To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.

Riemann solver

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A Riemann solver is a numerical method used to solve a Riemann problem. They are heavily used in computational fluid dynamics and computational magnetohydrodynamics.

YouTube Encyclopedic

  • 1/3
    11 118
    5 857
    1 173 263
  • ✪ Finite-volume solutions to hyperbolic PDEs (lecture 1), PASI 2013
  • ✪ MIT Numerical Methods for PDE Lecture 9: Riemann Problem and Godonov Flux Scheme for Burgers Eqn
  • ✪ ❖ Calculating a Definite Integral Using Riemann Sums - Part 1 ❖



Exact solvers

Godunov is credited with introducing the first exact Riemann solver for the Euler equations,[1] by extending the previous CIR (Courant-Isaacson-Rees) method to non-linear systems of hyperbolic conservation laws. Modern solvers are able to simulate relativistic effects and magnetic fields.

For the hydrodynamic case latest research results showed the possibility to avoid the iterations to calculate the exact solution for the Euler equations.[2]

Approximate solvers

As iterative solutions are too costly, especially in magnetohydrodynamics, some approximations have to be made. The most popular solvers are:

Roe solver

Roe used the linearisation of the Jacobian, which he then solves exactly.[3]

HLLE solver

The HLLE[4] (Harten, Lax, van Leer and Einfeldt) solver is an approximate solution to the Riemann problem, which is only based on the integral form of the conservation laws and the largest and smallest signal velocities at the interface. The stability and robustness of the HLLE solver is closely related to the signal velocities and a single central average state, as proposed by Einfeldt in the original paper. The description of the HLLE scheme in the book mentioned below is incomplete and partially wrong[citation needed]. The reader is referred to the original paper. Actually, the HLLE scheme is based on a new stability theory for discontinuities in fluids, which was never published.[5]

HLLC solver

The HLLC (Harten-Lax-van Leer-Contact) solver was introduced by Toro.[6] It restores the missing Rarefaction wave by some estimates, like linearisations, these can be simple but also more advanced exists like using the Roe average velocity for the middle wave speed. They are quite robust and efficient but somewhat more diffusive.[7]

Rotated-hybrid Riemann solvers

These solvers were introduced by Nishikawa and Kitamura,[8] in order to overcome the carbuncle problems of the Roe solver and the excessive diffusion of the HLLE solver at the same time. They developed robust and accurate Riemann solvers by combining the Roe solver and the HLLE/Rusanov solvers: they show that being applied in two orthogonal directions the two Riemann solvers can be combined into a single Roe-type solver (the Roe solver with modified wave speeds). In particular, the one derived from the Roe and HLLE solvers, called Rotated-RHLL solver, is extremely robust (carbuncle-free for all possible test cases on both structured and unstructured grids) and accurate (as accurate as the Roe solver for the boundary layer calculation).


  1. ^ Godunov, S. K. (1959), "A difference scheme for numerical computation of discontinuous solution of hyperbolic equation", Math. Sbornik, 47: 271–306
  2. ^ Wu, Y.Y.; Cheung, K.F. (2008), "Explicit solution to the exact Riemann problem and application in nonlinear shallow-water equations", Int. J. Numer. Meth. Fluids, 57 (11): 1649–1668, Bibcode:2008IJNMF..57.1649W, doi:10.1002/fld.1696
  3. ^ Roe, P. L. (1981), "Approximate Riemann solvers, parameter vectors and difference schemes", J. Comput. Phys., 43 (2): 357–372, Bibcode:1981JCoPh..43..357R, doi:10.1016/0021-9991(81)90128-5
  4. ^ Einfeldt, B. (1988), "On Godunov-type methods for gas dynamics", SIAM J. Numer. Anal., 25 (2): 294–318, Bibcode:1988SJNA...25..294E, doi:10.1137/0725021
  5. ^ Einfeldt, B. "Notes on a Proposal", Blog entry, 2 June 2012.
  6. ^ Toro, E. F.; Spruce, M.; Speares, W. (1994), "Restoration of the contact surface in the HLL-Riemann solver", Shock Waves, 4 (1): 25–34, Bibcode:1994ShWav...4...25T, doi:10.1007/BF01414629
  7. ^ Quirk, J. J. (1994), "A contribution to the great Riemann solver debate", Int. J. Numer. Meth. Fluids, 18 (6): 555–574, Bibcode:1994IJNMF..18..555Q, doi:10.1002/fld.1650180603.
  8. ^ Nishikawa, H.; Kitamura, K. (2008), "Very simple, carbuncle-free, boundary-layer-resolving, rotated-hybrid Riemann solvers", J. Comput. Phys., 227 (4): 2560–2581, Bibcode:2008JCoPh.227.2560N, doi:10.1016/

See also


  • Toro, Eleuterio F. (1999), Riemann Solvers and Numerical Methods for Fluid Dynamics, Berlin: Springer Verlag, ISBN 978-3-540-65966-2

External links

This page was last edited on 16 February 2019, at 13:16
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.