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Robert C. McEwen

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Robert C. McEwen, New York Congressman
Robert C. McEwen, New York Congressman

Robert Cameron McEwen (January 5, 1920 – June 15, 1997) was a Republican member of the United States House of Representatives from New York.

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  • ✪ The rise and fall of the Inca Empire - Gordon McEwan
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Transcription

It was the Western Hemisphere’s largest empire ever, with a population of nearly 10 million subjects. Over an area of more than 900,000 square kilometers, its people built massive administrative centers, temples, and extensive road and canal systems. They did so in an inhospitable, extreme terrain, all without the use of wheels, horses, iron, or even written language. Yet within 100 years of its rise in the fifteenth century, the Inca Empire would be no more. According to legend, the ancestors of the Inca rulers were created by the sun god Inti, and they emerged from a cave called Tambo Toco. Leading four brothers and four sisters was Ayar Manco, who carried a golden staff with instructions to find the place where it would sink into the ground, showing fertile soil. After many adventures and extensive searching, Ayar Manco and his siblings reached the Cuzco Valley, where the staff pierced the ground. After fighting off the fierce local native population, they founded their capital, and Ayar Manco became Manco Capac, the first Sapa Inca, or king of the Incas. Archaeological evidence suggests that the Incas first settled in this valley around 1200 CE. They remained a small kingdom until 1438, when they were nearly overrun by the neighboring Chanka tribe. The Inca king at this time, Viracocha, and his designated heir fled in fear, but one of his other sons remained and successfully rallied the city’s defenses. For his military skill, he became the ninth Inca ruler, assuming the name of Pachacuti, or "Cataclysm." Pachacuti expanded Inca rule throughout the Andes mountains, transforming the kingdom into an empire through extensive reforms. The empire’s territory was reorganized as Tahuantinsuyu, or "four quarters," with four divisions ruled by governors reporting to the king. Although the Inca had no writing, they used a complex system of knotted strings called quipu to record numbers and perhaps other information. A decimal-based bureaucracy enabled systematic and efficient taxation of the empire’s subjects. In return, the empire provided security, infrastructure, and sustenance, with great storehouses containing necessities to be used when needed. Great terraces and irrigation works were built and various crops were grown in at different altitudes to be transported all over the empire. And it was during Pachacuti’s reign that the famous estate of Machu Picchu was constructed. Pachacuti’s son Topa Inca continued the empire’s military expansion, and he eventually became ruler in 1471 CE. By the end of his reign, the empire covered much of western South America. Topa’s son Huayna Capac succeeded him in 1493. But the new ruler’s distant military campaigns strained the social fabric. And in 1524, Huayna Capac was stricken by fever. Spanish conquistadors had arrived in the Caribbean some time before, bringing diseases to which the native peoples had no resistance. Millions died in the outbreak, including Huayna Capac and his designated heir. The vacant throne ignited a civil war between two of the surviving brothers, Atahualpa and Huascar, greatly weakening the empire. In 1532, after finally winning the Inca civil war, Atahualpa and his army encountered the European invaders. Although greatly outnumbered, Francisco Pizarro and his small group of conquistadors stunned the king’s much larger force with guns and horses, neither of which they had seen before. Atahualpa was taken captive and killed about a year later. The Spanish conquerors were awed by the capital of Cuzco. Pizarro described it as so beautiful that “it would be remarkable even in Spain.” Though the capital had fallen and the native population had been destroyed by civil war and disease, some Incas fell back to a new capital at Vilcabamba and resisted for the next 40 years. But by 1572, the Spaniards had destroyed all remaining resistance along with much of the Incas’ physical and cultural legacy. Thus, the great Inca empire fell even faster than it had risen.

Biography

McEwen was born on January 5, 1920, in Ogdensburg, St. Lawrence County, New York. He attended the University of Vermont and the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania,

He served in the United States Army Air Corps from 1942 to 1946, and attained the rank of Sergeant.

McEwen graduated from Albany Law School in 1947, was admitted to the bar and practiced in Ogdensburg.

He was elected to the New York State Senate on January 5, 1954, to fill the vacancy caused by the appointment of Paul D. Graves to the New York Supreme Court. McEwen remained in the State Senate until 1964, sitting in the 169th, 170th, 171st, 172nd, 173rd and 174th New York State Legislatures.

He was elected as a Republican to the 89th, 90th, 91st, 92nd, 93rd, 94th, 95th and 96th United States Congresses, holding office from January 3, 1965, to January 3, 1981.

He did not run for reelection in 1980. In 1981 McEwen was appointed by Ronald Reagan to the International Joint Commission, the United States-Canada body that advises the governments of the respective countries on issues related to boundary waters, and he served until 1989.

In 1982, the Custom House at Ogdensburg was named in his honor.

McEwen died in Ogdensburg on June 15, 1997. He was buried in Ogdensburg Cemetery.

References

  • United States Congress. "Robert C. McEwen (id: M000433)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.

External links

New York State Senate
Preceded by
Paul D. Graves
New York State Senate
39th District

1954
Succeeded by
Gilbert T. Seelye
Preceded by
Walter Van Wiggeren
New York State Senate
40th District

1955–1964
Succeeded by
John E. Quinn
U.S. House of Representatives
Preceded by
Clarence E. Kilburn
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from New York's 31st congressional district

1965–1973
Succeeded by
Donald J. Mitchell
Preceded by
Carleton J. King
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from New York's 30th congressional district

1973–1981
Succeeded by
David O'B. Martin
This page was last edited on 20 April 2019, at 11:06
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