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SS and police leader

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The title of SS and police leader ( SS- und Polizeiführer) was used to designate a senior Nazi official who commanded large units of the SS, Gestapo and the German uniformed police (Ordnungspolizei), prior to and during World War II.

Three levels of subordination were established for bearers of this title:

  • SS and Police Leader (SS- und Polizeiführer), SSPF
  • Higher SS and Police Leader (Höherer SS- und Polizeiführer, HSSPF, HSS-PF, HSSuPF)
  • Supreme SS and Police Leader (Höchster SS- und Polizeiführer, HöSSPF)

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  • ✪ WWII Factions: The German Army
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Transcription

Factions The German Army World War Two The Treaty Of Versailles stated that Germany Now The Weimar Republic Was only allowed to have 100.000 men for its military To prevent future agresion Hitler bypassed this by allowing the SA With a Paramilitary unit Of the National socialist German Woker's Party To Expand Rapidly The growth of the SA worried the German Army Who feared it would be taken over by the group An its leader Ernst Röhm This fears were settled when hitler ordered the Night of the Long Knives Purging the SA leaders and reducing its power In its place the SS emerged as The nazi loyal paramilitary force In 1935 Hitler Fuhrer of nazi Germany Violated The Treaty of Versailles by rebuilding the German army strength by bringing in military conscription and rearmament the German armed forces as a whole previously known as the Reichswehr now became the Wehrmacht this was the Heer, the army The Kriegsmarine, the Navy and the Luftwaffe, the Air Force The Wehrmacht absorbed most of the members of the SA into military service The waffen-ss also formed which was the carefully selected well armed and well trained military wing of SS serving alongside the Regular Army 1939 the German army invaded Poland the operation known as Operation Fall Weiss and a strength of 1.5 million men and nine Panzer divisions they defeated the Polish army within weeks of the invasion using such military doctrine as sweeping pincer and lateral movements later known as blitzkrieg interestingly the majority of the German army would not be motorized like news propaganda would depict instead it relied on railways and horse-drawn transport for transportation in 1940 Norway, Denmark, Belgium and the Netherlands would fall to the German Army and another swift victory to the German army, France, came in operations Fall Gelb and Fall Rot the French army mobilized more men than the Germans but were poorly led and organized while the French were well-armed and fortifications of imagine a line it was broken by the German army at its weak point through the Ardennes in early nineteen forty one German troops known as the Africa Corps commanded by Erwin Rommel were sent to North Africa to reinforce the Italian forces who had fared badly against the Allies there Yugoslavia and Greece would also fall to the german army in 1941 and by june of the same year three million men were ready for operation barbarossa against the Soviet Union plus 850,000 from other Axis countries the German army was unable to defeat the Red Army on the Eastern Front and received heavy casualties battles like Stalingrad ended the myth of the invincibility of the German army the Allied forces in France following the d-day landings had pushed the German forces back on the Western Front the army still had over a hundred infantry divisions and 25 Panzer divisions by january 1945 supported in a last-ditch effort by the Volkssturm the German army was defeated in the Battle of Berlin on may eight 1945 but some units continued to fight on for a few days in pockets of resistance against the Soviets in the east Around thirteen million Germans served in the Army during World War two it is estimated that 5.2 million were killed or missing in action

Contents

History

The first Higher SS and Police Leaders were appointed in 1937[1] from the existing SS-Oberabschnitt Führer (leaders of the main districts). The purpose of the Higher SS and Police Leader was to be a direct command authority for every SS and police unit in a given geographical region with such authority answering only to Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler and Adolf Hitler. They were to act as the highest liaison under Himmler and "unifier" for command of the SS and police in a region.[1]

Inside the Reich the man named as HSSPF was usually also SS-Oberabschnitt Führer for that region. In the occupied territories, there was no Oberabschnitt, so the HSSPF existed on their own. However, they had something the Reich HSSPFs did not - several SS- und Polizeiführer (SSPF) reporting to them.[2] There were two Höchster SS- und Polizeiführer (Supreme SS and Police Leader) posts. These were Italien (1943–1945) and Ukraine (1943–1944), both of which had various HSSPF and SSPF reporting to them.[3]

The SS and police leaders directly commanded a headquarters staff with representatives from almost every branch of the SS and the uniformed police. This typically included the Ordnungspolizei (Orpo; regular police), Gestapo (secret police), Totenkopfverbände (SS-TV; Nazi concentration camps), SD (intelligence service), and certain units of the Waffen-SS (combat units). Most of these SS and Police Leaders normally held the rank of SS-Gruppenführer or above and answered directly to Himmler in all matters pertaining to the SS within their area of responsibility. Their role was to be part of the SS control mechanism within the state policing the German population and overseeing the activities of the SS men within each respective district.[4] The men in these positions could bypass the main chain of command of the administrative offices in their district for the SS, SD, SiPo, SS-TV and Orpo under the "guise of an emergency situation" thereby gaining direct operational control of these groups.[5]

Himmler authorized SS and Police Bases (SS- und Polizeistützpunkte) to be established in occupied Poland and occupied areas of the Soviet Union. They were to be "armed industrialized agricultural complexes". They would also maintain order in the areas they were established. They did not go beyond the planning stage.[6]

In 1944 and 1945, many HSSPF were promoted to general's rank in the Waffen-SS by Himmler. This was apparently an attempt to provide potential protection under the Hague Convention rules of warfare.[7]

Crimes against humanity

decrypted wireless telegram from "HSSPF Russland Mitte" (middle Russia) in 1942, reporting to Himmler the 'liquidation' of a village in Belarus (from NSA report[8])
decrypted wireless telegram from "HSSPF Russland Mitte" (middle Russia) in 1942, reporting to Himmler the 'liquidation' of a village in Belarus (from NSA report[8])
Another decrypt, 1941, HSSPF Russland Sud (south Russia), reporting to Himmler the 'liquidation' of Jewish people (from NSA report[9])
Another decrypt, 1941, HSSPF Russland Sud (south Russia), reporting to Himmler the 'liquidation' of Jewish people (from NSA report[9])

The SS and Police Leaders served as commanding SS generals for any Einsatzgruppen (death squads) operating in their areas. This entailed ordering the deaths of tens of thousands of persons and, following the end of World War II, most SS and Police Leaders who had served in Poland and the Soviet Union were charged with war crimes and crimes against humanity.[citation needed]

The SS and Police Leaders were the overseeing authority of the Jewish ghettos in Poland and, as such, directly coordinated deportations to Nazi extermination camps with the administrative help of the RSHA. They had direct command over Order Police battalions and SD regiments that were assigned to guard the ghettos.[citation needed]

List of SS and police leaders

Note – Men were often transferred and promoted as the war went on. The HSSPF areas themselves might change, be absorbed, cease to exist, etc. This list is by no means exhaustive.[Note 1]

HöSSPF

HSSPF

SSPF

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Yerger lists about 37 separate HSSPF posts, most of which had several different commanders over the lifetime of the post. He also lists over 50 SSPF posts, many of which had several commanders.

References

Citations

  1. ^ a b Yerger, p. 22.
  2. ^ Yerger, pp. 22, 52.
  3. ^ Yerger, pp. 22–25.
  4. ^ Koehl 2004, pp. 144, 148, 169, 176–177.
  5. ^ McNab 2009, p. 165.
  6. ^ Ingrao, Charles W.; Szabo, Franz A. J. (2008). The Germans and the East. Purdue University Press, p. 288. [1]
  7. ^ "Nuremberg Trial Proceedings Volume 20 day 195". Avalon Project, Yale Law School. Retrieved 2009-01-03.
  8. ^ Robert J. Hanyok, CENTER FOR CRYPTOLOGIC HISTORY NATIONAL SECURITY AGENCY (2005). "Eavesdropping on Hell: Historical Guide to Western Communications Intelligence and the Holocaust, 1939-1945" (PDF) (Second ed.). National Security Agency, United States Government. Retrieved 2011-03-20. UNITED STATES CRYPTOLOGIC HISTORY, Series IV, Volume 9 The message is on page 52 "Decrypt of Police message [National Archives and Records Administration] (NARA), RG 457, HCC, Box 1386)"
  9. ^ Hanyok, NSA, eavesdropping.pdf, Page 61, "German Police Decrypts, ZIP/G.P.D.353/14.9.41. Decrypt No.1 is from the Senior Commander of the SS and Police in Southern Russia to Heinrich Himmler, the Chiefs of the Order and Secret Police and the Himmler’s staff. (Source: [National Archives and Records Administration] (NARA), RG 457, Box 1386)"

Bibliography

  • Koehl, Robert (2004). The SS: A History 1919–45. Stroud: Tempus. ISBN 978-0-75242-559-7.
  • McNab, Chris (2009). The SS: 1923–1945. London: Amber Books. ISBN 978-1-906626-49-5.
  • Yerger, Mark C. (1997). Allgemeine-SS: The Commands, Units and Leaders of the General SS. Schiffer Publishing Ltd. ISBN 0-7643-0145-4.

Further reading

  • Höhne, Heinz (2001) [1969]. The Order of the Death's Head: The Story of Hitler’s SS. Penguin. ISBN 978-0-14139-012-3.
This page was last edited on 8 June 2019, at 00:51
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