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Rostrum (anatomy)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The rostrum (beak) of a bottlenose dolphin
The rostrum (beak) of a bottlenose dolphin

In anatomy, the term rostrum (from the Latin rostrum meaning beak) is used for a number of phylogenetically unrelated structures in different groups of animals.

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  • ✪ Anatomical Terms: Directional Terms (Anatomy)
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Transcription

In this video we will be discussing anatomical directional terms, or simply anatomical terms. Anatomical terms help us to identify the location of both internal and external body structures. Most of these terms are used to identify where something is located on the body relative to another body part. These terms refer to the locations of human body parts as they occur in the the universal anatomical position. The anatomical position is an upright standing position with arms at the side, palms facing forward, and both feet together. When we need describe the location of a body part as above or below another body part we use the terms superior and inferior. When a body part is superior, it is considered vertically closer to the top of the head in the anatomical position. On the other hand, a body part is considered inferior if it is closer to the bottom of the feet. For example, with the abdomen as the point of reference, we could say that it is both superior to the pelvis and inferior to the chest. When we need to describe the location of a body part as in front of, or behind, another body part we use the terms anterior and posterior [bring in slide title]. Like other anatomical directional terms, a body part being either anterior or posterior depends on the point of reference. Anterior is towards the front of the body while posterior is toward the back of the body. For example, the nose is anterior to the ears, and using these same points of reference, we can say that the ears are posterior to the nose. Please note: the terms ventral and dorsal are used interchangeably with anterior and posterior when referring to both human and animal body parts. However, the terms anterior and posterior are mainly used for locating human body parts. If you want to describe the location of something that is relative to the middle of the body you would use the term medial. To identify something located medially, you would create a mid-line division of the body. The mid-line is an imaginary line that goes from top-to-bottom and divides your body into two equal parts left and right. When you have the mid-line, the body part that is closer to the mid-line division is medial to the structure farther from the mid-line. The structure that is farther away from the mid-line is referred to as lateral. Whether you use lateral or medial to describe a structure largely depends on the site you have to describe. Here are some examples. The bicep muscle in the upper arm is lateral to the pectoral muscle in the chest. Further, in the anatomical position we could say that the pinky finger is medial to the thumb. “Proximal” and “distal” are used to describe the location of points on a limb relative to that limb’s connection to the torso. The proximal site is the one that is closer to the limb’s point of attachment, while the distal site is the point that lies further away from the point of attachment. As an example, the wrist is distal to the elbow, and the elbow is proximal to the wrist. “Superficial” and “deep” are the last two directional terms we will cover. Superficial, refers to a location towards the surface of a body structure or organ. While deep, is concerned with a location that is towards the center of a body structure or organ. For instance, if we look at a cross section of the skin, the top skin layer, called the epidermis is superficial to the subcutaneous layer. The subcutaneous layer is considered deep to the epidermis.

Contents

Invertebrates

Vertebrates

The beak or snout of a vertebrate may also be referred to as the rostrum.

See also

References

  1. ^ Charles Drew (November 17, 2003). "Crustacea". University of Bristol. Retrieved November 7, 2010.
  2. ^ Todd A. Haney, Joel W. Martin & Eric W. Vetter (2007). "Leptostraca". In James T. Carlton. The Light and Smith Manual: Intertidal Invertebrates from Central California to Oregon (4th ed.). University of California Press. pp. 484–495. ISBN 978-0-520-23939-5.
  3. ^ George Gordh, Gordon Gordh & David Headrick (2003). "Rostrum". A Dictionary of Entomology. CAB International. p. 792. ISBN 978-0-85199-655-4.
  4. ^ Douglas Grant Smith (2001). "Mollusca (gastropods, pelecypods)". Pennak's freshwater invertebrates of the United States: Porifera to Crustacea (4th ed.). John Wiley and Sons. pp. 327–400. ISBN 978-0-471-35837-4.
  5. ^ Burt Carter. "Cephalopods". Invertebrate Paleobiology.
  6. ^ "Basic anatomy of Cetaceans - Dolphins". Robin's Island. Archived from the original on November 17, 2010. Retrieved November 7, 2010.
  7. ^ Wueringer BE, Squire Jr L, Kajiura SM, Hart NS and Collin SP (2012) "The function of the sawfish's saw" Current Biology, 22 (5): R150-R151. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2012.01.055


This page was last edited on 15 December 2018, at 09:56
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