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Samuel D. Ingham

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Samuel Ingham
9th United States Secretary of the Treasury
In office
March 6, 1829 – June 20, 1831
President Andrew Jackson
Preceded by Richard Rush
Succeeded by Louis McLane
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Pennsylvania's 8th district
In office
March 4, 1823 – March 4, 1829
Seat B
Preceded by Seat established
Succeeded by Peter Ihrie Jr.
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Pennsylvania's 6th district
In office
March 4, 1813 – July 6, 1818
Seat A
Preceded by William Crawford
Succeeded by Samuel Moore
In office
October 7, 1822 – March 3, 1823
Seat A
Preceded by Samuel Moore
Succeeded by Robert Harris
Personal details
Born Samuel Delucenna Ingham
(1779-09-16)September 16, 1779
New Hope, Pennsylvania, U.S.
Died June 5, 1860(1860-06-05) (aged 80)
Trenton, New Jersey, U.S.
Political party Democratic-Republican (Before 1825)
Democratic (1825–1860)
Spouse(s) Rebecca Dodd
Deborah Hall

Samuel Delucenna Ingham (September 16, 1779 – June 5, 1860) was a US Representative and then, under President Andrew Jackson, US Treasury Secretary.

YouTube Encyclopedic

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  • How to Take a Soil Sample


Ever wonder why you need to take a soil sample? Somebody like me tells you need to go out and take one. It’s a lot of work. You wonder, “Why do I need to do that?” The reason is that if you're growing crops or plants, you don't know how much to fertilize or lime without the results of a good soil sample. A good soil sample starts with the sample collection and we'll talk about that in a minute. After you get your sample, you send it to a lab. A good reliable lab analyzes the soil, gets results. Then research data are used to make recommendations based on these lab analysis. So, none of that can happen unless you take a good soil sample. How do you take a good soil sample? First, you need some basic equipment. You can either use a digging implement like this sharp shooter. You could use a shovel instead. And the way you do that… as you go down, you dig a little deeper than six inches. Bring the soil up. Now we only need six inches of this soil. So, if I take six inches from the top, it comes to right there. I then need some tool to stop it at six inches. Get rid of the rest. Then we need this to be sort of uniform. We want a core, a sliver of this instead of the entire amount. So here now we have a six-inch sample. We put it into the bucket. That's a fair amount work. If you're going to take very many soil samples in your life you'd be well off to either buy or borrow a specialized soil sampling probe. Now a soil sampling probe is not good for anything except taking soil samples. So if you don't plan to take but three in your life it’s not worth buying fifty to a hundred dollars for one of these. However, if you plan to take many, then this will be a great thing. Sampling depth is critical. You may have noticed I used six inches on the last one. The sample has to be taken at a depth of six inches for general nutrient analysis. The reason for that is that the nutrients are stratified in the soil. There are more nutrients in the upper part of the soil than there are in the lower part of the soil. So if you take a sample shallower than six inches, it will look like you have a better amount of nutrients than you actually do. If you take the sample deeper than six inches, it will look like you have fewer nutrients than you actually do. You may notice that I’ve made a six-inch mark with some electrical tape on my sampling probe so that I don't have to guess where it is. So, with this, you just push it down into the ground to your six-inch mark. Give it a quarter turn -- the quarter turn keeps the soil in the in the probe when you remove it. Bring it out. You've got a nice six-inch core of soil there. Just put it into your bucket. Whichever way you use, you have to repeat this 10 to 15 times through the field to get one sample. What I just did is not a sample. That’s called a core or a subsample. And you need 10 to 15 cores or subsamples to make up one sample. Once you have gotten your 10 to 15 cores and you have soil in your bucket, then you thoroughly mix it with either your soil probe or a stick or whatever you wish. You mix it up good. And unless you like paying a lot of money for postage, you don’t want to mail all this. We need about a pint in the lab. So you use a container that will hold about a pint of soil. And you pour. Since it’s all mixed up, it doesn't matter if you spill some. Then you put about a pint of soil into this bag and I have gotten about a half a pint on my arm. So this is your sample. Once you get your sample, we need some basic information on the container that you put the sample in. We need at a minimum your name, address, phone number, what the name … what the ID of the sample is and what crop you’re growing. Obviously we need your name or we don't know who you are. We get quite a few samples in our place that don't even have a name on them and, basically, we just throw them out because there's nothing we can do with it. Then we need your address so we know where to mail your results to or your e-mail address at a minimum. Then we need to know, or you need to know, what this sample is called. If you send in more than one sample, you have to differentiate them someway or else you're not going to know which sample is which if they have different fertilizer and lime recommendations. Then we need to know what crop you’re growing so that we can make fertilizer recommendations. Can't really make a fertilizer recommendation on an unknown crop. Our recommendations are very specific to a crop and vary depending on which crop you’re growing and also what yield goal you have. So if you're after a particularly high yield goal or if you're a particularly low-input person, we need to know that in order to make a good fertilizer recommendation. Now then, let’s say that you have a field that has a lot of odd spots in it or even one odd spot in it. Say there's an area in this field that doesn't grow anything. You don't want to include that area in your sample. If you do, it will just make the rest of your sample look a little bit worse and you won't know why the bad area is bad. So sample that bad area separately. And the way you do it, if it's just an acre, you go out and you take soil from 10 to 15 places at random just like you would in a regular sample. If it's an area where you feed hay in the winter, you would do that separately because it’s likely to be much higher in nutrients than the others. And if you include it, it’s is going to make the rest of your sample look much better than it actually is. So problem areas or odd areas -- sample those separately. When do you want to do this? It really doesn't make a lot of difference as long as you do it at the same time each year. Your soil pH and phosphorus and potassium levels can vary fairly greatly depending on what time of the year you do it. So if you begin your sampling in the spring, try to sample in the spring every year. If you begin your sampling in the fall, try to sample in the fall every year. That way you'll have a consistent background on which to compare your soil from year to year. How often do you need a sample? Generally, if you're looking at just phosphorus and potassium and pH, probably every three years is enough, unless it's a very unusual case. However, if you're looking at nitrate-nitrogen, then you need to sample that probably within 30 days of when you're going to apply the fertilizer and then that analysis is only good for that year. Nitrogen is very dynamic in the soil. It changes forms. It’s taken up by the plant and used. It can be lost in heavy rainfall. So nitrate-nitrogen analysis are only good for a couple of months. Uh, pH … P and K analysis are probably good for several years. So, basically -- based on that -- a good soil sample can give you a basis on accurate fertilization. However, you need to take a sample correctly. Taking the sample correctly involves sampling to a 6-inch depth -- no more or no less. Taking 10 to 15 cores within that field. Stirring those up good and taking a pint of that as your sample. So, with that said, good luck on your soil testing program.


Early life and education

Ingham was born at near New Hope, Pennsylvania. His parents were Dr. Jonathan Ingham, "a famous physician from Philadelphia,"[1] and his wife, the former Ann Welding.

After a pursuit of classical studies, he was an apprentice to a paper maker along Pennypack Creek, not far from Philadelphia.[2]


After completing his apprenticeship, Ingham became the manager of a paper mill at Bloomfield, New Jersey. It was while here he met Rebecca Dodd, whom he married in 1800. They would have five children.[3]

Also in 1800 Ingham returned to Pennsylvania and established a paper mill on his mother's farm (his father having died in 1793) that would be his main source of employment in the coming years[citation needed].

Political career

Bureau of Engraving and Printing portrait of Ingham as Secretary of the Treasury.
Bureau of Engraving and Printing portrait of Ingham as Secretary of the Treasury.

He was a member of the Pennsylvania House of Representatives from 1806 to 1808. Then, Ingham was appointed Justice of the Peace by the Governor of Pennsylvania.

He was a member of the United States House of Representatives from 1813 to July 6, 1818. He easily trounced his Federalist opponents in the first two elections and had no opposition at all in 1816. He resigned from Congress in 1818 because of his wife's ill health. He was appointed the Prothonotary (Chief Clerk, Notary and Registrar of the Court) of the Court of Common Pleas of Bucks County, Pennsylvania after leaving Congress.[4] In 1819 Rebecca Dodd Ingham died.

Ingham served as Secretary of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania from 1819 to 1820.

In 1822 Ingham married Deborah Hall of Salem, New Jersey. They would become the parents of three children.[5]

Also in 1822 Ingham was elected to Congress where he would serve until 1829.

During the 13th Congress he was chair of the United States House Committee on Pensions and Revolutionary War Claims. During the 14th, 15th, 19th and 20th Congresses, he was chair of the House Committee on the Post Office and Post Roads, and he was chair of the House Committee on Expenditures in the Post Office Department during the 15th Congress.

Ingham served as the ninth Secretary of the US Treasury from March 6, 1829, to June 21, 1831.

The Second Bank of the United States, viewed by Jackson and much of the nation as an unconstitutional and dangerous monopoly, was Ingham's primary concern as Secretary of the Treasury. Jackson mistrusted the Second Bank of the United States and all other banks.[6]

Jackson thought that there should be no paper currency in circulation but only coins and that the US Constitution was designed to expel paper currency from the monetary system. Ingham believed in the Second Bank and attempted to resolve conflicts between Jackson, who wanted it destroyed, and the Bank's president, Nicholas Biddle.[6]

Despite being unable to reach any resolution between Jackson and Biddle, Ingham left office over an unrelated incident, which stemmed from his involvement in the social ostracism of Peggy Eaton, the wife of Secretary of War John H. Eaton by a group of Cabinet members and their wives. It was led by Floride Calhoun, the wife of Vice President John C. Calhoun and became known as the Petticoat affair.


During the 1820s, Ingham was a member of the prestigious Columbian Institute for the Promotion of Arts and Sciences, which counted among its members two eventual presidents, Andrew Jackson and John Quincy Adams, and many other prominent men of the day, including well-known representatives of the military, government service, medical, and other professions.[7]

Later life

After resigning as Secretary of the Treasury, Ingham resumed the manufacture of paper, and engaged in the development of anthracite coal fields. He was involved with the organization of the Beaver Meadow Railroad Company[a] (e. 1830[9]), of which he was then made president for a time.[10] He was connected with the organization of the Hazleton Coal Company. He worked to promote canals such at the Lehigh Navigation and the Delaware Canal. He moved to Trenton, New Jersey, in 1849, where he worked with that city's Mechanics Bank.[11]

Ingham died in Trenton, New Jersey, and is interred in the Solebury Presbyterian Churchyard, Solebury, Pennsylvania. Ingham County, Michigan, one of several Cabinet counties named for members of Jackson's administration, is named in Ingham's honor.


  1. ^ The most common name, Beaver Meadow Railroad was in fact, formally incorporated as the Beaver Meadow Railroad and Coal Company.[8]


  1. ^ "Indian Place Names in Bucks County" (PDF). Lenape Nation – A Tribal Community. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 10, 2014. Retrieved September 27, 2012.
  2. ^ Ford Stevens Ceasar, The Bicentennial History of Ingham County, Michigan (Ann Arbor: Shaw-Barton, 1976), p. 1
  3. ^ Ceasar, History of Ingham County, p. 1
  4. ^ Ceasar, History of Ingham County, p. 2
  5. ^ Caesar, History of Ingham County, p. 3
  6. ^ a b "Samuel D. Ingham (1829–1831)". US Treasury Department. November 11, 2010. Retrieved October 28, 2017. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  7. ^ Rathbun, Richard. The Columbian institute for the promotion of arts and sciences: A Washington Society of 1816–1838. Bulletin of the United States National Museum, October 18, 1917. Retrieved June 20, 2010.
  8. ^ The Hopkin Thomas Project (reprinted web excerpts) (1873). "GUIDE-BOOK OF THE LEHIGH VALLEY RAILROAD,". a history of the company from its first organization and interesting facts concerning the origin and growth of the coal and iron trade in the Lehigh and Wyoming Region., J.B. Lippincott & Co., Philadelphia.
  9. ^ John S. Koehler, Historian, Weatherly, Pa. (February 17, 1984). "Beaver Meadow Railroad Blazed Trails for Coal". The Hopkin Thomas Project, Timelines Industrial America (Railroad Portraits, Beaver Meadow Railroad). Retrieved August 12, 2016.
  10. ^ Scott W. Fausti. "Samuel Delucenna Ingham". The Hopkin Thomas Project (Genealogy Portraits, Rev July 2010). Retrieved August 12, 2016.
  11. ^ Ceasar, History of Ingham County, p. 4

External links

U.S. House of Representatives
Preceded by
William Crawford
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Pennsylvania's 6th congressional district
Seat A

Served alongside: Robert Brown, Thomas Rogers
Succeeded by
Samuel Moore
Preceded by
John Rhea
Chair of the House Post Office Committee
Succeeded by
Arthur Livermore
Preceded by
Samuel Moore
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Pennsylvania's 6th congressional district
Seat A

Served alongside: Thomas Rogers
Succeeded by
Robert Harris
Single seat
New seat Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Pennsylvania's 8th congressional district

Served alongside: Thomas Rogers, George Wolf
Succeeded by
Peter Ihrie Jr.
Preceded by
John Telemachus Johnson
Chair of the House Post Office Committee
Succeeded by
Samuel McKean
Political offices
Preceded by
Richard Rush
United States Secretary of the Treasury
Succeeded by
Louis McLane
This page was last edited on 18 October 2018, at 11:38
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