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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Roy Rogers
Leonard Franklin Slye

(1911-11-05)November 5, 1911
Cincinnati, Ohio, U.S.
DiedJuly 6, 1998(1998-07-06) (aged 86)
Resting placeSunset Hills Memorial Park, Apple Valley
34°33′25″N 117°08′35″W / 34.5569916°N 117.1429367°W / 34.5569916; -117.1429367
Other namesLen Slye
  • Singer
  • actor
  • TV host
Years active
  • 1932–1991
  • 1935–1984 (acting)
Political partyRepublican
Grace Arline Wilkins
(m. 1932; died 1946)
(m. 1947)

Roy Rogers (born Leonard Franklin Slye; November 5, 1911 – July 6, 1998), nicknamed the King of the Cowboys,[1] was an American singer, actor, television host, and rodeo performer.

Following early work under his given name, first as a co-founder of the Sons of the Pioneers and then as an actor, the rebranded Rogers then became one of the most famous and popular Western stars of his era.

He appeared in almost 90 motion pictures, as well as numerous episodes of his self-titled radio program that lasted for nine years. Between 1951 and 1957, he hosted The Roy Rogers Show television series. In many of them, he appeared with his wife, Dale Evans; his Golden Palomino, Trigger; and his German Shepherd, Bullet. Rogers is also best remembered for his signature song "Happy Trails".

His early roles were uncredited parts in films by fellow singing cowboy Gene Autry. His productions usually featured a sidekick, often either Pat Brady, Andy Devine, George "Gabby" Hayes, or Smiley Burnette.[2]

Rogers was the only country singer to be inducted twice into the Country Music Hall of Fame. Alongside Bob Hope, Mickey Rooney, and Tony Martin, he's the recipient of four stars on the Hollywood Walk of Fame; the latter of which was honored with the band mentioned above.

In his later years, he lent his name to the franchise chain of Roy Rogers Restaurants.

YouTube Encyclopedic

  • 1/5
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  • Roy Rogers’ Daughter Confirms What We Thought All Along
  • The Tragic Real-Life Story Of Roy Rogers | ⭐OSSA
  • TRUTH BEHIND DEADLY ACCIDENT on Movie Set! Exclusive Interviews! Roy Rogers & Dan White! Westerns!
  • Roy Rogers,Dale Evans And Sons Of Pioneers - Medley Greatest Hits(Classic Songs from the West)
  • Roy Rogers - Down Dakota Way - with Dale Evans


Life and career

Early life

Rogers was born Leonard Franklin Slye, the son of Mattie (née Womack) and Andrew "Andy" Slye in Cincinnati, Ohio.[3] The family lived in a tenement on 2nd Street, where Riverfront Stadium was later constructed. (Rogers later joked that he was born at second base.)[3] Len had three sisters: Kathleen, Mary, and Cleda. Dissatisfied with his job and city life, Andy and his brother Will built a 12-by-50-foot (3.7 m × 15.2 m) houseboat from salvage lumber, and in July 1912 the Slye family traveled up the Ohio River towards Portsmouth.[3] Desiring a more stable existence in Portsmouth, they purchased land on which they planned to build a house, but instead the Great Flood of 1913 enabled them to move the houseboat onto their property and continue living in it on dry land.[3]

Rogers's boyhood home at Duck Run, near Lucasville, Ohio

In 1919, the Slye family purchased a farm in Duck Run, near Lucasville, Ohio, about 12 miles (19 km) north of Portsmouth, and built a six-room house.[3] Andy soon realized that the farm alone would not provide sufficient income for his family, so he took a job at a Portsmouth shoe factory, living in Portsmouth during the week and returning home on weekends, bearing gifts following paydays. A notable gift was a horse on which young Len learned the basics of horsemanship.[3] Living on the farm with no radio, the family made their own entertainment. On Saturday nights, they often invited neighbors over for square dances, during which Len would sing, play mandolin, and call the square dances.[3] He also learned to yodel during this time, and with his mother they would use different yodels to communicate with each other across distances on the farm.[3]

Len attended high school in McDermott, Ohio,[3] but after he completed his second year there, his family returned to Cincinnati, where his father worked at another shoe factory.[3] Realizing that his family needed his financial help, Len quit school and joined his father at the factory.[3] He tried to attend night school, but after being ridiculed for falling asleep in class, he quit school and never returned.

By 1929, after his older sister Mary and her husband had moved to Lawndale, California, Len and his father quit their factory jobs, packed up their 1923 Dodge, and drove the family to California to visit Mary. They stayed for four months before returning to Ohio.[3] Soon after returning, Len had the opportunity to travel again to California with Mary's father-in-law, and the rest of the family followed in the spring of 1930. The Slye family rented a small house near Mary, and Len and his father found employment driving gravel trucks for a highway construction project.[3]

In spring 1931, after the construction company went bankrupt, Len traveled to Tulare, California, where he found work picking peaches for Del Monte.[3] During this time, he lived in a labor camp similar to those depicted in John Steinbeck's novel The Grapes of Wrath.[3] The economic hardship of the Great Depression was just as severe in California as it was in Ohio.

Music career

After 19-year-old Len's return to Lawndale, his sister Mary suggested that he audition for the Midnight Frolic radio program, which was broadcast over KMCS in Inglewood. A few nights later, wearing a Western shirt that Mary had made for him, he overcame his shyness and appeared on the program playing guitar, singing, and yodeling.[3] A few days later, he was asked to join a local country music group, the Rocky Mountaineers.[3] He accepted the group's offer and became a member in August 1931.[3][4]

By September 1931, Len hired the Canadian-born Bob Nolan, who answered the group's classified ad in the Los Angeles Herald-Examiner that read, "Yodeler for old-time act, to travel. Tenor preferred." Nolan stayed with the group only a short time, but Len and he stayed in touch. Nolan was replaced by Tim Spencer.[5]

In the spring of 1932, Len, Spencer, and another singer, Slumber Nichols, left the Rocky Mountaineers to form a trio, which soon failed. Throughout that year, Len and Spencer moved through a series of short-lived groups, including the International Cowboys and the O-Bar-O Cowboys. When Spencer left the O-Bar-O Cowboys to take a break from music, Len joined Jack LeFevre and His Texas Outlaws, who were a popular act on a local Los Angeles radio station.[6]

In early 1933, Len, Nolan, and Spencer formed the Pioneers Trio, with Slye on guitar, Nolan on string bass, and Spencer as lead vocalist. They rehearsed for weeks refining their vocal harmonies. During this time, Len continued to work with his radio singing group, while Spencer and Nolan began writing songs for the trio.[5] In early 1934, the fiddle player Hugh Farr joined the group, adding a bass voice to their vocal arrangements. Later that year, the Pioneers Trio became the Sons of the Pioneers when a radio station announcer changed their name because he felt they were too young to be pioneers. The name was received well and fit the group, which was no longer a trio.[5]

By summer 1934, the popularity and fame of the Sons of the Pioneers extended beyond the Los Angeles area and quickly spread across the country through short syndicated radio segments that were later rebroadcast across the United States. The Sons of the Pioneers signed a recording contract with the newly founded Decca label and made their first commercial recording on August 8, 1934.[5] One of the first songs recorded during that first session was "Tumbling Tumbleweeds", written by Bob Nolan. Over the next two years, the Sons of the Pioneers recorded 32 songs for Decca, including the classic "Cool Water".[7]

Film career

Lynne Roberts and Rogers in Billy the Kid Returns, 1938

From his first film appearance in 1935, Len worked steadily in Western films, including a large supporting role as a singing cowboy while still billed as Leonard Slye in a Gene Autry movie. In 1938, Autry demanded more money for his work, so there was a competition for a new singing cowboy (that they could pay less). Many singers sought the job, including Willie Phelps of the Phelps brothers, who appeared in early Western movies. Len ended up winning the contest and was given the stage name Roy Rogers by Republic Pictures, suggesting the western-sounding name Roy and combining it with the surname of the popular western comic entertainer Will Rogers.

He was assigned the leading role in Under Western Stars. He became a matinee idol, a competitor with Autry as the nation's favorite singing cowboy. In addition to his own movies, he played a supporting role in the John Wayne classic Dark Command (1940), which also featured one of his future sidekicks, George "Gabby" Hayes. He became a major box-office attraction. Unlike other stars, the vast majority of his leading roles allowed him to play a character with his own name, in the manner of Autry.[8]

Publicity photo of Rogers and Mary Hart for Shine On, Harvest Moon, 1938

In the Motion Picture Herald Top Ten Money-Making Western Stars poll, Rogers was listed for 16 consecutive years, from 1939 to 1954, holding first place from 1943 to 1954 until the poll ceased.[9] He appeared in the similar BoxOffice poll from 1938 to 1955, holding first place from 1943 to 1952. In the final three years of that poll, he was second only to Randolph Scott.[10] These two polls are only an indication of the popularity of series stars, but Rogers also appeared in the Top Ten Money Making Stars Poll of all films in 1945 and 1946.[11]

Rogers was an idol for many children through his films and television shows. Most of his postwar films were in Trucolor during an era when almost all other B westerns were black and white. Some of his movies would segue into animal adventures, in which his horse, Trigger, would go off on his own for a while with the camera following him.

With money from Rogers's films and from his public appearances going to Republic Pictures, he brought a clause into his 1940 contract with the studio where he would have the right to his likeness, voice, and name for merchandising.[12] There were Roy Rogers action figures, cowboy adventure novels, and playsets, as well as a comic strip, a long-lived Dell Comics comic book series (Roy Rogers Comics) written by Gaylord Du Bois, and a variety of marketing successes.[13] Rogers was second only to Walt Disney in the number of items featuring his name.[14]

The Sons of the Pioneers continued their popularity and have not stopped performing from the time Rogers started the group, replacing members as they retired or died (all original members are dead). Although he was no longer an active member, they often appeared as his backup group in films, radio, and television, and he would occasionally appear with them in performances up until his death.

He met Dale Evans in 1944 when they were cast in a film together. They were well known as advocates for adoption and as founders and operators of children's charities. They adopted several children. Both were outspoken Christians throughout their marriage.[15] Beginning in 1949, they were part of the Hollywood Christian Group, founded by their friend, Louis Evans Jr., the organizing pastor of Bel Air Church.[16] The group met in Henrietta Mears's home and later in the home of Evans and Colleen Townsend, after their marriage. Billy Graham and Jane Russell were also part of this group. In 1956, the Hollywood Christian Group became Bel Air Church.

In Apple Valley, California, where they later made their home, streets, highways, and civic buildings have been named after them in recognition of their efforts on behalf of homeless and handicapped children. Rogers was also an active Freemason and a Shriner and was noted for his support of their charities.

Publicity photo of Rogers and Gail Davis, 1948

Rogers and Evans' famous theme song, "Happy Trails", was written by Evans; they sang it as a duet to sign off their television show. In fall 1962, they cohosted a comedy-Western-variety program, The Roy Rogers and Dale Evans Show, aired on ABC. It was cancelled after three months, losing in the ratings to The Jackie Gleason Show on CBS. Rogers also made numerous cameo appearances on other popular television shows, starring as himself or other cowboy-type characters, such as in an episode of Wonder Woman called "The Bushwackers".[17]

Rogers owned a Hollywood production company, which produced his own series. It also filmed other undertakings, including the 1955–1956 CBS Western series Brave Eagle, starring Keith Larsen as a young, peaceful Cheyenne chief, Kim Winona as Morning Star, his romantic interest, and the Hopi Indian Anthony Numkena as Keena, Brave Eagle's foster son.

In 1968, Rogers licensed his name to the Marriott Corporation, which converted its Hot Shoppes restaurants into Roy Rogers Restaurants, with which he otherwise had no involvement.

Rogers returned to Lubbock in 1970 to headline the Texas Tech University Intercollegiate Rodeo with Evans. In 1975, his last motion picture, Macintosh and T.J. was filmed at the 6666 Ranch in King County, 90 miles east of Lubbock and near the O- Bar-O Ranch in Kent County.[18]

Personal life

Rogers and Dale Evans at Knott's Berry Farm in the 1970s

In 1932, a palomino colt foaled in California was named "Golden Cloud"; when Rogers acquired him, he renamed him Trigger. Rogers also owned a thoroughbred racehorse named Triggairo, that won 13 career races, including the 1975 El Encino Stakes at Santa Anita Park.[19]

Rogers had been on tour with the O-Bar-O Cowboys in June 1933, and while they were performing in Roswell, New Mexico, a caller to a radio station, Grace Arline Wilkins, promised Rogers that she would bake him a pie if he sang "The Swiss Yodel". They were married in Roswell on June 11, 1936, having corresponded since their first meeting.[20] In 1941, the couple adopted a daughter, Cheryl Darlene. Two years later, Grace gave birth to daughter Linda Lou. A son, Roy Jr. ("Dusty"), was born in 1946; Grace died of complications from the birth a few days later, on November 3.[21]

Rogers met Dale Evans in 1944, when they were cast in a film together. They fell in love soon after Grace's death, and Rogers proposed to her during a rodeo at Chicago Stadium. They married on New Year's Eve in 1947 at the Flying L Ranch in Davis, Oklahoma, where they had filmed Home in Oklahoma a few months earlier. Together they had a child and adopted four more: Robin Elizabeth, who had Down syndrome and died of complications of mumps shortly before her second birthday; three adopted daughters, Mimi, Dodie, and Debbie; and one adopted son, Sandy.[citation needed] Evans wrote about the loss of their daughter Robin in her book Angel Unaware. Rogers and Evans remained married until his death.[20]

In 1955, Rogers and Evans purchased a 168-acre (68 ha) ranch near Chatsworth, California, complete with a hilltop ranch house,[22] expanding it to 300 acres (121 ha).[23][24]

After their daughter Debbie was killed in a church bus accident in 1964, they moved to the 67-acre (27 ha) Double R Bar Ranch in Apple Valley, California.[25][26]

Rogers was a Freemason and a member of Hollywood (California) Lodge No. 355, the Scottish Rite Valley of Los Angeles, and Al Malaikah Shrine Temple.[27] He was also a pilot and the owner of a Cessna Bobcat.[28]

Rogers supported Barry Goldwater in the 1964 United States presidential election.[29]


Rogers died of congestive heart failure on July 6, 1998, aged 86, in Apple Valley, California. He was buried at Sunset Hills Memorial Park in Apple Valley, as was his wife Dale Evans three years later.[30][31][32]

Honors and awards

Rogers performing at Knott's Berry Farm

On February 8, 1960, Rogers was honored with three stars on the Hollywood Walk of Fame: for Motion Pictures at 1752 Vine Street, for Television at 1620 Vine Street, and for Radio at 1733 Vine Street.[33] In 1983 he was awarded the Golden Boot Award,[34] and in 1996 he received the Golden Boot Founder's Award.[34]

In 1967, Rogers, with Choctaw blood on his mother's side, was named outstanding Indian citizen of the year by a group of Western tribes.[32]

In 1976, Rogers and Evans were inducted into the Western Performers Hall of Fame at the National Cowboy & Western Heritage Museum in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, and in 1995 he was inducted again as a founding member of the Sons of the Pioneers.[35]

Rogers received recognition from the State of Arkansas, appointed by the governor of that state with an Arkansas Traveler certificate.[36]

Rogers was also twice elected to the Country Music Hall of Fame, first as a member of the Sons of the Pioneers in 1980, and again as a soloist in 1988. In 2018, he was inducted to the National Multicultural Western Heritage Museum.[37] As of August 2022, he was the only person elected to the Country Music Hall of Fame twice.[38] In 2001, a Golden Palm Star on the Palm Springs, California, Walk of Stars was dedicated to him and Dale Evans.[39]

Rogers's cultural influence is reflected in numerous songs, including "If I Had a Boat" by Lyle Lovett, "Roy Rogers" by Elton John on his 1973 album Goodbye Yellow Brick Road, and "Should've Been a Cowboy" by Toby Keith. Rogers himself makes an appearance in the music video for the song "Heroes and Friends" by Randy Travis. Rogers is referenced in numerous films, including Die Hard (1988) in which the Bruce Willis character John McClane used the pseudonym "Roy" and remarks, "I was always kinda partial to Roy Rogers actually." In the television series American Dad!, the character Roger uses "Roy Rogers" as a pseudonym in the episode "Roy Rogers McFreely". In the movie City Slickers, the Jack Palance character Curly sings the song "Tumbling Tumbleweeds" while the Billy Crystal character Mitch is playing the harmonica.


Box office ranking

For a number of years exhibitors voted Rogers among the most popular stars in the country:

  • 1942 – 2nd most popular Western star (following Gene Autry)[41]
  • 1943 – most popular Western star
  • 1944 – 24th most popular star in the U.S.; most popular Western star[42]
  • 1945 – most popular Western star;[43] 10th most popular star[44]
  • 1946 – 10th most popular star in the US; most popular Western star
  • 1947 – 12th most popular star in the US; most popular Western star
  • 1948 – 17th most popular star in the US; most popular Western star[45]
  • 1949 – 18th most popular star in the US; most popular Western star
  • 1950 – 19th (US);[46] most popular Western star
  • 1951 – most popular Western star
  • 1952 – most popular Western star (for the 10th year in a row)[47]


Charted albums

Year Title Chart peak Label
US Country US
1970 The Country Side of Roy Rogers 40 Capitol
1971 A Man from Duck Run 34
1975 Happy Trails to You 35 20th Century
1991 Tribute 17 113 RCA

Charted singles

Year Title Chart peak Album
US Country CAN Country
1946 "A Little White Cross on the Hill" 7 Singles only
1947 "My Chickashay Gal" 4
1948 "Blue Shadows on the Trail"
(Roy Rogers and the Sons of the Pioneers)
"(There'll Never Be Another) Pecos Bill"
(Roy Rogers and the Sons of the Pioneers)
1950 "Stampede" 8
1970 "Money Can't Buy Love" 35 The Country Side of Roy Rogers
1971 "Lovenworth" 12 33 A Man from Duck Run
"Happy Anniversary" 47
1972 "These Are the Good Old Days" 73 Single only
1974 "Hoppy, Gene and Me"A 15 12 Happy Trails to You
1980 "Ride Concrete Cowboy, Ride"
(Roy Rogers and the Sons of the Pioneers)
80 Smokey & the Bandit II (soundtrack)
1991 "Hold on Partner" (w/ Clint Black) 42 48 Tribute
  • A"Hoppy, Gene and Me" also peaked at number 65 on the Billboard Hot 100[48] and number 38 on the RPM Adult Contemporary Tracks chart in Canada.

Music videos

Year Title Director
1991 "Hold on Partner" (with Clint Black) Jack Cole
Publicity photo of Rogers and Trigger

See also



  1. ^ "News from California, the nation and world". Los Angeles Times.
  2. ^ "Smiley Burnette, Movie re Off and Autry and Rogers, Dies at 55. Charlie Pratt of TV 'Petticoat Junction' Played Robles in Nearly 200 Westererns". The New York Times. Associated Press. February 18, 1967.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Zwisohn, Laurence. "Happy Trails: The Life of Roy Rogers". Archived from the original on December 5, 2018. Retrieved August 11, 2021.
  4. ^ Green, p. 74.
  5. ^ a b c d "Sons of the Pioneers". Country Music Television. Archived from the original on February 23, 2004. Retrieved April 29, 2014.
  6. ^ Green, p. 75.
  7. ^ "Sons of the Pioneers". Retrieved August 27, 2011.
  8. ^ "Roy Rogers". IMDb.
  9. ^ Hardy, Phil (1984). The Encyclopedia of Western Movies. Minneapolis: Woodbury Press. ISBN 978-0-8300-0405-8.
  10. ^ "Motion Picture Herald and Boxoffice Polls". Retrieved October 31, 2011.
  11. ^ "Top Ten Money Making Stars". Archived from the original on December 21, 2014. Retrieved August 9, 2013.
  12. ^ Phillips, p. 38.
  13. ^ Schelly, William (2013). American Comic Book Chronicles: The 1950s. TwoMorrows Publishing. p. 50. ISBN 9781605490540.
  14. ^ Enss and Kazanjian, p. 132.
  15. ^ Miller Davis, Elise (1955). The Answer Is God. New York: McGraw-Hill. pp. 104–112. LCCN 55009539.
  16. ^ "Fuller Seminary: The Original Five". Archived from the original on July 11, 2007. Retrieved November 5, 2015.
  17. ^ "Wonder Woman: Pilot: The New Original Wonder Woman". Retrieved October 31, 2011.
  18. ^ Chuck Lanehart (March 9, 2019). "Caprock Chronicles: The King of the Cowboys: Roy Rogers' Hungry Life on the Llano Estacado". Lubbock Avalanche-Journal. Retrieved March 9, 2019.
  19. ^ "Triggairo Horse Pedigree". Pedigree Online Thoroughbred Database. Retrieved October 31, 2011.
  20. ^ a b Phillips, pp. 13–15.
  21. ^ Wyatt, Tom and Greenland, David. "B Western Cowboys: Part I", Classic Images. September 2022
  22. ^ "Roy Rogers' 'Happy Trails' led to San Fernando Valley's Chatsworth". Los Angeles Daily News. November 5, 2011.
  23. ^ WILLMAN, MARTHA L. (July 7, 1998). "Rogers' House a Chatsworth Landmark" – via LA Times.
  24. ^ "A drifting cowboy: Double R Bar Ranch – Roy Rogers' Chatsworth Home". February 5, 2012.
  25. ^ "Roy Rogers' Ranch Sold at Auction". July 17, 2012.
  26. ^ Beale, Lauren (April 15, 2019). "Time to round up a buyer for Roy Rogers' old ranch in Victorville". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved April 16, 2019.
  27. ^ "Famous Masons". MWGLNY. January 2014. Archived from the original on November 10, 2013.
  28. ^ "A Plane Crazy America". AOPA Pilot: 79. May 2014.
  29. ^ Critchlow, Donald T. (October 21, 2013). When Hollywood Was Right: How Movie Stars, Studio Moguls, and Big Business Remade American Politics. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781107650282.
  30. ^ Brooks, Patricia; Brooks, Jonathan (2006). "Chapter 8: East L.A. and the Desert". Laid to Rest in California: A Guide to the Cemeteries and Grave Sites of the Rich and Famous. Guilford, Connecticut: Globe Pequot Press. pp. 235–7. ISBN 978-0762741014. OCLC 70284362.
  31. ^ Jasinski, Laurie E. (February 22, 2012). Handbook of Texas Music. Texas A&M University Press. ISBN 9780876112977 – via Google Books.
  32. ^ a b Severo, Richard (July 7, 1998). "Roy Rogers, Singing Cowboy, Dies at 86". The New York Times. No. July 7, 1998. Retrieved September 9, 2019.
  33. ^ "Hollywood Star Walk: Roy Rogers". Los Angeles Times. July 7, 1998. Retrieved April 29, 2014.
  34. ^ a b "Legacy". Golden Boot Awards. Retrieved April 29, 2014.
  35. ^ "Great Western Performers". National Cowboy & Western Heritage Museum. Retrieved April 29, 2014.
  36. ^ Rhodes, Sunny (July 1, 2016). "Historical Gems: History of the Arkansas Traveler". AY Magazine.
  37. ^ "Hall of Fame Inductees". National Multicultural Western Heritage Museum. Retrieved June 5, 2023.
  38. ^ "Roy Rogers". Country Music Hall of Fame. Retrieved April 29, 2014.
  39. ^ "Palm Springs Walk of Stars" (PDF). Palm Springs Walk of Stars. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 13, 2012. Retrieved August 9, 2013.
  40. ^ a b c d Scott, Keith (October 3, 2022). Cartoon Voices of the Golden Age, Vol. 2. BearManor Media.
  41. ^ "The Screen's First Money-Spinneks for 1942". The Argus. Melbourne: National Library of Australia. February 27, 1943. p. 6, The Argus Week-end Magazine. Retrieved October 5, 2014.
  42. ^ "Bing Crosby America's Screen Favourite". The Argus. Melbourne: National Library of Australia. March 24, 1945. p. 8, The Argus Week-end Magazine. Retrieved October 5, 2014.
  43. ^ "Film Cable From Hollywood". Sunday Times. Perth: National Library of Australia. December 2, 1945. p. 5, Sunday Times Comics. Retrieved October 5, 2014.
  44. ^ "Box Office Stars". The News. Adelaide: National Library of Australia. December 28, 1945. p. 1. Retrieved October 5, 2014.
  45. ^ "The Box Office Draw". Goulburn Evening Post. New South Wales: National Library of Australia. December 31, 1948. p. 3, daily and evening edition. Retrieved October 5, 2014.
  46. ^ "Filmdom Ranks Its Money-Spinning Stars Best at Box-Office". Sydney Morning Herald. National Library of Australia. March 30, 1950. p. 12. Retrieved October 5, 2014.
  47. ^ "Comedians Top Films Poll". The Advocate. Burnie, Tasmania: National Library of Australia. December 27, 1952. p. 2. Retrieved October 5, 2014.
  48. ^ Whitburn, Joel (2011). Top Pop Singles 1955–2010. Record Research, Inc. p. 762. ISBN 978-0-89820-188-8.


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