To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.

Sahaptian languages

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Sahaptian (also Sahaptianic, Sahaptin, Shahaptian) is a two-language branch of the Plateau Penutian family spoken by Native American peoples in the Columbia Plateau region of Washington, Oregon, and Idaho in the northwestern United States.

The terms Sahaptian (the family) and Sahaptin (the language) have often been confused and used interchangeably in the literature.

Family division

Sahaptian includes two languages:

1. Nez Perce (Niimiʼipuutímt)
2. Sahaptin (Sħáptənəxw)

Nez Perce has two principle dialects, Upper and Lower. Sahaptin has somewhat greater internal diversity, with its main dialects being Umatilla and Yakima.

Nodel Rude's (2012) classification of Sahaptian is as follows.[1]


Reconstruction ofSahaptian languages

Work on Proto-Sahaptian reconstruction has been undertaken by Noel Rude (2006,[2] 2012[1]).

Proto-Sahaptian consonants:[1]:306

Bilabial Alveolar Post-
Velar Uvular Glottal
plain lateral central plain labialized plain labialized
Stop/Affricate p t ƛ c č k q ʔ
Ejective ƛ̓ č k̓ʷ q̓ʷ
Fricative ł s š x x̣ʷ h
Nasal plain m n
Approximant plain w l y

Proto-Sahaptian vowels:[1]:293

front central back
high i i u
mid o
low æ ɑ


  • Aoki, Haruo (1963). On Sahaptian-Klamath Linguistic Affiliations. International Journal of American Linguistics 29, no. 2: 107–112.
  • Aoki, Haruo (1966). Nez Percé vowel harmony and proto-Sahaptian vowels. Language, 42, 759-767.
  • Aoki, Haruo (1970). Nez Percé grammar. University of California publications in linguistics (Vol. 62). Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-09259-7.
  • Mithun, Marianne (1999). The languages of Native North America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-23228-7 (hbk); ISBN 0-521-29875-X.
  • Rigsby, Bruce (1965). Continuity and change in Sahaptian vowel systems. International Journal of American Linguistics, 31, 306-311.
  • Rigsby, Bruce; & Silverstein, Michael (1969). Nez Percé vowels and proto-Sahaptian vowel harmony. Language, 45, 45-59.
  • Rude, Noel. (2012). Reconstructing Proto-Sahaptian Sounds. University of British Columbia Working Papers in Linguistics, Vol. 32, pp. 292–324. Papers for the Forty-seventh International Conference on Salish and Neighbouring Languages, Cranbrook, British Columbia, Canada, August 3–5, 2012, edited by Joel Dunham, John Lyon & Natalie Weber.


  1. ^ a b c d Rude, Noel. 2012. Reconstructing Proto-Sahaptian Sounds. In Papers for the 47th International Conference on Salish and neighbouring languages, 292-324. Working Papers in Linguistics (UBCWPL). Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press.
  2. ^ Rude, Noel. 2006. Proto-Sahaptian vocalism. In Papers for the 41st International Conference on Salish and neighbouring languages, 264-277. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press.
This page was last edited on 11 November 2020, at 19:50
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.