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Sahaptian languages

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Sahaptian (also Sahaptianic, Sahaptin, Shahaptian) is a two-language branch of the Plateau Penutian family spoken by Native American peoples in the Columbia Plateau region of Washington, Oregon, and Idaho in the northwestern United States.

The terms Sahaptian (the family) and Sahaptin (the language) have often been confused and used interchangeably in the literature.

Family division

Sahaptian includes two languages:

1. Nez Perce (Niimiʼipuutímt)
2. Sahaptin (Sħáptənəxw)

Nez Perce has two principle dialects, Upper and Lower. Sahaptin has somewhat greater internal diversity, with its main dialects being Umatilla and Yakima.

Nodel Rude's (2012) classification of Sahaptian is as follows.[1]

Proto-language

Proto-Sahaptian
Reconstruction ofSahaptian languages

Work on Proto-Sahaptian reconstruction has been undertaken by Noel Rude (2006,[2] 2012[1]).

Proto-Sahaptian consonants:[1]:306

Bilabial Alveolar Post-
alveolar
Velar Uvular Glottal
plain lateral central plain labialized plain labialized
Stop/Affricate p t ƛ c č k q ʔ
Ejective ƛ̓ č k̓ʷ q̓ʷ
Fricative ł s š x x̣ʷ h
Nasal plain m n
glottalized
Approximant plain w l y
glottalized

Proto-Sahaptian vowels:[1]:293

front central back
high i i u
mid o
low æ ɑ

Bibliography

  • Aoki, Haruo (1963). On Sahaptian-Klamath Linguistic Affiliations. International Journal of American Linguistics 29, no. 2: 107–112.
  • Aoki, Haruo (1966). Nez Percé vowel harmony and proto-Sahaptian vowels. Language, 42, 759-767.
  • Aoki, Haruo (1970). Nez Percé grammar. University of California publications in linguistics (Vol. 62). Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-09259-7.
  • Mithun, Marianne (1999). The languages of Native North America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-23228-7 (hbk); ISBN 0-521-29875-X.
  • Rigsby, Bruce (1965). Continuity and change in Sahaptian vowel systems. International Journal of American Linguistics, 31, 306-311.
  • Rigsby, Bruce; & Silverstein, Michael (1969). Nez Percé vowels and proto-Sahaptian vowel harmony. Language, 45, 45-59.
  • Rude, Noel. (2012). Reconstructing Proto-Sahaptian Sounds. University of British Columbia Working Papers in Linguistics, Vol. 32, pp. 292–324. Papers for the Forty-seventh International Conference on Salish and Neighbouring Languages, Cranbrook, British Columbia, Canada, August 3–5, 2012, edited by Joel Dunham, John Lyon & Natalie Weber.

References

  1. ^ a b c d Rude, Noel. 2012. Reconstructing Proto-Sahaptian Sounds. In Papers for the 47th International Conference on Salish and neighbouring languages, 292-324. Working Papers in Linguistics (UBCWPL). Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press.
  2. ^ Rude, Noel. 2006. Proto-Sahaptian vocalism. In Papers for the 41st International Conference on Salish and neighbouring languages, 264-277. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press.
This page was last edited on 11 November 2020, at 19:50
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