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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Rybinsk

Рыбинск
July 2006 view of the historic center from the Volga
July 2006 view of the historic center from the Volga
Flag of Rybinsk

Flag
Coat of arms of Rybinsk

Coat of arms
Location of Rybinsk
Rybinsk is located in Russia
Rybinsk
Rybinsk
Location of Rybinsk
Rybinsk is located in Yaroslavl Oblast
Rybinsk
Rybinsk
Rybinsk (Yaroslavl Oblast)
Coordinates: 58°03′N 38°50′E / 58.050°N 38.833°E / 58.050; 38.833
CountryRussia
Federal subjectYaroslavl Oblast[1]
First mentioned1071
City status since1777
Government
 • MayorDenis Dobryakov
Area
 • Total101.42 km2 (39.16 sq mi)
Elevation
100 m (300 ft)
Population
 • Total200,771
 • Rank93rd in 2010
 • Density2,000/km2 (5,100/sq mi)
 • Administratively subordinated tocity of oblast significance of Rybinsk[1]
 • Administrative center ofRybinsky District[1], city of oblast significance of Rybinsk[1]
 • Urban okrugRybinsk Urban Okrug[3]
 • Administrative center ofRybinsk Urban Okrug[3], Rybinsky Municipal District
Time zoneMSK (UTC+03:00)[4]
Postal code(s)[5]
152900—152939
Dialing code(s)+7 4855
OKATO ID78415000000
Websitewww.rybinsk.ru

Rybinsk (Russian: Рыбинск, IPA: [ˈrɨbʲɪnsk]) is the second largest city of Yaroslavl Oblast, Russia, which lies at the confluence of the Volga and Sheksna Rivers. Population: 200,771 (2010 Census);[2] 222,653 (2002 Census);[6] 251,442 (1989 Census).[7]

It was previously known as Ust-Sheksna (until 1504), Rybnaya Sloboda (until 1777), Rybinsk (until 1946), Shcherbakov (until 1957), Andropov (until 1989).

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Transcription

Contents

History

Early history

City center and cathedral in the 19th century
City center and cathedral in the 19th century

Rybinsk is one of the oldest Slavic settlements on the Volga River. The place was first recorded by chroniclers in 1071 as Ust-Sheksna, i.e. "the mouth of the Sheksna".[citation needed] During this period the settlement was a regional center for craft and metal based produce and for trade. In the mid-13th century, Ust-Sheksna was laid waste by invading Mongols. For the next few centuries, the settlement was referred to alternatively as Ust-Sheksna or Rybansk. From 1504, it was identified in documents as Rybnaya Sloboda (literally: "the fishing village"). The name is explained by the fact that the settlement supplied the Muscovite court with choice sturgeons and sterlets. In the 17th century, when the sloboda was capitalizing on the trade of the Muscovy Company with Western Europe, it was rich enough to build several stone churches, of which only one survives to the present. More old architecture may be found in the neighborhood, including the very last of Muscovite three-tented churches (in the Alexandrov Hermitage) and the Ushakov family shrine (on Epiphany Island).

Golden age

In the 18th century, the sloboda continued to thrive on the Volga trade. Catherine the Great granted Rybnaya Sloboda municipal rights and renamed it Rybinsk. It was a place where the cargo was reloaded from large Volga vessels to smaller boats capable of navigating in the shallow Mariinsk Canal system, which connects the Russian hinterland with the Baltic Sea. With the population of 7,000, the town daily accommodated up to 170,000 sailors and up to 2,000 river vessels. Consequently, the local river port became known as the "capital of barge-haulers".

General view of Rybinsk in the 1820s
General view of Rybinsk in the 1820s

The town's most conspicuous landmark, the Neoclassical Savior-Transfiguration Cathedral, was constructed on the Volga riverside from 1838 until 1851. It was built to a design that the Dean of the Imperial Academy of Arts, Avraam Melnikov, had prepared for Saint Isaac's Cathedral in St. Petersburg. After Melnikov lost the contest for the best project of St. Isaac's Cathedral to Auguste de Montferrand, he sold his grandiose design to the municipal authorities of Rybinsk.

A 19th-century photo of a monastery near Rybinsk, now submerged under the waters of the Rybinsk Reservoir
A 19th-century photo of a monastery near Rybinsk, now submerged under the waters of the Rybinsk Reservoir
Grain bourse in Rybinsk. For a more recent picture, see this.
Grain bourse in Rybinsk. For a more recent picture, see this.

As a trade capital of the Upper Volga, Rybinsk formerly attracted scores of foreigners, who built a Lutheran church and an imposing Roman Catholic cathedral, said to be the tallest on the Volga. There is also the Nobel Family Museum, documenting the operations of that prominent Swedish family during the Russian Empire.

20th-century American film moguls Nicholas Schenck and Joseph Schenck were born in the town, and there is a grand 18th-century mansion of the Mikhalkov family, whose living members include Sergey Mikhalkov, Nikita Mikhalkov, and Andron Konchalovsky.

20th century

In the Soviet years, Rybinsk continued its impressive renaming record, for it changed its name four times: to Shcherbakov (after Aleksandr Shcherbakov) in 1946, back to Rybinsk in 1957, to Andropov (after Yuri Andropov) in 1984, and back to Rybinsk in 1989.

Administrative and municipal status

Within the framework of administrative divisions, Rybinsk serves as the administrative center of Rybinsky District, even though it is not a part of it.[1] As an administrative division, it is incorporated separately as the city of oblast significance of Rybinsk—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[1] As a municipal division, the city of oblast significance of Rybinsk is incorporated as Rybinsk Urban Okrug.[3]

Economy

The most important industries of modern Rybinsk are NPO Saturn (two plants) AL Turborus aircraft engines , power and naval gas turbines manufacturing , RGT small plant 30 - 100 MW range gas turbines , electronics radiotronics (NPO Luch) , Kalashnikov Pella Rybinsk shipyard Euroyachting , Vympel Shipyard , and a hydroelectric power station. As the experts warn, the giant Rybinsk dam, which holds the Rybinsk Reservoir (formerly touted as the largest man-made body of water on Earth) places the town in the imminent danger of the dam breaking and the reservoir flooding the city. The city is served by the Staroselye Airport.

Climate

Rybinsk has a four-season humid continental climate[8] with significant differences between winters and summers, although the cold winters are still significantly less severe than those found on similar parallels further east in Russia. June, July and August all average above 20 °C (68 °F) in average high temperatures with the five months above 10 °C (50 °F) ensuring Rybinsk falls into humid continental rather than the subarctic category found further north. The yearly mean is around 4 °C (39 °F),[9] also comfortably falling within range of warm-summer humid continental climates.

Climate data for Rybinsk
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 7.0
(44.6)
6.2
(43.2)
17.3
(63.1)
28.0
(82.4)
33.6
(92.5)
33.5
(92.3)
37.2
(99)
36.0
(96.8)
29.4
(84.9)
24.8
(76.6)
13.2
(55.8)
8.9
(48)
37.2
(99)
Average high °C (°F) −5.7
(21.7)
−5.1
(22.8)
1.3
(34.3)
9.6
(49.3)
17.3
(63.1)
21.1
(70)
23.5
(74.3)
20.8
(69.4)
14.8
(58.6)
7.7
(45.9)
−0.1
(31.8)
−4.2
(24.4)
8.4
(47.1)
Daily mean °C (°F) −10.1
(13.8)
−9.5
(14.9)
−4.1
(24.6)
4.0
(39.2)
11.0
(51.8)
16.0
(60.8)
18.2
(64.8)
16.1
(61)
10.4
(50.7)
4.4
(39.9)
−2.4
(27.7)
−7.1
(19.2)
3.9
(39)
Average low °C (°F) −11.8
(10.8)
−12.0
(10.4)
−6.3
(20.7)
0.6
(33.1)
7.0
(44.6)
11.9
(53.4)
14.5
(58.1)
12.3
(54.1)
7.4
(45.3)
2.4
(36.3)
−4.1
(24.6)
−9.5
(14.9)
1
(33.9)
Record low °C (°F) −40.1
(−40.2)
−38.9
(−38)
−34.6
(−30.3)
−21.9
(−7.4)
−3.1
(26.4)
0.8
(33.4)
5.2
(41.4)
0.3
(32.5)
−5.9
(21.4)
−17.8
(0)
−26.3
(−15.3)
−42.6
(−44.7)
−42.6
(−44.7)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 46
(1.81)
36
(1.42)
34
(1.34)
38
(1.5)
51
(2.01)
70
(2.76)
80
(3.15)
78
(3.07)
64
(2.52)
58
(2.28)
51
(2.01)
48
(1.89)
654
(25.76)
Source: [10]

International relations

Twin towns — Sister cities

Rybinsk is twinned with:

Notable people

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Law #12-z
  2. ^ a b Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  3. ^ a b c Law #65-z
  4. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №271-ФЗ от 03 июля 2016 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #271-FZ of July 03, 2016 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.).
  5. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (in Russian)
  6. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (21 May 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian).
  7. ^ "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 – via Demoscope Weekly.
  8. ^ "Rybinsk, Russia Climate Summary". Weatherbase. Retrieved 24 January 2015.
  9. ^ "Rybinsk Temperature Averages". Weatherbase. Retrieved 24 January 2015.
  10. ^ "Rybinsk Temperature Averages". Weatherbase. Retrieved 24 January 2015.

Sources

  • Государственная Дума Ярославской области. Закон №12-з от 7 февраля 2002 г «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Ярославской области и порядке его изменения», в ред. Закона №67-з от 21 декабря 2012 г. «О внесении изменений в отдельные законодательные акты Ярославской области и признании утратившими силу отдельных законодательных актов (положений законодательных актов) Ярославской области». Вступил в силу через шесть месяцев со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Губернские вести", №11, 15 февраля 2002 г. (State Duma of Yaroslavl Oblast. Law #12-z of February 7, 2002 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Yaroslavl Oblast and on the Procedures of Its Change, as amended by the Law #67-z of December 21, 2012 On Amending Various Legislative Acts of Yaroslavl Oblast and on Abrogation of Various Legislative Acts (Clauses of Legislative Acts) of Yaroslavl Oblast. Effective as of the day six months from the day of the official publication.).
  • Государственная Дума Ярославской области. Закон №65-з от 21 декабря 2004 г. «О наименованиях, границах и статусе муниципальных образований Ярославской области», в ред. Закона №59-з от 28 декабря 2011 г «Об изменении статуса рабочего посёлка Песочное Рыбинского района и о внесении изменений в отдельные законодательные акты Ярославской области». Вступил в силу через 10 дней со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Губернские вести", №70, 23 декабря 2004 г. (State Duma of Yaroslavl Oblast. Law #65-z of December 21, 2004 On the Names, Borders, and Status of the Municipal Formations of Yaroslavl Oblast, as amended by the Law #59-z of December 28, 2011 On Changing the Status of the Work Settlement of Pesochnoye of Rybinsky District and on Amending Various Legislative Acts of Yaroslavl Oblast. Effective as of after 10 days from the day of the official publication.).

External links

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