To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
Show all languages
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.

Robert Brackenbury

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Sir Robert Brackenbury (died 22 August 1485) was an English courtier, who was Constable of the Tower of London during the reign of Richard III. He is believed to have been responsible for enabling the (presumed) murders of the Princes in the Tower, though there is no conclusive evidence to prove it. He died defending the King at the Battle of Bosworth in 1485.

Early life

His date of birth is unknown.[1] He was a younger son of Thomas Brackenbury of Denton, County Durham, England. This was a family which had been known in Durham since the end of the 12th century. They were lords of the manors of Burne Hall, Denton and Saleby. Robert inherited Saleby; in the immediate vicinity of Barnard Castle. Barnard Castle had passed to the Duke of Gloucester (later Richard III) in the right of his wife, Anne Neville in about 1474. Richard III and Brackenbury, were therefore, close neighbours. Indeed, a tower of Barnard Castle is still called Brackenbury Tower.

Royal service

Brackenbury was one of Richard III's close associates. He was treasurer of Richard's household when he was Duke of Gloucester. When King Edward died Brackenbury was almost certainly one of the Northerners who accompanied Richard to London. Shortly after Richard took the throne Brackenbury received a number of appointments, including Constable of the Tower of London. After the collapse of the Buckingham Revolt he was rewarded with large grants of land in the south-east of England forfeited by Rivers and the Cheney family and in 1484 was appointed sheriff of Kent.

Brackenbury remained Constable of the Tower and on 17 July 1483 he was appointed Constable of the Tower for life. He was also given the very lucrative post of Master of the King's Moneys and Keeper of the Exchange, that is, Master of the Mint after the execution of William Hastings, 1st Baron Hastings, the previous incumbent. Many other honours and duties were laid on him. In March 1485 he was entrusted with Richard's bastard son, John of Gloucester, whom he took to Calais to become its Captain. In May he was placed in command of the defence of London. His income must have exceeded £500 per year – more than many Barons. He must have been better rewarded than all but three or four of the household. Between August 1484 and January 1485 he was knighted.

Brackenbury seems to have been a man of popularity and wide learning. The Italian poet Pietro Cameliano, dedicated one of his Latin works to him.

Brackenbury and the Princes in the Tower

As Constable of the Tower of London, Brackenbury inevitably figures in any account of the fate of Richard III's nephews, the Princes in the Tower.

For example, in Thomas More’s version of the life of Richard III, More says that after the coronation on 6 July 1483 and while on his way to Gloucester, Richard sent John Green to Brackenbury with written orders for Brackenbury to kill the princes. Brackenbury, says More, replied "that he would never put them to death, though he should die therefore". So Richard then ordered Sir James Tyrrell to go to Brackenbury with a letter by which he was commanded to deliver to Sir James all the keys of the Tower for one night, "to the end he might there accomplish the King's pleasure".

It is to be noted that although Thomas More seems to have written a rather convincing account of the events during the reign of Richard III, it should not be relied on wholeheartedly. Thomas More was only 7 years old during the Battle of Bosworth in 1485, and studied in the household of John Morton, Archbishop of Canterbury, who is believed by many to be the originator of the account that More rewrote. John Morton was also an enemy of Richard III, and most likely used ‘Tudor propaganda’ to discredit him.

Tudor invasion and death

In 1485, when news arrived that Henry Tudor had landed in Wales he was ordered to escort Lords Hungerford and Bourchier to Leicester but en route they escaped.

When Richard III marched against the invader, Brackenbury hurried himself to reach the King and arrived two days before the Battle of Bosworth Field (22 August 1485), in which – according to Molinet and Lindsay – he had joint command of Richard's vanguard; he took part in the final charge on Henry and was killed fighting beside Richard III.

On 7 November 1485, Brackenbury was posthumously attainted by Henry VII. In a document antedating Henry Tudor's rule, Brackenbury was charged with having "assembled to them at Leicester ... a great host, traitorously intending, imagining and conspiring the destruction of the king's royal person, our sovereign liege lord".

Brackenbury's attainder was partly reversed in 1489 in favour of his sisters and bastard son, allowing them to recover the family lands but not the new grants from Richard III. Ralph, his nephew and heir male inherited Saleby.


  • Bennett, Michael, The Battle of Bosworth. St. Martin's Press, 1985
  • Bunnett, R.J.A.; "Sir Robert Brackenbury", Various Papers, RIII Society Victoria Branch Inc.
  • Green,R.F.; "Historical notes of a London citizen, 1483–1488"
  • Horrox, Rosemary; Richard III: A Study in Service Cambridge University Press, 1989
  • Kendall, Paul Murray; Richard III, Unwin Paperbacks, London, 1973
  • Lander, J.R.; The Wars of the Roses, Alan Sutton, London, 1990
  • Leadam, I. S. (1901). "Brackenbury, Robert". In Lee, Sidney (ed.). Dictionary of National Biography (1st supplement). 1. London: Smith, Elder & Co. pp. 247–248.
  • Ross, Charles; Richard III, Methuen, London, 1981 (1988 edition)

See also

External links


This page was last edited on 17 May 2019, at 22:54
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.