German immigrants, they did not dedicate themselves very much to agriculture. As they were not isolated in rural colonies, Italian immigrants were quickly integrated into the Brazilian population of Portuguese descent that had been living in Brazil since the 18th century.[citation needed]

Religion

Religion in Santa Catarina (2010)

  Catholic Church (73.1%)
  Protestantism (20.4%)
  Spiritism (1.5%)
  Other religions (1.8%)
  Irreligious (3.2%)

According to the 2010 population census, the population of Santa Catarina is made up of Roman Catholics (73.07%); Protestants or evangelicals (20.4%); spiritists (1.58%); Jehovah's Witnesses (0.74%); Mormons (0.11%) Brazilian Catholic Apostolic Church (0.17%); Buddhists (0.05%); new Eastern religious (0.04%), among which the Messianic (0.03%); Islamic (0.01%); Orthodox Christians (0.07%); umbandistas (0.14%); Jewish (0.02%); spiritualists (0.03%); esoteric traditions (0.17%); indigenous (0.03%); candomblezeiros (0.09%) and Hindus (0.01%). Another 3.27% had no religion, including atheists (0.29%) and agnostics (0.6%); 0.29% followed other Christian religions; 0.21% had no determined faith; 0.04% did not know, 0.04% other Eastern religions and 0.03% did not declare.[40][41]

Economy

The industrial sector is the largest component of GDP at 52.5%, followed by the service sector at 33.9%. Agriculture represents 13.6% of GDP (2004). Santa Catarina exports: aviculture 26.1%, wood products 15.4%, compressors 8.5%, cotton 6.8%, and vehicles 5.8% (2002).

Share of the Brazilian economy: 4% (2005).

Santa Catarina has one of the highest standards of living in Brazil, and is a major industrial and agricultural center. The capital city, Florianópolis, has a diversified economy, being an important pole for the technology industry and a major touristic destination. Commerce and services are also very strong in the capital. Cities from Florianópolis metro area, like São José, Palhoça and Biguaçu are important and diverse industrial poles, as well as strong commerce areas. In the northeast of the state, electric-mechanical, textile and furniture industries are strong; in the west, cattle and poultry breeding predominate, while in the south it is ceramics and shellfish.The corridor between Joinville, Jaraguá do Sul and Blumenau is heavily industrialized - more than 50% of the state's industrial output is concentrated in this small, but highly developed area.

Rice plantation near Rio do Sul.
Rice plantation near Rio do Sul.

In agriculture, the state stands out in the production of rice, apple and onion, in addition to having an important production of soy, maize, banana, grape, garlic, barley, wheat and yerba mate.

With only 1.12% of the national territory, Santa Catarina was the 8th largest producer of maize and the 11th largest producer of soybeans in Brazil, in the year 2017. But when taken into account the volume produced by area size, the State becomes national leader in corn, with an average of 8.1 thousand kilos per hectare, and the second placed in productivity in soybeans, with 3.580 kilos per hectare. In 15 years, there has been a 118% growth in corn productivity and 58% in soybean.[42] In 2019, corn production in the state reached 2.8 million tons (in 2018 Brazil was the 3rd largest producer in the world, with 82 million tons.[43][44] However, the annual demand for corn in the state is 7 million tons - 97% is for animal consumption, especially for the production of pigs and broilers (83.8%), as Santa Catarina is the largest pig producer state in Brazil and the second largest poultry . The deficit is covered by interstate imports, mainly from Mato Grosso do Sul, Mato Grosso, Paraná and Goiás, and from countries like Argentina and Paraguay.[45] In soy production, in 2019 the state harvested 2.3 million tons (Brazil produced 116 million tons this year, being the largest producer in the world).[46]

The state was the 2nd largest rice producer in the country in 2020, second only to Rio Grande do Sul.[47] This year, the state harvested around 1.1 million tons of the product. Total national production was 10.5 million tonnes this year.[48]

The three Southern States of the country are responsible for 95% of the national apple production, and Santa Catarina appears at the top of the production list, competing with Rio Grande do Sul. The São Joaquim region is responsible for 35% of the national planting apple.[49]

Santa Catarina is also a national leader in the production of onions. In 2017, it produced 630 thousand tons, especially in the municipalities of Alfredo Wagner, Angelina and Rancho Queimado.[50][51]

In banana production, in 2018 Santa Catarina was the 4th largest national producer.[52]

Santa Catarina was the third largest producer of garlic in Brazil in 2018, with a planted area of approximately two thousand hectares. The Curitibanos region is the largest producer in the state.[53][54]

Santa Catarina is one of the few states in the country that cultivates barley. In the 2007-2011 period, the state had 2.5% of national production. The cultivation was concentrated in the microregions of Canoinhas (57.6%), Curitibanos (26.5%) and Xanxerê (11.5%). It's also one of the few states that cultivates wheat, also due to the climatic factor. In 2019 the estimated production of the state was 150 thousand tons, still small compared to the 2.3 million tons produced by both Rio Grande do Sul and Paraná. Because the country has to import these 2 cereals in high volume every year, the State has been trying to stimulate the production of winter grain crops with incentive programs.[55][56][57]

Regarding yerba mate, Santa Catarina produced close to 100 thousand tons in 2018, mainly in the cities of Chapecó and Canoinhas.[58]

Swine rearing in Jaborá
Swine rearing in Jaborá
Poultry in Campos Novos
Poultry in Campos Novos

The state had an annual production of about 23 thousand tons of grape in 2019, with 86% of the state production located in the municipalities of Caçador, Pinheiro Preto, Tangará and Videira. Most of the national production, however, is located in Rio Grande do Sul (664.2 thousand tons in 2018).[59][60]

In pork, Santa Catarina is the largest producer in Brazil. The State is responsible for 28.38% of the country's slaughter and for 40.28% of Brazilian pork exports. The number of pigs in Brazil was 41.1 million head in 2017. Santa Catarina had 19.7% of the total.[61][62][63]

The number of chickens in Brazil was 1.4 billion head in 2017. Santa Catarina had 10.8% of the national total, being the 4th largest state in the country.[64]

In milk production, Brazil is the fifth largest milk producer in the world, having obtained, in 2018, almost 34 billion liters, 4% of world production. The State of Santa Catarina was responsible for 8.78% of the national production, almost 3 billion liters of milk. In the production of chicken eggs, Santa Catarina represented 4.58% of the national total, which was 3.6 billion dozens in 2018. The State alone was responsible for 165 million dozens.[65]

In cattle raising, Brazil had almost 215 million head in 2017. Santa Catarina had about 5 million head of cattle in 2018.[66][67]

Santa Catarina was the 5th largest honey producer in the country in 2017, with 10.2% of the national total.[68]

Fishing plays an important role in the state's economy. The production of oysters, scallops and mussels in Brazil was 20.9 thousand tons in 2017. Santa Catarina was the main producing state, responsible for 98.1% of the national production. Palhoça, Florianópolis and Bombinhas led the ranking of municipalities.[69]

Sunset in Criciúma.
Sunset in Criciúma.

Santa Catarina is the largest coal producer in Brazil, mainly in the city of Criciúma and surroundings. The production of crude mineral coal in Brazil was 13.6 million tons in 2007. Santa Catarina produced 8.7 Mt (million tons); Rio Grande do Sul, 4.5 Mt; and Paraná, 0.4 Mt. Despite the extraction of mineral coal in Brazil, the country still needs to import about 50% of the coal consumed, as the coal produced in the country is of low quality, as it has a lower concentration of carbon. Among the countries that supply Brazil with mineral coal is South Africa, USA and Australia. Mineral coal in Brazil supplies, in particular, thermoelectric plants that consume about 85% of production. The cement industry in the country, on the other hand, is supplied with approximately 6% of this coal, leaving 4% for the production of cellulose paper and only 5% in the food, ceramics and grains industries. Brazil has reserves of peat, lignite and hard coal. Coal totals 32 billion tons of reserves and is mainly in Rio Grande do Sul (89.25% of the total), followed by Santa Catarina (10.41%). The Candiota Deposit (RS) alone has 38% of all national coal. As it is a coal of inferior quality, it is used only in the generation of thermoelectric energy and at the site of the deposit. The oil crisis in the 1970s led the Brazilian government to create the Energy Mobilization Plan, with intense research to discover new coal reserves. The Geological Survey of Brazil, through works carried out in Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina, greatly increased the reserves of coal previously known, between 1970 and 1986 (mainly between 1978 and 1983). Good quality coal, suitable for use in metallurgy and in large volume (seven billion tons), was then discovered in several deposits in Rio Grande do Sul (Morungava, Chico Lomã, Santa Teresinha), but at relatively great depths (up to 1,200 m), which has hindered its use until now. In 2011, coal accounted for only 5.6% of the energy consumed in Brazil, but it is an important strategic source, which can be activated when, for example, the water levels in the dams are very low, reducing excessively the supply of water. hydroelectric power. This happened in 2013, when several thermoelectric plants were then shut down, thus maintaining the necessary supply, albeit at a higher cost.[70][71]

About industry, Santa Catarina had an industrial GDP of R $ 63.2 billion in 2017, equivalent to 5.3% of the national industry. It employs 761,072 workers in the industry. The main industrial sectors are: Construction (17.9%), Food (15.9%), Clothing (7.4%), Industrial Public Utility Services, such as Electricity and Water (6.9%), and Textiles (6.0%). These 5 sectors concentrate 54.1% of the state's industry.[72]

The main industrial centers in Santa Catarina are Jaraguá do Sul, Joinville, Chapecó and Blumenau. The first has a diversified character, with factories of fabrics, food products, foundries and the mechanical industry. Chapecó's economy is based on agribusiness. Blumenau concentrates its activity in the textile industry (together with Gaspar and Brusque) and recently also in the software industry. In the interior of the state, there are numerous small manufacturing centers, linked both to the industrialization of wood and to the processing of agricultural and pastoral products.

Hering headquarters, in Blumenau
Hering headquarters, in Blumenau
Perdigão Headquarters, in Videira
Perdigão Headquarters, in Videira

In Textile industry, Santa Catarina stands out. Brazil, despite being among the 5 largest producers in the world in 2013, and being representative in the consumption of textiles and clothing, has very little insertion in global trade. In 2015, Brazilian imports ranked 25th in the ranking (US$5.5 billion). And in exports, it was only 40th in the world ranking. Brazil's participation in the world trade in textiles and clothing is only 0.3%, due to the difficulty of competing in price with producers in India and mainly in China. The gross value of production, which includes consumption of intermediate goods and services, by the Brazilian textile industry corresponded to almost R $ 40 billion in 2015, 1.6% of the gross value of Industrial Production in Brazil. The South has 32.65% of production, Among the main textile clusters in Brazil, the Vale do Itajaí (SC) stand out. In 2015, Santa Catarina was the 2nd largest textile and clothing employer in Brazil. It occupied the national leadership in the manufacture of pillows and is the largest producer in Latin America and the second in the world in woven labels. It is the largest exporter in the country of toilet / kitchen clothes, cotton terry cloth fabrics and cotton knit shirts. Some of the most famous companies in the region are Hering, Malwee, Karsten and Haco.[73]

In Food industry, In 2019, Brazil was the 2nd largest exporter of processed foods in the world, with a value of U $ 34.1 billion in exports. The Brazilian food and beverage industry's revenue in 2019 was R $ 699.9 billion, 9.7% of the country's Gross Domestic Product. In 2015, the industrial food and beverage sector in Brazil comprised 34,800 companies (not counting bakeries), the vast majority of which were small. These companies employed more than 1,600,000 workers, making the food and beverage industry the largest employer in the manufacturing industry. There are around 570 large companies in Brazil, which concentrate a good part of the total industry revenue. The top 50 were: JBS, Ambev, Bunge, BRF, Cargill, Marfrig, LDC do Brasil, Amaggi, Minerva Foods, Coca Cola Femsa, Aurora, Vigor, M.Dias Branco, Camil Alimentos, Solar.Br, Granol, Caramuru Alimentos, Bianchini, Copacol, Citrosuco, Três Corações Alimentos S.A., Itambé, Ajinomoto, Algar Agro, Piracanjuba, Vonpar, Agrex, Frimesa, GTFoods Group, Grupo Simões, Elebat Alimentos, Garoto, Pif Paf Alimentos, J. Macêdo, Frigol, Josapar, Olfar Alimento e Energia, Embaré, Alibem, Dalia Alimentos, Asa Participações, Cacique, Frisa, Arroz Brejeiro, Gomes da Costa, Pamplona, Moinhos Cruzeiro do Sul, Better Beef, SSA Alimentos and Correcta.[74][75][76] Santa Catarina created companies such as Sadia and Perdigão (which later merged into BRF), Seara Alimentos (which today belongs to JBS), Aurora (all meat specialists), Gomes da Costa (fish and canned), Eisenbahn Brewery and Hemmer Alimentos (specialist in preserves such as cucumber, beet, heart of palm, among others).

In the automotive sector, the state has GM and BMW plants.[77]

In the North Region of the state (Canoinhas, Três Barras, Mafra), the wood and paper industry stands out, where large industries are concentrated due to the potential and existence of raw materials in the region. In the Serra industries (Rio Negrinho and São Bento do Sul), wood processing works are carried out, creating various derivatives and the final product. The state stands out nationally in the production of wooden furniture. In these cities, together with the city of Palhoça, the largest volume of companies is concentrated. The industry has a 7.5% share in the national sector. The state is the second largest furniture exporter in the country (2014). The Santa Catarina timber industry stands out with a 17.1% share in Brazil. It is among the largest in the country in the production of wooden doors and is a national leader in frames.[78]

Responsible for handling R$ 6.5 billion in gross value of the Industrial Production of Santa Catarina, the paper and cellulose sector is one of the most important economic vocations of the mountainous part of the state. In Santa Catarina it is the 8th in exports and the 10th in job creation, with more than 20.2 thousand vacancies, according to data from 2015. The municipalities of Lages and Otacílio Costa together represent about 47% of the exports of the Pulp and Paper sector State role.[79]

In the south of the state (including the cities of Imbituba, Tubarão, Criciúma, Forquilhinha, Içara and Urussanga) are concentrated the main ceramic tile factories in Brazil. The state of Santa Catarina also leads, in the country, the production of crockery and crystals.

The northeast of the state stands out in the production of motocompressors, auto parts, refrigerators, engine es and electrical components, industrial machines, tubes and connections. In Santa Catarina, the machinery and equipment industry stands out in the manufacture of compressors, being a leader in exports of this product among the states of the country. It is also an important producer of forestry equipment. In metallurgy, the state has the largest national manufacturer of stainless steel sinks, vats and tanks, trophies and medals, fixing elements (screws, nuts, etc.), jacketed tanks for fuels, industrial pressure vessels and of malleable iron connections. It is a world leader in engine blocks and iron heads, being Brazil's largest exporter of this product.[80]

In the leather-footwear sector (Footwear industry),the state has a producing pole in São João Batista.[81]

In the household appliances industry, sales of so-called "white line" equipment (refrigerator, air conditioning and others) were 12.9 million units in 2017. The sector had its peak sales in 2012, with 18.9 million units. The brands that sold the most were Brastemp, Electrolux, Consul and Philips.Consul is originally from Santa Catarina, having merged with Brastemp and today being part of the multinational Whirlpool Corporation.[82]

The major cities and their respective fields are:

Statistics

Vehicles: 2,489,343 (March/2007); Mobile phones: 3.7 million (April/2007); Telephones: 1.6 million (April/2007). Cities: 293 (2007).[83]

Education

Portuguese is the official national language, and thus the primary language taught in schools. English, Spanish and sometimes German are part of the official high school curriculum.

There are more than 105 universities within the state of Santa Catarina.[84]

Colleges and Universities

Contestado Museum
Contestado Museum
  • Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC) (Federal University of Santa Catarina) (Public);
  • Universidade Federal da Fronteira Sul (UFFS) (Federal University of the Southern Border)(Public);
  • Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina (UDESC) (University of the State of Santa Catarina) (Public);
  • Instituto Federal de Santa Catarina (IFSC) (Federal Institute of Santa Catarina) (Public);
  • Instituto Federal Catarinense (IFC) (Santa Catarina's Federal Institute) (Public);
  • Fundação Universidade Regional de Blumenau (FURB) (Regional University Foundation of Blumenau) (Public, but paid);
  • Universidade do Sul de Santa Catarina (UNISUL) (University of Southern Santa Catarina) (Private);
  • Universidade do Vale do Itajaí (UNIVALI) (University of the Itajaí Valley) (Private);
  • Universidade da Região de Joinville (UNIVILLE) (University of the Region of Joinville) (Private);
  • Universidade para o Desenvolvimento do Alto Vale do Itajaí (UNIDAVI) (University for the development of the upper valley of the Itajaí) (Private);
  • Centro Universitário Leonardo da Vinci (UNIASSELVI) (University Center Leonardo da Vinci) (Private);
  • Universidade Católica de Santa Catarina (Catholic University of Santa Catarina) (Private);
  • Universidade do Contestado (UnC) (University of Contestado) (Private);
  • Universidade do Oeste de Santa Catarina (Unoesc) (University of Western Santa Catarina) (Private);
  • Universidade do Planalto de Santa Catarina (Uniplac) (University of the Plateau of Santa Catarina) (Private);
  • Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense (Unesc) (University of Southernmost Santa Catarina) (Private);
  • Sociedade Educacional de Santa Catarina (SOCIESC) (Educational Society for Santa Catarina)(Private);

Infrastructure

International Airport

Florianópolis is served by Hercílio Luz International Airport for both domestic and international flights. The traffic has grown significantly and in October 2019, has opened a new airport able to serve 2.7 million passengers a year. The architectural design of the new airport was chosen by a public competition held by Infraero in partnership with the Brazilian Architects Institute (IAB). Among the over 150 original entries, the proposal of São Paulo architect Mário Bizelli was chosen. The construction work will be tendered in 2005 and should be finished in two years.

Tourism

Snow in the Alps of Santa Catarina.
Snow in the Alps of Santa Catarina.
Southern right whale at Morro das Pedras
Southern right whale at Morro das Pedras

Santa Catarina offers a number of sights and events throughout the year: rural tourism, thermal mineral resorts, ecological tourism and adventure sports, historic monuments and sights, religious tourism, Beto Carrero World and Unipraias parks in Balneário Camboriú, and beach resorts of Florianópolis, Laguna, Porto Belo and Itajaí.

Some of these sights can only be seen in the off-season, like the snow on the Catarinense Mountain Range - one of the places in Brazil where it snows every year.

Between July and November, southern right whales visit the state's coast. And during the winter, flocks of penguins migrate from Antarctica.

The municipality of Timbó is a center for adventure sports like rafting and canyoning.

The great festivities take place in October. The main Oktoberfest of Blumenau is Brazil's largest and the world's second largest (after Germany's Munich).[85]

Joinville is the host city in July to the widely acclaimed "Joinville Dance Festival", the annual "Festival of Flowers" in November which showcases orchids produced in the region, and several business events in its Convention Center.

Florianópolis, the city/island State Capital attracts a large numbers of tourists during the summer months who visit its 42 beaches.

There are also many smaller resort towns, including the capital of the microlight aircraft tour flights Itapema, Piçarras, Barra Velha and Penha, home to the famous amusement park "Beto Carrero World".

An interesting collaboration between men and Nature that can be watched has been developed in Laguna (birthplace of Anita Garibaldi, the wife and comrade-in-arms of Italian Unification revolutionary Giuseppe Garibaldi): a pod of bottlenose dolphins drive fish towards fishermen who stand at the beach in shallow waters. Then one dolphin rolls over, which the fishermen take as sign to throw out their nets. The dolphins feed on the escaping fish. The dolphins were not trained for this behavior; the collaboration has been going on at least since 1847.[86][87] Southern right whales also can be seen in Laguna from shores during winter to spring seasons.[88]

The 17,491 hectares (43,220 acres) Turvo State Park, created in 1947, is in the northwest of the state.[89] It contains the Yucumã Falls (Portuguese: Salto do Yucumã, Spanish: Saltos del Moconá), a dramatic waterfall on the Uruguay River on the border with Argentina. Many tourists come to the park to see the falls, which are 1,800 metres (5,900 ft) long and up to 20 metres (66 ft) high.[90]

Sports

Football

The major football clubs of Santa Catarina are:

Criciuma EC from Criciúma. Criciúma EC, also known as "Tigre" (Tiger) has the most important championship won by a Santa Catarina Team in a very long time, being champion from the Copa do Brasil (Brazilian Cup) in 1991. Criciúma is the only team from Santa Catarina that played Libertadores of America Cup, in 1992, when it was 5th. Criciúma also won the Brazilian 2002 second series, and 2006 C series. Criciuma is currently playing Campeonato Brasileiro Série B, the Brazilian national second division.

Figueirense FC black and white from Florianópolis. Its nickname is Figueira (Fig tree) and it is also known as O Furacão do Estreito (The Hurricane of Estreito). Its stadium is the Orlando Scarpelli, located in the Estreito neighborhood, in the continental part of the city. Figueirense is currently playing in the Campeonato Brasileiro Série B, the second division of Brazilian football.

Avaí FC, blue and white from Florianópolis. It is also known as O Leão da Ilha (The Lion of the Island). Its stadium is the Aderbal Ramos da Silva, popularly known as Ressacada, located in the Carianos neighborhood, in the south part of the island. Avaí is currently playing in Campeonato Brasileiro Série B, the second division of Brazilian football.

Joinville Esporte Clube from Joinville. It is also known as "Tricolor" or "JEC". Joinville is currently playing in the Campeonato Brasileiro Série A, the first division of Brazilian football. JEC won the Campeonato Brasileiro Série B, the second division of Brazilian football, in 2014, but currently plays in Campeonato Brasileiro Série C, the third division of Brazilian football, after two consecutive relegations.

Associação Chapecoense de Futebol from Chapecó. Chapecoense is playing in the Campeonato Brasileiro Série A, the first and major division of Brazilian football. The club is currently recovering from the loss of virtually all of its first team in a 2016 plane crash.

Surfing

Campeche Island in Florianópolis.
Campeche Island in Florianópolis.

The Island, Island of Santa Catarina, is generally considered to have the best and most consistent waves in Brazil, and in April of each year hosts what is currently South America's only ASP (Association of Surfing Professionals) World Championship Tour professional surfing competition. Brazil has played host to many an ASP tour event over the past 30 years. Former contest sites include Rio de Janeiro, Barra de Tijuca and Saquarema, but the past four years have seen the tour set up shop in Florianópolis. Previously held towards the end of the tour, the past few years have seen several ASP world champions crowned in Brazil. In 2004 it was Andy Irons, and in 2005 it was Kelly Slater (who had his 2006 ASP World Title already stitched up by Brazil).

Tennis

Florianópolis is the hometown of Brazilian former tennis player Gustavo Kuerten.

Minority languages

The minority languages of the state of Santa Catarina can be divided into two distinct groups:

In some cities and villages, German or Talian are still the main spoken language and enjoy co-official status.[91][92][93][94]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística". IBGE. 2012-08-31. Retrieved 2014-08-03.
  2. ^ "Radar IDHM: evolução do IDHM e de seus índices componentes no período de 2012 a 2017" (PDF) (in Portuguese). PNUD Brasil. Retrieved 18 April 2019.
  3. ^ Brazilian Official Territorial Area
  4. ^ "2014 IBGE Estimates - Estimates of Resident Population in Brazil, Federative Units and Municipalities" (PDF) (in Portuguese). IBGE.gov.br. Retrieved 12 September 2014.
  5. ^ População cresce menos do que a média nacional no último ano, diz IBGE
  6. ^ "IBGE | Cities | Santa Catarina | Joinville". cidades.ibge.gov.br. Retrieved 2019-08-09.
  7. ^ a b Alvares, Clayton Alcarde; Stape, José Luiz; Sentelhas, Paulo Cesar; de Moraes Gonçalves, José Leonardo; Sparovek, Gerd (December 2013). "Köppen's climate classification map for Brazil". www.ingentaconnect.com. Retrieved 2019-08-09.
  8. ^ CABRAL, Oswaldo R. História de Santa Catarina. Rio de Janeiro, RJ: Laudes, 1970.
  9. ^ MATOS, Jacinto Antônio de. Colonização do Estado de Santa Catarina, Tip. de "O Dia": Florianópolis, 1917. 241 p.
  10. ^ EL-KHATIB, Faissal. História de Santa Catarina. Curitiba, PR: Grafipar, 1970. 4 v.
  11. ^ "Federation Units - Life expectancy at birth - Brazil - Total - 2017" (PDF). IBGE. p. 11. Retrieved November 29, 2018.
  12. ^ "Complete mortality table for Brazil - 2015" (PDF). IBGE. Retrieved December 2, 2016.
  13. ^ "Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios Contínua - PNAD Contínua | IBGE". www.ibge.gov.br. Retrieved 2019-08-09.
  14. ^ Pontes, Helena Maria Mattos. "Contas Regionais 2015: queda no PIB atinge todas as unidades da federação pela primeira vez na série". IBGE - Agência de Notícias (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2019-08-09.
  15. ^ a b Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Santa Catharina" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 24 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 185.
  16. ^ a b Ferreira Levy, Maria Stella. (in Portuguese) O Papel da Migração Internacional na Evolução da População Brasileira. pp. 58, 79

    Santa Catarina, tem como grupo nacional mais importante os alemães cujas proporções oscilam ao redor de 40%, seguidos pelos italianos, com aproximadamente 17%, até o censo de 1950. Em 1970, a proporção de imigrantes italianos reduz-se a metade. As outras nacionalidades que tem expressão são poloneses, russos e austríacos com proporções entre 6 e 11%, considerando-se inclusive o censo de 1970.

    — Page 58
  17. ^ Source: PNAD.
  18. ^ Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios (PDF) (in Portuguese). Santa Catarina, Brazil: IBGE. 2008. ISBN 978-85-240-3919-5. Retrieved 2010-01-18.
  19. ^ Santa Catarina - Terra de Contrastes - Os Jeitos da Terra Archived December 12, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  20. ^ Saloum De Neves Manta, Fernanda; Pereira, Rui; Vianna, Romulo; Rodolfo Beuttenmüller De Araújo, Alfredo; Leite Góes Gitaí, Daniel; Aparecida Da Silva, Dayse; De Vargas Wolfgramm, Eldamária; Da Mota Pontes, Isabel; Ivan Aguiar, José; Ozório Moraes, Milton; Fagundes De Carvalho, Elizeu; Gusmão, Leonor (2013-09-20). "Revisiting the Genetic Ancestry of Brazilians Using Autosomal AIM-Indels". PLOS ONE. Plosone.org. 8 (9): e75145. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0075145. PMC 3779230. PMID 24073242.
  21. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-09-03. Retrieved 2014-09-03.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  22. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-07-15. Retrieved 2014-08-23.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  23. ^ "ESTIMATIVAS DA POPULAÇÃO RESIDENTE NOS MUNICÍPIOS BRASILEIROS COM DATA DE REFERÊNCIA EM 2018" (in Portuguese). Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. 3 September 2018. Archived from the original (PDF) on 31 August 2011. Retrieved 3 September 2018.
  24. ^ IGBE
  25. ^ Nova Veneza Archived 2008-08-19 at the Wayback Machine
  26. ^ POMERODE-SC[permanent dead link]
  27. ^ História de Treze Tílias Archived 2008-11-02 at the Wayback Machine
  28. ^ "Regiões de origem e de destino dos imigrantes teutônicos". ibge. Retrieved 2016-04-11.
  29. ^ a b "Os imigrantes teutônicos no Brasil- alemães, austríacos, luxemburgueses, pomeranos e volga". ibge. Retrieved 2016-04-11.
  30. ^ a b "Regiões de origem e de destino dos imigrantes teutônicos". ibge. Retrieved 2016-04-11.
  31. ^ "Katharinensisch". universal_lexikon.deacademic. Retrieved November 8, 2016.
  32. ^ "Províncias de origem dos imigrantes italianos". ibge. Retrieved 2016-04-11.
  33. ^ Marília D. Klaumann Cánovas (2004). "A GRANDE IMIGRAÇÃO EUROPÉIA PARA O BRASIL E O IMIGRANTE ESPANHOL NO CENÁRIO DA CAFEICULTURA PAULISTA: ASPECTOS DE UMA (IN)VISIBILIDADE" [The great European immigration to Brazil and immigrants within the Spanish scenario of the Paulista coffee plantations: one of the issues (in) visibility] (PDF) (in Portuguese). cchla.ufpb.br. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 October 2009.
  34. ^ "Principais levas de imigração para o Brasil". Abril. Retrieved 6 April 2016.
  35. ^ "Entrada de estrangeiros no Brasil". Retrieved 2014-01-23.
  36. ^ "Regiões de destino dos imigrantes italianos". ibge. Retrieved 2016-04-11.
  37. ^ Wojciech Tyciński, Krzysztof Sawicki, Departament Współpracy z Polonią MSZ (2009). "Raport o sytuacji Polonii i Polaków za granicą (The official report on the situation of Poles and Polonia abroad)" (PDF). Warsaw: Ministerstwo Spraw Zagranicznych (Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Poland). pp. 1–466. Archived from the original (PDF file, direct download 1.44 MB) on July 21, 2012. Retrieved June 14, 2013.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  38. ^ "Joinville e Orleans, imigração para Santa Catarina". IBGE. Retrieved 6 April 2016.
  39. ^ "Base de dados de emigrantes açorianos para o Brasil nos séculos XVIII e XIX". Observatório da Emigração. Archived from the original on 21 September 2013. Retrieved 7 April 2016.
  40. ^ «Censo 2010». IBGE
  41. ^ «Análise dos Resultados/IBGE Censo Demográfico 2010: Características gerais da população, religião e pessoas com deficiência» (PDF)
  42. ^ Produtividade de milho cresce 118% em 15 anos em SC
  43. ^ Produção de Milho no Nordeste
  44. ^ Produção de grãos cresce 14% e Piauí se consolida como 3º maior produtor do Nordeste
  45. ^ Produção de milho em 2018/19 em SC chega a 2,8 milhões de toneladas
  46. ^ Confira como está a colheita da soja em cada estado do país
  47. ^ IBGE prevê safra recorde de grãos em 2020
  48. ^ Safra do arroz deve atingir mais de 1,14 milhão de toneladas em Santa Catarina
  49. ^ Safra da maçã deve render 600 mil toneladas em Santa Catarina
  50. ^ Epagri marca seus 28 anos de fundação com lançamento de cultivar de feijão em Chapecó na quarta-feira 
  51. ^ Santa Catarina é o maior produtor de cebola do país e encerra safra com recorde na produção
  52. ^ Produção brasileira de banana em 2018
  53. ^ Epagri inicia nova etapa de programa que garante alta produtividade do alho catarinense
  54. ^ Produtores consideram safra de alho a pior dos últimos 48 anos em SC
  55. ^ A Cevada no Brasil
  56. ^ Área de cultivo de trigo em SC reduz 8% em 2019
  57. ^ Santa Catarina lança Programa de Incentivo ao Plantio de Grãos de Inverno
  58. ^ Canoinhas é o segundo maior produtor de erva-mate de Santa Catarina, diz IBGE
  59. ^ Vale do Rio do Peixe produz 86% da uva em SC
  60. ^ Produção de uva no Rio Grande do Sul cai quase 40% frente a 2018
  61. ^ REGIÃO SUL DO BRASIL É O MAIOR CENTRO PRODUTIVO DE PROTEÍNA ANIMAL DO MUNDO
  62. ^ PPM 2017: Rebanho bovino predomina no Centro-Oeste e Mato Grosso lidera entre os estados
  63. ^ PPM 2017: Rebanho bovino predomina no Centro-Oeste e Mato Grosso lidera entre os estados 
  64. ^ PPM 2017: Rebanho bovino predomina no Centro-Oeste e Mato Grosso lidera entre os estados 
  65. ^ Leite e ovos: setores que se reinventam com tecnologia
  66. ^ PPM 2017: Rebanho bovino predomina no Centro-Oeste e Mato Grosso lidera entre os estados 
  67. ^ Novos tempos para a bovinocultura de corte em SC
  68. ^ PPM 2017: Rebanho bovino predomina no Centro-Oeste e Mato Grosso lidera entre os estados 
  69. ^ PPM 2017: Rebanho bovino predomina no Centro-Oeste e Mato Grosso lidera entre os estados 
  70. ^ Carvão Mineral
  71. ^ Carvão mineral no Brasil e no mundo
  72. ^ Santa Catarina Industry Profile
  73. ^ Hering, Malwee, Lunelli e Kyly produzem artigos médicos para doação
  74. ^ A indústria de alimentos e bebidas na sociedade brasileira atual
  75. ^ Faturamento da indústria de alimentos cresceu 6,7% em 2019
  76. ^ https://agenciabrasil.ebc.com.br/economia/noticia/2020-02/industria-de-alimentos-e-bebidas-faturaram-r-6999-bi-em-2019
  77. ^ O novo mapa das montadoras
  78. ^ Página 18
  79. ^ Setor aposta na “Compre de SC” para estimular consumo de papel e celulose
  80. ^ Página 17
  81. ^ Polo Calçadista
  82. ^ Um setor em recuperação
  83. ^ Source: IBGE.
  84. ^ "Universidades em Santa Catarina". Seruniversitario.com.br. Retrieved 2014-08-03.
  85. ^ "Top 10 Oktoberfest's around the world". Skyscanner. 2011-09-19. Retrieved 2013-09-05.
  86. ^ The Daily Telegraph (2006), "Brazil's sexiest secret", article retrieved March 20, 2009.
  87. ^ Dr. Moti Nissani (2007) Bottlenose Dolphins in Laguna Requesting a Throw Net (video). Supporting material for Dr. Nissani's presentation at the 2007 International Ethological Conference. Video retrieved March 20, 2009.
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External links

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