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Royal supporters of England

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The royal supporters of England refer to the heraldic supporter creatures appearing on each side of the royal arms of England. The royal supporters of the monarchs of England displayed a variety, or even a menagerie, of real and imaginary heraldic beasts, either side of their royal arms of sovereignty, including lion, leopard, panther and tiger, antelope and hart, greyhound, boar and bull, falcon, cock, eagle and swan, red and gold dragons, as well as the current unicorn.[1]

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Transcription

1066! The start of the royal family on these fair isles. Well, there were kings and mini countries before that and druids before that, and Pangaea before that, but we have to start somewhere and a millennia ago is plenty far -- if that leaves out Æthelred the Unready, so it goes. William the Conqueror, conquered in the 'Norman Conquest' -- Norman here being code for *French*. Because it's the olden days, people had lots of kids, but to keep things simple this family tree is going to leave out many of them on each branch because not every child matters. So William had three kids we care about: William II, Henry I and Adela. If you've seen the video about royal succession -- click here if you haven't -- you'll know that formal rules for passing on the crown will get established, but for now, it's a free-for-all, home team advantage to the eldest son, but never forget bigger-army diplomacy. Upon William the Conquerors death, William II became king. William II didn't marry, and on a bros day out with Henry died in a 'Hunting Accident' that gave Henry I the crown. Henry I had at least 26 children of which only two were 100% legit. He declared his daughter would rule next (after his son died in a ship wreck) and swore his knights to honor Empress Matilda by crossing their hearts, hoping to die, sticking a needle in their eye -- *but* when Henry I died while Matilda was in France, many ignored this while her cousin Stephen raced to Westminster using faster army diplomacy to get coronated first. Empress Matilda did eventually return and start a decades-long civil war -- that was pretty much a stalemate because turtling in the 1100s was an effective RTS tactic. While she did rule part of the island, as Matilda never had an official coronation, her monarchical status is disputed. Now, as Stephen's children were either dead, disinterested, or a nun -- his crown went to his nephew, Henry II who had four sons: Henry the Young, Richard the Lionheart, King John… and Geoff. (Guess who died before his turn?) Henry II saw the history thus far of conquering, assassination, (maybe) usurpation, attritional war -- and decided waiting until after the death of the current king before sorting out the *next* king didn't work. So Henry II changed the system and crowned Henry the Young co-king with him, invoking the rule of two: one is none. Two is one. If it's important, you need a backup. It was a good plan for stability, helped by the young King's popularity, but unfortunately -- the apprentice rebelled against the master, rallying his brothers -- which resulted in another civil war of disputed monarchs during which Henry the Young died of dysentery, Henry the Elder died of fever, and Richard I took the crown. After Richard came John and four eldest son successions in a row: John to Henry III (insert Magna Carta here) to Edward I (Longshanks) to Edward II -- to Edward III. Actually Ed II was overthrown by Isabelle of France A.K.A the She-Wolf of France A.K.A. his wife. After deposing her husband, she acted as regent for their son. Every one of these arrows glosses over a bit of complexity. Edward III had five sons: Edward the Black Prince, Lionel, John, Edmund, and Thomas, none of which would wear the crown. When Edward III died, his throne would have gone to The Black Prince, but he was dead at the time so the crown went to his boringly named son Richard, now the second. There's a bunch of drama lamma stuff around Richard the second which your English teacher might force you to read about -- but spoiler alert, history's ending is always the same: bigger-army diplomacy, this time from Henry IV who gets the crown and Richard II gets starvation in captivity. Another Henry before we get to the War of the Roses: A war that strikes terror (and boredom) in the minds of students of history the nation over who have to deal with *this* family tree 'simplified' to explain why everyone was angry, but the shortest version ever is Edward III's great, great, grandsons duked it out, even though one of them was dead for part of the fight -- but we can't get into that now so Henry VI to Edward IV to Henry VI to Edward IV. The end. Edward IV, on his deathbed left his crown to his son. But being twelve he needed protection, so Richard, his best-ist uncle in the world, promised to take super-good care of him. Edward V then promptly disappeared under suspicious circumstances that left Richard to become Richard the third. But he didn't stay king for long because Edward III's great, great, great, great grandson Henry VII -- took the crown, put a ring on Elizabeth of York to lock down that royal legitimacy and then sired Henry VIII -- splitter of churches, and ladies. Henry VIII thought it was high time to formalize the rules of inheritance, so he wrote them out in his will -- basically saying oldest boys first, girls only if there aren't any boys -- and Parliament approved the rules. Which should have made everything neat and tidy, but we're about to enter the really messy time... … Because Henry's son lived just long enough to screw it up -- inheriting the throne at 9 there was, of course, a scheming protectorate running things, yet he still declared at 15 that his father's rules were dumb and his sisters were dumb and that his first cousin once removed, Lady Jane Grey, should be the next monarch instead. Then he died and Lady Jane Grey became queen at sweet sixteen, sort of -- in a disputed status way for nine days, until beheaded by Mary, the first really, truly officially nobody doubts it Queen. Mary didn't have any kids, and passed the crown to Elizabeth I who became the second queen in a row… to also not have children. But, no problem because Lady Jane Grey was next in … oh. Right. Now, this is the point at which we acknowledge, Scotland Exists. They'd been doing their own royal thing which for our purposes joins the English branch where Edward III's great granddaughter married into it in the 1400s and then goes: James, James, James, James, James, Mary Queen of Scotts, James. Bringing us back to the 1600s. Henry the VIII's sister importantly also married into this line of the family giving it English legitimacy points in the eyes of the English Parliament, which asked to borrow Scotland's James, making him king of two countries with two numbers in his name depending on where you're counting from. James had a son, Charles I, and you might think this unification of the monarchs means the very messy time is over. But no. Because Cromwell. Cromwell didn't like kings and beheaded Charles I: declaring no royals no longer, making himself The Lord Protector which was in no way like a king -- even though he was in charge and it was a hereditary office passed to his son. But the Cromwells didn't last -- mainly because his son was a fancy country squire who didn't follow rule 0: keep the army happy -- giving Charles's son, Charles II, the ability to reestablish the monarchy. Charles II had lots of children, all of which were illegitimate, leaving his brother, James II next in line. But James II was *Catholic* and ever since Henry split the church, Catholics had terrible approval ratings. But conveniently, he had nice Protestant daughters, one married to a Dutch Prince who by the nature of these things was the grandson of Charles I. Bonus English legitimacy points, plus, who doesn't like the Dutch? With James so unpopular and William and Mary so popular, the army and nobles pretty much invited the royal couple to 'invade' and James II fled. William and Mary ruled as co-monarchs, but without children the crown went to Queen Anne, who also didn't produce any heirs, though not from lack of effort -- she was pregnant *seventeen* times. Again, finding themselves with a no-royals-no-longer situation, Parliament decided it was really, truly seriously the time to sort out the rules of inheritance to avoid pretenders from every branch of this messy tree fighting over the crown. Parliament did a royal reboot to clear the cruft, defining Sophia of Hanover -- the granddaughter of James dual numbers to be the new starting point for all claims to the crown. These rules finally stuck, thus ending the very messy time. George I, son of Sophia, was the first king under the new rules, then his son George II, to George III, and even though he lost America and his mind, never fear, the rules are here, so the crown continued to calmly descend the family tree, going to George IV, who didn't have any surviving children, to William IV who had ten children -- all illegitimate, then passing through his dead younger brother to Queen Victoria who started her reign in 1837 and made it to just over the finishing line of the 20th century. Which is a doubly impressively long time given the state of medical technology then. After the end of her age, the crown went to her son Edward VII to George V… to Edward VIII who *finally* breaks up this neat and tidy (and somewhat boring) line of succession by committing a scandal: marrying a commoner. An American Commoner! An American Commoner *divorcee*! *twice over* ::Gasp:: Actually, the divorces were a real problem and weren't compatible with the Monarch's role as Head of State *and also* the Church of England in the 1930s. Edward abdicated to his brother George VI -- who was reluctant to take the crown, and then had to oversee World War II and the subsequent breakup of the British Empire -- which drained the reluctant King's health, who died at 56 leaving the crown to Elizabeth the Second, in 1952 at the age of 25. Seven years older than Victoria, her great great grandmother was on her coronation day, but in early September, 2015, Elizabeth became the longest-reigning Queen in not just British history, but world history. From Elizabeth II the crown continues on to Charles, the longest heir apparent in British history, to his son William, to his son George. And that, is a brief history of the royal family.

Heraldic supporters of the monarchs of England

Monarch (Reign) Supporters[2] Details Coat of arms
Planta genista Badge of the Plantagenets.svg
 House of Plantagenet 
Planta genista Badge of the Plantagenets.svg

(1327–1399)
King Edward III from NPG.jpg

King Edward III
(1327–1377)

King Edward III was supposed to have used on the dexter side a Lion guardant Or, crowned of the last; and on the sinister, by a Falcon Argent, membered Or.

However, there is no conclusive evidence to assume that a definitive set of heraldic supporters were in use so early at this period.[4]

Coat of Arms of Edward III of England (1327-1377) (Attributed).svg

lion and falcon
King Richard II from NPG (2).jpg

King Richard II
(1377–1399)
  • two harts argent

King Richard's arms appear on the north front of Westminster Hall. On the base of the escutcheon rests his royal badge of the white hart; which is collared and chained. This device is derived from the personal badge of his mother Joan of Kent. The same device was also used by her son, from her first husband; Thomas Holland, 1st Earl of Kent. In this same decoration the escutcheon is surrounded by two angels, however these the character of pious emblems, rather than heraldic figures.[5]

Another example lies in St Olave's Church, Hart Street, depicts the arms of the monarch impaled with those of his patron saint; Edward the Confessor. Here is escutcheon is supported by two Harts Argent, collared and chained Or.[6]

Coat of Arms of Richard II of England (1377-1399).svg

two harts
Red Rose Badge of Lancaster.svg
 House of Lancaster 
Red Rose Badge of Lancaster.svg

(1399–1413)
King Henry IV from NPG (2).jpg

King Henry IV
(1399–1413)
  • lion and antelope
  • heraldic antelope argent, armed, crined and collared gold; and white swan collared with an open crown or, a golden chain pendent from the crown
  • white swan collared with an open crown or, a golden chain pendent from the crown; and heraldic antelope argent, armed, crined and collared gold
  • two angels

King Henry IV was supposed to have his escutcheon supported on the dexter by an antelope Argent, ducally collared, lines, and armed Or; and on the sinister, by a swan Argent. However no remaining monuments have been found that supports conclusive proof that these devices were used as such. The device of the swan is derived from the Bohun swan of the family of de Bohun, a descendant of which, Mary de Bohun, was Henry's first wife.[7] It is likely that these may have been used only as badges and not as supporters at all. (Page 89)[8]

The heraldic antelope appears to have also been derived from the Bohun family.[9][10]

Coat of Arms of Henry IV of England (1399-1413).svg

lion and antelope
King Henry V.jpg

King Henry V
(1413–1422)
  • lion and antelope
  • white swan collared with an open crown or, a golden chain pendent from the crown; and heraldic antelope argent, armed, crined and collared gold
  • two feathers argent

King Henry V as king bore on the dexter side a lion guardant Or, on the sinister an antelope Argent.[11]

Coat of Arms of Henry IV & V of England (1413-1422).svg

lion and antelope
King Henry VI from NPG (2).jpg

King Henry VI
(1422–1461)
  • two antelopes argent
  • lion and panther
  • antelope or and tiger

King Henry VI's arms are supported by two antelopes, this depiction appears on the ceiling of the southern aisle of St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle; and on the upper part of the inner gateway of Eton College.[12] Possibly the first English king to systematically used supporters, in their arms, previously they were used ornamentally rather than as part of the heraldic science. The heraldic antelopes are described thus; two heraldic antelopes Argent, armed and tufted Or. [13]

Coat of Arms of Henry VI of England (1422-1471).svg

two antelopes
Rose en Soleil Badge of York.svg
 House of York 
Rose en Soleil Badge of York.svg

(1413–1485)
Edward IV Plantagenet.jpg

King Edward IV
(1461–1483)
  • two lions argent
  • lion argent and bull sable
  • lion or and bull sable
  • lion argent and hart argent

King Edward IV's arms contained the white lion, which had been used as supporters by the Mortimers, Earls of March. When he himself was Earl of March, his arms were indeed supported by two white lions; lions rampant guardant Argent, their tails passing between their legs and over their backs.[14][15]

A black bull, with horns, hoofs Or, is sometimes incorporated as a supporter interchangeably with other creature either on the dexter or sinister side. The bull was a device of Lionel of Antwerp, 1st Duke of Clarence, the second son of Edward III. The House of York were descended through him by Richard of York, 3rd Duke of York and his mother Anne de Mortimer.[16]

The white hart was evidently derived from the arms of Richard II, who in 1387 declared Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March, Edward's maternal great-grandfather, his lawful heir to the crown.[14]

Coat of Arms of Edward IV of England (1461-1483).svg

two lions
King Edward V from NPG.jpg

King Edward V
(1483)
  • lion argent and hart argent gorged and chained or
  • lion argent and hind argent gorged and chained or

The short-lived monarch shares his supporters with those of his father's; specifically the white lion and the white hart.[17] A painting of the king's arms is found in St George's Chapel, beside the tomb of Oliver King, Bishop of Exeter. However the it shows; dexter a lion argent and sinister a hind argent.[18]

Coat of Arms of Edward V of England (1483).svg

lion and hart
King Richard III.jpg

King Richard III
(1483–1485)
  • two boars argent
  • lion or and boar argent
  • boar argent and bull

King Richard III used most prominently two white boars as his supporters. Even before his ascension to the throne the white boar was used as a personal badge, also in his service was a pursuivant called 'Blanc Sanglier'. The satire of William Collingbourne, referring to Richard as a 'hogge' is well known.[19]The boars are described as; A boar rampant argent, armed and bristled Or.[20]

Coat of Arms of Richard III of England (1483-1485).svg

two boars
Tudor Rose.svg
 House of Tudor 
Tudor Rose.svg

(1485–1606)
Henry Tudor of England.jpg

King Henry VII
(1485–1509)
  • dragon gules and greyhound argent collared gules
  • two greyhounds argent
  • lion or and dragon gules

King Henry VII used as his supporters a red dragon and a white greyhound. The red dragon is traditionally the symbol of Cadwaladr, King of Gwynedd. Henry VII claims his descent from the Welsh leader, and was fond of the myth surrounding his reign. However the dragon itself have long been borne by various English kings in their standard; such as Henry III, Edward I and Edward III.[21] The dragon is described as; a dragon Gules garnished and armed Or.[22]

The white greyhound have been used as a device by the House of York, it was assumed as a supporter by Henry in right of his wife, who derived it from her grandmother's family of Neville.[23] At other times the greyhound have been attributed to the House of Beaufort, the family of Henry's mother; Margaret Beaufort, rather than York.[24]The greyhound is described as; a greyhound Argent collared Gules.[25]

Coat of Arms of Henry VII of England (1485-1509).svg

dragon and greyhound
Henry VIII National Maritime Museum.jpg

King Henry VIII
(1509–1547)
  • dragon gules and greyhound argent collared gules[3]
  • lion crowned or and dragon gules
  • dragon gules and bull sable
  • dragon gules and greyhound argent
  • dragon gules and cock argent

During the first half of his reign, King Henry VIII used the same supporters as his father, this was depicted on many manuscripts which belonged to him. Afterwards he began to use a crowned lion of England on the dexter side and the red dragon on the sinister side.[26] The lion is described as; A lion guardant Or, imperially crowned proper.[27]

Coat of Arms of England (1509-1554).svg

lion and dragon
Edouard VI Tudor.jpg

King Edward VI
(1547–1553)
  • lion or and dragon gules

King Edward VI used the same supporters, without change, from those used by his father on the latter half of his reign.[28]

Coat of Arms of England (1509-1554).svg

lion and dragon
Queen Mary I from NPG.jpg

Queen Mary I
(1553–1558)
  • lion rampant or and dragon gules
  • lion or and greyhound argent
  • eagle and lion (Philip and Mary)

Queen Mary I used as her supporters; on the dexter an eagle Sable, with wings endorsed; and on the sinister a crowned lion of England. The eagle was the supporter of her husband King Philip II of Spain.[29]

Coat of Arms of England (1554-1558).svg

eagle and lion
Elizabeth I Unknown Artist.jpg

Queen Elizabeth I
(1558–1603)
  • lion or and dragon or / gules
  • lion or and greyhound argent

Queen Elizabeth I used the supporters of her father, a crowned lion and a dragon. However, sometimes the red dragon is substituted with a golden one.[30]

Coat of Arms of England (1558-1603).svg

lion and dragon
Dimidiated Rose and Thistle Badge.svg
 House of Stuart 
Dimidiated Rose and Thistle Badge.svg

(1603–1649)
King James I of England and VI of Scotland by John De Critz the Elder.jpg

King James I
(1603–1625)
  • lion or and unicorn argent

When King James VI of Scotland inherited the English throne in 1603 and became King James I of England, he exchanged the red dragon with the Scottish unicorn of his ancestors.[31] The royal arms of Scotland have been supported by two unicorns since the reign of King James V.[32] The unicorn is blazoned as: a unicorn Argent, armed, unguled, craned, and gorged with a royal coronet Or, having a chain affixed thereto and reflexed over the back all Or.[33]

However to preserve a distinct identity for both nations, the king allowed for the use of two coats of arms; one for England and another for Scotland. In Scotland the position of the supporters are switched with the unicorn in the dexter and the lion in the sinister. The unicorn is also imperially crowned, similarly to the lion.[34]

Coat of Arms of England (1603-1649).svg

lion and unicorn
Charles I (Daniel Mytens).jpg

King Charles I
(1625–1649)
  • lion or and unicorn argent

King Charles I uses the same supporters as those of his father, the crowned lion and unicorn.[35] Blazoned as; dexter a lion rampant guardant Or imperially crowned, sinister a unicorn Argent armed, crined and unguled Proper, gorged with a coronet Or composed of crosses patée and fleurs de lys a chain affixed thereto passing between the forelegs and reflexed over the back also Or.[36]

Coat of Arms of England (1603-1649).svg

lion and unicorn
Coat of Arms of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland.svg
 The Protectorate 
Coat of Arms of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland.svg

(1653–1659)
Oliver Cromwell by Samuel Cooper.jpg

Oliver Cromwell
(1653–1658)
  • lion or and dragon gules

During the Protectorate of Oliver Cromwell a coat of arms was created for use in the Great Seal. This coat of arms featured; Dexter, a lion guardant Or, crowned with the imperial crown Proper, Sinister, a dragon gules. Perhaps it was thought that the arms and motto of the Royal family was too personal and must be dropped. The supporters and crest, however was less personal but more national in character and was retained. The substitution of the Tudor dragon in favour of the unicorn demonstrates a clear rejection of the Stuarts and their symbols.[37]

Coat of Arms of the Protectorate (1653–1659).svg

lion and dragon
RichardCromwell.jpeg

Richard Cromwell
(1658–1659)
  • lion or and dragon gules

The younger Cromwell retained the arms of his father for the eight months he held the office, until his rule was terminated by the Restoration in May 1660.[37]

Coat of Arms of the Protectorate (1653–1659).svg

lion and dragon
Dimidiated Rose and Thistle Badge.svg
 House of Stuart (Restored) 
Dimidiated Rose and Thistle Badge.svg

(1660–1707)
King Charles II (Lely).jpg

King Charles II
(1660–1685)
  • lion or and unicorn argent

King Charles II uses; dexter a lion rampant guardant Or imperially crowned, sinister a unicorn Argent armed, crined and unguled Proper, gorged with a coronet Or composed of crosses patée and fleurs de lys a chain affixed thereto passing between the forelegs and reflexed over the back also Or.[38]

Coat of Arms of England (1660-1689).svg

lion and unicorn
James II 1633-1701.jpg

King James II
(1685–1688)
  • lion or and unicorn argent

King James II uses; dexter a lion rampant guardant Or imperially crowned, sinister a unicorn Argent armed, crined and unguled Proper, gorged with a coronet Or composed of crosses patée and fleurs de lys a chain affixed thereto passing between the forelegs and reflexed over the back also Or.[39]

Coat of Arms of England (1660-1689).svg

lion and unicorn
William and Mary cropped.jpg

King William III and Queen Mary II
(1689–1694)
  • lion or and unicorn argent

King William III and Queen Mary uses; dexter a lion rampant guardant Or imperially crowned, sinister a unicorn Argent armed, crined and unguled Proper, gorged with a coronet Or composed of crosses patée and fleurs de lys a chain affixed thereto passing between the forelegs and reflexed over the back also Or.[40]

Coat of Arms of England (1689-1694).svg

lion and unicorn
William III of England.jpg

King William III
(1689–1702)
  • lion or and unicorn argent

King William III uses; dexter a lion rampant guardant Or imperially crowned, sinister a unicorn Argent armed, crined and unguled Proper, gorged with a coronet Or composed of crosses patée and fleurs de lys a chain affixed thereto passing between the forelegs and reflexed over the back also Or.[41]

Coat of Arms of England (1694-1702).svg

lion and unicorn
Anne Stuart.jpg

Queen Anne
(1702–1707)
  • lion or and unicorn argent

Queen Anne uses; dexter a lion rampant guardant Or imperially crowned, sinister a unicorn Argent armed, crined and unguled Proper, gorged with a coronet Or composed of crosses patée and fleurs de lys a chain affixed thereto passing between the forelegs and reflexed over the back also Or.[41]

Coat of Arms of England (1702-1707).svg

lion and unicorn

References

Citations
  1. ^ The Art of Heraldry: An Encyclopædia of Armory. A.C. Fox-Davies. (ch XXX, p300). (1986). ISBN 0-906223-34-2.
  2. ^ Charles Hasler, The Royal Arms, pp.3–11. ISBN 0-904041-20-4
  3. ^ a b The Penny Magazine. 18 April 1835
  4. ^ Willement 1821, p. 16.
  5. ^ Willement 1821, p. 20.
  6. ^ Willement 1821, p. 21.
  7. ^ Willement 1821, p. 28.
  8. ^ Pinches 1974, p. 89.
  9. ^ Willement 1821, p. 29.
  10. ^ Pinches 1974, p. 90.
  11. ^ Willement 1821, p. 33.
  12. ^ Willement 1821, p. 35.
  13. ^ Pinches 1974, p. 97.
  14. ^ a b Willement 1821, p. 46.
  15. ^ Pinches 1974, p. 113.
  16. ^ Willement 1821, p. 45.
  17. ^ Willement 1821, p. 49.
  18. ^ Pinches 1974, p. 121.
  19. ^ Willement 1821, p. 50.
  20. ^ Pinches 1974, p. 122.
  21. ^ Willement 1821, pp. 58–59.
  22. ^ Pinches p. 133
  23. ^ Willement 1821, p. 59.
  24. ^ Willement 1821, p. 60.
  25. ^ Pinches 1974, p. 133.
  26. ^ Willement 1821, pp. 64–65.
  27. ^ Pinches 1974, p. 140.
  28. ^ Willement 1821, p. 76.
  29. ^ Willement 1821, p. 78.
  30. ^ Pinches 1974, p. 154.
  31. ^ Willement pp. 88–89
  32. ^ Pinches 1974, p. 159.
  33. ^ Pinches 1974, p. 160.
  34. ^ Pinches 1974, p. 169.
  35. ^ Willement 1821, p. 92.
  36. ^ Pinches 1974, p. 174.
  37. ^ a b Pinches 1974, p. 179.
  38. ^ Pinches 1974, p. 181.
  39. ^ Pinches 1974, p. 187.
  40. ^ Brooke-Little 1978, p. 214.
  41. ^ a b Brooke-Little 1978.
Bibliography

See also

This page was last edited on 12 November 2018, at 16:58
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