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Salinan language

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Salinan
Native toUnited States
Regioncentral coast California
EthnicitySalinan people
Extinct1958
Hokan ?
  • Salinan
Language codes
ISO 639-3sln
Glottologsali1253[1]
Salinan lang.png

Salinan was the indigenous language of the Salinan people of the central coast of California. It has been extinct since the death of the last speaker in 1958.

Narrative in Salinan recorded in 1910

The language is attested to some extent in colonial sources such as Sitjar (1860), but the principal published documentation is Mason (1918). The main modern grammatical study, based on Mason's data and on the field notes of John Peabody Harrington and William H. Jacobsen, is Turner (1987), which also contains a complete bibliography of the primary sources and discussion of their orthography.

Two dialects are recognized, Antoniaño and Migueleño, associated with the missions of San Antonio and San Miguel, respectively. Antoniaño is "sometimes also termed Sextapay, associated with the area of the Franciscan Mission of San Antonio de Padua in Monterey County."[2] There may have been a third, Playano dialect, as suggested by mention of such a subdivision of the people, but nothing is known of them linguistically.

Salinan may be a part of the Hokan family. Edward Sapir included it in a subfamily of Hokan, along with Chumash and Seri.[3] This hypothetical classification (which has had many skeptics) found its way into several encyclopedias and presentations of language families before much supporting evidence for this subfamily had been presented, but is currently fairly well established.[4][5]

Salinan vocabulary from a 1910 recording

Phonology

The charts of consonants and vowels in the Salinan language:

Consonants

Bilabial Dental Alveolar Post-
 alveolar
Palatal Velar Glottal
Plosive voiceless p k ʔ
ejective t̪ʼ t̠ʼ
voiced b d ɡ
Fricative s ʃ x h
Affricate voiceless ts
ejective tsʼ tʃʼ
Nasal plain m n
glottalized ˀm ˀn
Lateral voiced l
glottalized ˀl
Trill r
Approximant plain w j
glottalized ˀw ˀj

Voiced plosives /b d ɡ/ likely came as a result of Spanish influence.

Vowels

Front Back
Close i iː u uː
Close-mid e eː o oː
Open-mid ɛ ɔ
Open a aː

Mid vowels occurred likely due to Spanish influence.[6]

Vocabulary

Salinan plant and animal names from Mason (1918):[7]

Animals

English gloss Antoniaño Migueleño plural
fly awa·´tén a·we·te´ʽ awaˑ´tneʟ
bullhead fish cat’
Lewis's woodpecker ca´knil cra´knil
bird caˑxwe sa·xe ca·xten
ground owl, gray titmouse ska´tata cko·´tɑtʚ
prairie falcon ck’an ck’an’
crow ckaˑk’ cka·k’ skaˑ´k’tenat
snake, worm, grub ck’ot ck’ot sk’o´teʟet
gull clot
abalone cmaiyi´k’
horned owl cukunui´’ cokonoi´’
skunk cuwa´’ cowa´ cuwa´ʽɴeʟ
squirrel cuˑmk’o´m’ camko´’m cumk’omona´neʟ
small ducks cu´n’cun’
fish swan cwa´’ɴ cwaˑne´t
lizard swakaka´ cwaˑkek’a´’
gopher e´cece ee´cesi
male squirrel emace´
pinacate eˑts’
tarantula hawk etskutchɑ´ten
louse tik’e´’ i´ke tik’eneʟ
ant ilka´t ilka´t
Mexican bluebird kalep’a´n kelep’a´n
small birds kats’aˑne´ʟˑ
blue-crested jay kalau
house finch kalwatcai´ k’aluatc´a’i
goose, crane ka´lakʽ kalakʽ kalak´ne´ʟ
mosquito kaca´p
grasshopper kacala´ kaculo´
Lawrence's goldfinch kiope´ts
kingfisher k’cu´i kitcili´tna
band-tailed pigeon klau´it
hare koi’ koʟ kolane´ʟ
tarantula kocai´ye
mountain quail k’aiya´k´
red abalones kilṭau´ k’elṭ´u´ʽ
spider la´kana
gray rabbit ʟa´ma
raven la´’ lap’
tarantula hawk lape´
duck leaṭ’ helpa´ṭ’ leaṭ’ten
wasps, bees lme´m’ leme´’m
teal le´ponta
Gambel's sparrow le´rporti leˑ´rpati
coyote ʟk’a´ helk’a´ elk’ane´ʟ; elk’a´lekten
Canada goose loina´ t’lai
small antelope lowe´cɑt’
rat ma´kiʟ mɑ´kel
rabbit map’ map’ map’tenat; map’aˑ´nel
eel masau´hal masau´wel
chipmunk matse´ko mats’e´ko’
hummingbird mɑ´ts’we´l’
antelope mu´i’ mu´ı̄’
clams naiyʚk’
pocket gopher nakɑ´k
young antelope nʚtc’
elk ac p’ae acte´n, astenat
California woodpecker pelaˑ´kˑa’ pala·´kɑkʼ
two-pronged buck paṭalti
hummingbird peˑ´lts’e
ruby-crowned wren pete´ts
lark finch pi´ukutc
sucker pʽu´lxoiʽ
wildcat sam’ snam
black ant santʚn
shrike sapele´
one-pronged buck sektaiˑkna
stinking ant senese
unidentified fish septa´ʟ
snake senkahl senk’oʟ
doe sepo
mouse seloˑ´iʽ
swallow siata´nil
cañon finch sit set’
red-headed woodpecker sik
animal sitaipin
whip-poor-will skalo´
sparrowhawk skele´le skeleˑ´le
blue crane ska·´u
shellfish sk’eˑ´’n
raccoon skaiya´ʼ s’kai´ya skaiyana´neʟ
rat sk’almo´k’ sk’almokʼ sk’almok’oten
green-winged teal slipe´pʚ
quail smate·´xan
bee smo´kɑt smo´ket
rattlesnake smeˑkoi´ smekoi´ smekoiiten
female skunk smohel
mole smokok’e´ smokike´
cat smic
eagle sai´yu snai saiyane´ʟ
kangaroo rat, tusa snaˑk snaʽk
butterfly soko´ko soko´ko
spotted fawn so´ha
very small ant sopokan
red-tailed hawk speˑk’ spiˑk’
burrowing owl spʽoko´ʼ
fox sto’ sto’
young squirrel sumhe
bat stamaka´la
bat suhao´ye
black-shining flycatcher swe´ho swīˑ´yo
male coyote swaa´
crane taˑlwa·´x
worm ta´lmui
nuthatch taka´la
Lawrence's goldfinch ta´nukupel
crane tapṭe´ʟ
woodpecker tena´k
male antelope tepce´
owl tesik’ ṭeci´kʼ ticik’neʟ
pelican tē·´u tewe´
pigeon tikʽmo´ʽ
worm time´hai
great California vulture titc´k te’tc’
badger t´mɑ´cɑx
seal tʽoˑ´i
badger tʽoˑ´io
sea otter t’sue
whale tʸa´i
blue jay ṭ’ai’ ṭahi
flea ṭa·yiʟ ṭaiyeʟ’ tayiʟtena´x
crab ṭaitc’aˑ´tak
serpent ṭaˑliˑye´’
puma ṭa´’muʟ ṭ´a’muʟ ṭa´’multenax
deer ṭaa´’ ṭaa´’p ṭaatne´ʟ
bat ṭapilale
turtledove ṭaˑxwe´ne’ ṭʽaˑxwe´n’
bear ṭaxai´’ ṭᴀxai´’ ṭaxai´yukten
turtle ṭawai ṭawʚ´ ṭawaiiten
salmon ṭetiyau´ tʽetēyau ṭetiyauutén
kingbird ṭike´ ṭ’ike´’
small frog ṭ’iˑkolʚ´
serpent ṭinele´ʼ
grubs, worms ṭ’iope´’
mountain lizard ṭʽoiyelɘ´’
gray squirrel ṭooloc ṭoˑlo´c ṭoolecna´neʟ
wolf ṭʽo·´xo ṭoˑxo´ʼ ṭʽoˑ´xolanel
curved-bill thrush tca tca
Brewer's blackbird tca´la tcal
red-shafted woodpecker tc’am’ tc’a’ᴍɪ
cricket tcʼeˑl’
blue jay tc’ele´uʼ
bat tc’e´mtcem
fish-hawk tcikʼ tc´iktcik
caterpillar tcoana´hi ṭaau´
mottled snake ts’aike´’
yellow-bellied woodpecker ts’e´’ʟ
owl ts’ɘ´tʽenek’
spider ts’ope´n sopne´t ts’ope´nlax
red-winged blackbird wakeno´
frog wa·´kiṭ wa´kɑṭ’ wakiṭten; wa´kɑṭ’ṭʽa´ʟ
bullbat wa´lwal’
Oregon bunting wa´tc watc’
white goose wau
blue jay, bunting witcele´’ wetcele´’
martin weˑtelo´’
woodpecker we´tok
mussel xaii´k
crane xalau´’
ground tit xane´o
lizard xakele´ xapailʚ´’
yellow-billed magpie atce´tc xatca´tc’
roadrunner, ground cuckoo xom xo·´’mɪ
quail ho´mlik´
red-headed vulture xopne´l xo·pɴe´ʟ
dog xutc xutcaˑi xoste´n

Plants

English gloss Antoniaño Migueleño plural
wild oats atʟoˑ´s
bark awu´’l awuʟ’
tule aˑxo´ʟ axone´ʟ
seed avexte´ya ayextel’i´ya
bud ca´l ca´ltine
quijara de pala ck’ua´
large soaproot ck’alʚ´’
clover cpo´k’at’; cpoku´mt’a
brush cɑ´tala
leaf ctan’ stanane´ʟ
blackberries elpo´nʚ
wild seeds heˑʟka´’
hay, grass k’aˑṭ’ kat k’atsane´l
sunflower k’a·´ciʟ
tule k’ɑ´mta’
acorn k’a’ kɑp’ ka’te´ʟ
small young oaks ka´pitc’
large pine nut kʽe kʽe
fern root k’ēˑ´ciapowat
tuna (prickly pear) k’eso´i’
cedar keṭipui keṭipoilax
root ko’iʏi
melon k’olopopo´
bulb, wild potato k’ona·´ka
cacomite kotc’e´ʟ
forest ku´katak
flower mɑkawi´ʼ mɑkewe´ makawili´ʼ
milkweed matai´’ʏi
toloache moˑnoi´’ʏi
laurel mopa´kʽ
ivy mucuelit
wild grape o·pɪs
chia pa´siʟ pɑ´siʟ
post oak p’ɑ´pex
white oak at’ p’aˑ´’t atne´ʟ; p’atʽne´lat
manzanita patʽax patʽa´k patʽaxtén
live oak askle´t paxa´kiʟ
buckeye pʚca´ʼ
willow pʚsxe´t
grass petʟ
seedlings peyexte´toʼ
seaweed powa´tka
fruit pamputen
fruit tenpute´s
mescal saxe´t
alfilerillos seneste´ʟ
brush smɑt
acorn smoʼ
clover smo´kumeʟ
acorn sxau´witʽ
seeds tana´t
wicker tana´st
grains tate´
small soaproot tetai´
elderberries tetɑ´pʽkoˑʟ
root tepa´s tepa´so
oak tʽio´i
acorn t’i´pi’
mescal tʽᴍɑ
grass tʽʚma´s
milkweed tʚmaˑ´ʟ
grass for baskets tʽonawɑ´’
gooseberries toipen
flower of mescal ṭaiya´c
wood ṭa·´ka’aṭʽ ṭa·´kaṭa tak’ane´ʟ
tobacco ṭala´’ᴍ ṭoela´m
stump of tree ṭa´pin ṭamoina´co
fruit tata ṭaˑ´tʽoʼ
root ṭepastéɴ
juice ṭetaco ṭita´cu
pine nuts tcʽo’ tʽo’ ṭotenʚ´l
brush ṭoki
barsalillo tc’e·´lak
pine tc’o’
wood for pipe tcʽo´ʟʚ
chuckberries ts’eta´kiʟ
spine xa´ke
acorn xo´le
live oak hasli´t’
acorn ha´siʟ

Bibliography

  • Campbell, Lyle (1997). American Indian languages: the historical linguistics of Native America. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195094275.
  • Mason, John Alden (1918). The language of the Salinan Indians. University of California Press. pp. 436–. Retrieved August 24, 2012.University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology 14.1-154.
  • Sitjar, Fr. Buenaventura (1861) Vocabulario de la lengua de los naturales de la mission de San Antonio, Alta California. Shea's Library of American Linguistics, 7. Reprinted 1970 at New York by AMS Press.
  • Turner, Katherine (1987). Aspects of Salinan Grammar, Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation. University of California at Berkeley.

References

  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Salinan". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. ^ "A Glossary of Proper Names in California Prehistory: Ethnolinguistic Groups". Society for California Archaeology. Retrieved September 26, 2012.
  3. ^ Sapir, Edward. (1925) The Hokan affinity of Subtiaba in Nicaragua. American Anthropologist 27: (3).402-34, (4). 491-527.
  4. ^ Concise encyclopedia of languages of the world. Brown, E. K., Ogilvie, Sarah. (1st ed.). Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier. 2009. pp. 504. ISBN 9780080877754. OCLC 318247422.CS1 maint: others (link)
  5. ^ Native languages of the Americas. Sebeok, Thomas A. (Thomas Albert), 1920-2001. New York: Plenum Press. 1976. pp. 440–446. ISBN 030637157X. OCLC 2388194.CS1 maint: others (link)
  6. ^ Turner, Katherine (1987). Aspects of Salinan Grammar. pp. 39–41.
  7. ^ Mason, John Alden (1918). The language of the Salinan Indians. University of California Press. pp. 436–. Retrieved August 24, 2012.University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology 14.1-154. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.

External links

This page was last edited on 24 October 2020, at 18:26
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