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Reuben Fine
Full name Reuben Fine
Country United States
Born (1914-10-11)October 11, 1914
New York City
Died March 26, 1993(1993-03-26) (aged 78)
New York City
Title Grandmaster

Reuben Fine (October 11, 1914 – March 26, 1993) was an American chess grandmaster, psychologist, university professor, and author of many books on both chess and psychology. He was one of the strongest chess players in the world from the mid 1930s until his retirement from chess in 1951.

Fine's best result was his equal first in the AVRO 1938 chess tournament, one of the strongest tournaments of all time. After the death of world champion Alexander Alekhine in 1946, Fine was one of six players invited to compete for the World Championship in 1948. He declined the invitation, however, and virtually retired from serious competition around that time, although he did play a few events until 1951.

Fine won five medals (four gold) in three chess Olympiads. Fine won the U.S. Open Chess Championship all seven times he entered (1932, 1933, 1934, 1935, 1939, 1940, 1941). He was the author of several chess books that are still popular today, including important books on the endgame, opening, and middlegame.

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Ayo! It's Bryan here. Today, going to be talking about the San Francisco 49ers as always. Doing another Top 3 video. This time, covering the three things you should be looking forward to for the game against the Arizona Cardinals that is happening tomorrow at home, at Levi's Stadium. So, this should be a fun one. Hopefully, we can get our first win in the season. We'll see what happens tomorrow. Hopefully, everyone can have a good game. Nobody screws up as much and we can beat the Cardinals and get our first win since the game against the Lions. Going to be covering that, but before I get the video started as always, please "Like" and Subscribe to support my channel. That would definitely help me out a lot and yeah. Let's just get into it. Let's kick some a**. The Top 3 things you should be looking forward to for the game against the Arizona Cardinals tomorrow. Coming in at number three, I have the defense vs Josh Rosen. So hopefully, the 49ers can take advantage of the matchups that they have here because the Cardinals offense in my opinion, they're kind of okay, but they're not the best offense. They're not like the Kansas City Chiefs, the Chargers or anything like that. Hopefully, they can do that. Josh Rosen is an inexperienced quarterback, although he had a pretty good game against the Seattle Seahawks defense last week. I don't know. I hope the 49ers can do something about that. With the players that we have, there's a potential that we can stop this offense from scoring a lot of points because that's what's been happening for the past couple of weeks, starting from the Chargers all the way back to the Lions game. 49ers defense, please tackle better as much as possible. I know I keep saying that every time, but if you can't do that, then Rosen's going to have a good day against us and that would not be fun to watch. So yeah. Defense, do your thing. Hopefully, you can pressure Josh Rosen and letting him make the rookie mistakes. Coming in at number two, I have C.J. Beathard. We're all hoping that he can keep his momentum up that he had against the Los Angeles Chargers last week and I think he will keep it up since the Cardinals defense, they're not really the best defense, although they have some good pieces like Patrick Peterson, Chandler Jones and them, but still. With a broken defense that they have somewhat, I think Beathard can take advantage of that as well and with the talent that we have right now on the offensive side of the ball, you can't do anything else. I mean, the matchup. George Kittle and C.J. Beathard vs whoever, like that's going to be the best thing that is going on for us. There's a lot of injuries. Pettis is out. Matt Breida is questionable for this game, which I think he's still going to be playing, but he's questionable. Marquise Goodwin is a 50/50 as well. So, he's listed as questionable in the injury report. Lots of injuries, but I think they can handle through this against the Cardinals defense. Hopefully, Beathard can keep the performance up that he had against the Chargers last week and I think he will, considering the team that he's playing right now and I don't want to underestimate the Cardinals too much, but still. They're not the best team in the NFL right now. You know, 0-4, that's kind of surprising in my opinion. I don't think they should be 0-4, but that's what they are right now. They have a lot of work to do and I hope the 49ers can take advantage of that, especially quarterback Beathard. Coming in at number one as the biggest thing you should be looking forward to for this game against the Cardinals is a WIN hopefully! We're currently 1-3 right now. We're really behind in the NFC West in terms of the standings. We're one game behind Seattle and we're a lot of games behind Los Angeles. If they want to make a comeback. If they want to try to win as many games as possible, it starts tomorrow against the Cardinals because this is a very winnable game. If they do not win this game. If they lose to the winless Arizona Cardinals, then we are in big trouble for the rest of the season. We have a pretty tough schedule I would say for the next couple of weeks. We have the Packers and Rams as mentioned always. The Rams game, that should be a fun one I should say. If they can't win this game, a winnable game, then it's pretty much over. Do I think they're going to win this game? Yes, I do. I think this is a very potential win right there. I don't want to say easy win because there's no such thing as an easy win in the NFL, but with Beathard and the offense, hopefully, they can lead us to a victory and the defense, they just need to play a little bit of defense. I mean, I don't have a lot of faith in this defense as much, but if they can just stop Josh Rosen and tackle a little better. Do doubles teams and what have you, then I think it's possible to win this game and it's a must-win. That's going to be pretty much it you guys. Very short video here. I know this is going to be exciting tomorrow. Hopefully, you guys are ready in San Francisco. Hoping you guys go crazy at Levi's Stadium. I wish I could be there, but unfortunately. I don't live in California. Yeah, anyone going to the game whatever, please get excited. Going to keep it like that you guys. Please let me know what you are looking forward to for this game against the Cardinals. Is there any last-minute suggestions? Any last-minute things going on for this team? I'd like to hear what you guys have to say as always and if you guys like this, please "Like" and Subscribe to support my channel. That would definitely help me out a lot and I will see you guys after the game. So, I hope you guys have a nice day, nice weekend. See you guys after the game, probably Monday. Bye guys. Love y'all. Go Niners!


Early life

Fine was born in the Bronx to Jacob and Bertha (Nedner) Fine, poor Russian Jews.[1] He was an only child, and raised by his mother alone from the age of two. An uncle taught him chess when he was eight.[2]

Teenage master

Fine began tournament-level chess at the famous Marshall Chess Club in New York City, stomping grounds for many famous grandmasters, such as Bobby Fischer later on. At this stage of his career, Fine played a great deal of blitz chess, and he eventually became one of the best blitz players in the world. Even in the early 1930s, he could nearly hold his own in blitz chess against the then world champion Alexander Alekhine, although Fine admitted that the few times he played blitz with Alekhine's predecessor José Raúl Capablanca, the latter beat him "mercilessly".[7]

Fine's first significant master-level event was the 1930 New York Young Masters tournament, which was won by Arthur Dake. He narrowly lost a 1931 stakes match to fellow young New York master Arnold Denker.[8]

Fine placed second at the 1931 New York State Championship with 8/11, half a point behind Fred Reinfeld. Fine won the 15th Marshall Chess Club Championship of 1931 with 10½/13, half a point ahead of Reinfeld.[3] He defeated Herman Steiner by 5½–4½ at New York 1932; this was the first of three matches the two players contested.[4]

Chess career

U.S. Open Champion

At 17, Fine won his first of seven U.S. Open Chess Championships at Minneapolis 1932 with 9½/11, half a point ahead of Samuel Reshevsky; this tournament was known as the Western Open at the time. Fine played in his first top-class international tournament at Pasadena 1932, where he shared 7th–10th with 5/11; the winner was world champion Alexander Alekhine. Fine repeated as champion in the 16th Marshall Club Championship, held from October–December 1932, with 11½/13, 2½ points ahead of the runner-up.[5]

Fine graduated from City College of New York in 1932, at the age of 18; he was a successful student there. He captained CCNY to the 1931 National Collegiate team title; a teammate was master Sidney Bernstein. This tournament later evolved into the Pan American Intercollegiate Team Chess Championship. Fine then decided to try the life of a chess professional for a few years.[9]

Olympiad results

Fine won the U.S. Team Selection tournament, New York 1933, with 8/10.[6] This earned him the first of three national team berths for the chess Olympiads. Fine won five medals (including three team golds) representing the United States; his detailed record follows; his totals are (+20−6=19), for 65.6%.[7]

North American successes

Fine repeated as champion at the U.S./Western Open, Detroit 1933, with 12/13, half a point ahead of Reshevsky. Fine won the 17th Marshall Club Championship, 1933–34, with 9½/11. He defeated Al Horowitz in a match at New York 1934 by 6–3. Fine shared 1st–2nd at the U.S./Western Open, Chicago 1934, on 7½/9, with Reshevsky. He then shared 1st–3rd at Mexico City 1934, on 11/12, with Herman Steiner and Arthur Dake. At Syracuse 1934, Fine shared 3rd–4th, on 10/14, as Reshevsky won. Fine won his fourth straight U.S./Western Open at Milwaukee 1935, scoring 6½/9 in the preliminary round, and then 8/10 in the finals.

European debut

Having had outstanding successes in North America, Fine tried his first European individual international tournament at Łódź 1935, where he shared 2nd–3rd with 6/9 behind Savielly Tartakower. Fine won Hastings 1935–36 with 7½/9, a point ahead of Salo Flohr.

Narrow misses at U.S. Championship

Although Fine was active and very successful in U.S. open tournaments, he was never able to win the U.S. Championship, usually placing behind his great American rival, Samuel Reshevsky. The U.S. Championship was organized in a round-robin format during that era. When in 1936 Frank Marshall voluntarily gave up the American Championship title he had held since 1909, the result was the first modern U.S. Championship tournament. Fine scored 10½/15 in the U.S. Championship, New York City 1936, a tied 3rd–4th, as Reshevsky won. In the U.S. Championship, New York 1938, Fine placed 2nd with 12½/16, with Reshevsky repeating as champion. In the U.S. Championship, New York 1940, Fine again scored 12½/16 for 2nd, as Reshevsky won for the third straight time. Then in the 1944 U.S. Championship at New York, Fine scored 14½/17 for 2nd, losing his game to Arnold Denker, and finishing half a point back, as the latter won his only national title.[8]

Fine tallied 50/64 in his four U.S. title attempts, for 78.1%, but was never champion. Not being national champion seriously hurt Fine's prospects for making a career from chess.[10]

International success

However, Fine's international tournament record in the 1930s was superior to Reshevsky's.[11] Fine did play many more top-class international events than Reshevsky during that period, and was usually near the top of the table. By the end of 1937, Fine had won a string of strong European international tournaments, and was one of the most successful players in the world. Fine won at Oslo 1936 with 6½/7, half a point ahead of Flohr. Fine captured Zandvoort 1936 with 8½/11, ahead of World Champion Max Euwe, Savielly Tartakower, and Paul Keres. Fine shared 3rd–5th at the elite Nottingham 1936 event with 9½/14, half a point behind winners José Raúl Capablanca and Mikhail Botvinnik. Fine shared 1st–2nd at Amsterdam 1936 on 5/7 with Euwe, half a point ahead of Alekhine. Fine placed 2nd at Hastings 1936–37 with 7½/9, as Alekhine won.[9]

The year 1937 was Fine's most successful. He won at Leningrad 1937 with 4/5, ahead of Grigory Levenfish, who shared first in that year's Soviet Championship. Fine won at Moscow 1937 with 5/7. Those two victories make Fine one of a very select group of foreigners to have won on Russian soil. Fine shared 1st–2nd at Margate 1937 with Keres on 7½/9, 1½ points ahead of Alekhine. Fine shared 1st–3rd at Ostend 1937 with Keres and Henry Grob on 6/9. At Stockholm 1937, Fine won with 8/9, 1½ points ahead of Gideon Ståhlberg. Fine then defeated Stahlberg by 5–3 in a match held at Gothenburg 1937. Fine placed 2nd at the elite Semmering/Baden 1937 tournament with 8/14, behind Keres. At Kemeri, Latvia 1937, Fine had a rare relatively weak result, with just 9/17 for 8th place, as the title was shared by Reshevsky, Flohr, and Vladimirs Petrovs. Fine shared 4th–5th at Hastings 1937–38 with 6/9 as Reshevsky won.[9]

AVRO 1938

In 1938, Fine tied for first place with Paul Keres in the prestigious AVRO tournament in the Netherlands, on 8½/14, with Keres placed first on tiebreak. This was one of the most famous tournaments of the 20th century. It was organized with the hope that the winner of AVRO, a double round-robin tournament, would be the next challenger to world champion Alexander Alekhine. Since Alekhine won the title in 1927, he had been avoiding a rematch with his predecessor, Capablanca, whom many considered the strongest possible challenger. Fine finished ahead of future champion Mikhail Botvinnik, current champion Alekhine, former world champions Max Euwe and Capablanca, and Grandmasters Samuel Reshevsky and Salo Flohr. Fine won both of his games against Alekhine. Fine got out to a tremendous start, scoring five wins and a draw in his first six games, but then lost in round seven to Keres, and this wound up as the decisive game for the tournament victor, providing his tiebreak.

Wartime years

As World War II interrupted any prospects for a world championship match, Fine turned to chess writing. In 1939, Fine became the first grandmaster-class player to edit the classic opening guide Modern Chess Openings. His work on the sixth edition of the book led to a significant increase in sales. In 1941 he wrote Basic Chess Endings, a compendium of endgame analysis which, some 70 years later, is still considered one of the best works on this subject. His book was the most comprehensive on the subject written to that time, included significant original work by Fine, and received worldwide acclaim. His The Ideas Behind the Chess Openings, though now out of date, is still useful for grasping the underlying ideas of many standard chess openings; it was revised in 1989.

Fine played a few serious American events during World War II, with international chess at a virtual standstill, and continued his successes with dominant scores. He won the U.S. Open at New York 1939 with 10½/11, half a point ahead of Reshevsky. In the 23rd Marshall Club Championship of 1939, Fine won with 14/16. He won the 1940 U.S. Open at Dallas with a perfect 8/8 in the finals, three points ahead of Herman Steiner. Fine won the New York State Championship, Hamilton 1941, with 8/10, a point ahead of Reshevsky, Arnold Denker and Isaac Kashdan. Fine won the 1941 Marshall Club Championship with 14/15, ahead of Frank Marshall. Fine won the 1941 U.S. Open at St. Louis, with 4/5 in the preliminaries, and 8/9 in the finals. Fine won the 1942 Washington, D.C. Chess Divan title with 7/7. He defeated Herman Steiner in match play for the second time by 3½–½ at Washington 1944. Fine won the U.S. Speed Championships of both 1944 (10/11) and 1945 (10/11). In the Pan-American Championship, Hollywood 1945, Fine placed 2nd with 9/12, behind Reshevsky. He played in the 1945 USA vs USSR Radio team match, scoring ½/2 on board three against Isaac Boleslavsky. Then Fine travelled to Europe one last time to compete, in the 1946 Moscow team match against the USSR, scoring ½/2 on board three against Paul Keres.[9]

Declines to enter 1948 World Championship

As the World War ended in early September 1945, Fine was 30 years of age, and working on his doctorate in psychology. After World Champion Alekhine died in March 1946, FIDE (the World Chess Federation) organized a World Chess Championship tournament to determine the new champion. Alekhine was the first champion to die as title-holder, creating an unprecedented problem. As co-winner in the AVRO tournament, Fine was invited to participate, but he declined, for reasons that are the subject of speculation even today. Fine had played a third match against Herman Steiner at Los Angeles 1947, winning 5–1; this match was training for his potential world championship appearance.

Publicly, Fine stated that he could not interrupt work on his doctoral dissertation in psychology. Negotiations over the tournament had been protracted, and for a long time it was unclear whether this World Championship event would in fact take place. Fine wrote that he didn't want to spend many months preparing and then see the tournament cancelled. However, it has also been suggested that Fine declined to play because he suspected there would be collaboration among the three Soviet participants to ensure that one of them won the championship. In the August 2004 issue of Chess Life, for example, GM Larry Evans gave his recollection that "Fine told me he didn't want to waste three months of his life watching Russians throw games to each other." Fine's 1951 written statement on the matter in his book The World's Greatest Chess Games was:

Unfortunately for the Western masters the Soviet political organization was stronger than that of the West. The U.S. Chess Federation was a meaningless paper organization, generally antagonistic to the needs of its masters. The Dutch Chess Federation did not choose to act. The FIDE was impotent. The result was a rescheduling of the tournament for the following year, with the vital difference that now half was to be played in Holland, half in the U.S.S.R. Dissatisfied with this arrangement and the general tenor of the event, I withdrew.

Edward Winter discusses the evidence further in a 2007 Chessbase column.[10]

Final competitive appearances

Once Fine completed his doctorate, he did play some more competitive chess. He won at New York 1948 with 8/9, ahead of Miguel Najdorf, Max Euwe, and Herman Pilnik. Fine drew a match against Najdorf at 4–4 at New York 1949. He participated for the U.S. in the 1950 radio match against Yugoslavia, drawing his only game. Fine was named an International Grandmaster by FIDE in 1950, on its inaugural list. Fine's final top-class event was the Maurice Wertheim Memorial, New York 1951, where he scored 7/11 for 4th, as Reshevsky won.[9]

Fine was seeded into the 1950 Candidates Tournament at Budapest, but declined his invitation; this tournament was the first to select an official challenger to the World Champion under the auspices of FIDE, the World Chess Federation.[11]

Lifetime scores against top players

Fine had a relatively short career in top-level chess, but scored well against top players. He faced five World Champions: Emanuel Lasker (+1−0=0);[12] José Raúl Capablanca (+0−0=5, excluding simultaneous games);[13] Alexander Alekhine (+3−2=4);[14] Max Euwe (+2−2=3);[15] and Mikhail Botvinnik (+1−0=2).[16]

His main American rivals were Samuel Reshevsky (+3−4=12); Herman Steiner (+21−4=8); Isaac Kashdan (+6−1=6); Albert Simonson (+6−1=1); Al Horowitz (+10−2=7); Arnold Denker (+7−6=7); Fred Reinfeld (+10−5=7); and Arthur Dake (+7−7=5, with three losses as a 16-year-old against Dake in his 20s).

Internationally, Fine faced the best of his time, and usually more than held his own, with three exceptions. He struggled against Paul Keres (+1−3=8); Milan Vidmar (+0−1=2); and Isaac Boleslavsky (+0−1=1), but he handled everyone else: Miguel Najdorf (+3−3=5); Savielly Tartakower (+2−1=4); Salo Flohr (+2−0=7); Grigory Levenfish (+1−0=0); George Alan Thomas (+2−0=3); Erich Eliskases (+1−0=2); Viacheslav Ragozin (+1−0=1); Vladimirs Petrovs (+2−1=1); Efim Bogolyubov (+1−0=1); Jan Foltys (+2−0=0); Salo Landau (+4−0=1); George Koltanowski (+2−0=1); Igor Bondarevsky (+1−0=0); Géza Maróczy (+1−0=0); William Winter (+4−0=0); Ernst Grünfeld (+1−0=0); Gideon Ståhlberg (+4−2=5); Andor Lilienthal (+1−0=0); László Szabó (+0−0=1); Vladas Mikėnas (+1−0=1); Rudolph Spielmann (+0−0=1); and Conel Hugh O'Donel Alexander (+1−0=3).

Finally, against the new generation of American masters which emerged in the late 1940s, Fine proved he could still perform well: Arthur Bisguier (+1−0=1); Larry Evans (+0−0=2); George Kramer (+1−0=1); and Robert Byrne (+0−0=1).

Top ten for eight years

Although FIDE, the World Chess Federation, did not formally introduce chess ratings for international play until 1970, it is nevertheless possible to retrospectively rate players' performances from before that time. The site, which specializes in historical ratings throughout chess history, ranks Fine in the world's top ten players for more than eight years, from March 1936 until October 1942, and then again from January 1949 until December 1950. Fine was inducted into the U.S. Chess Hall of Fame in 1986, the charter class. He continued his successful chess writing career for many years after he retired from competition.

Notable games

Professional life

Reuben Fine in 1960
Reuben Fine in 1960

Fine earned a bachelor's degree from the City College of New York in 1932.

During World War II, Fine worked for the U.S. Navy, analyzing the probability of German U-boats surfacing at certain points in the Atlantic Ocean. Fine also worked as a translator.[17]

After World War II, he earned his doctorate in psychology from the University of Southern California. He served as a university professor, and wrote many successful books on psychology.

After receiving his doctorate in psychology from the University of Southern California, Fine abandoned professional chess to concentrate on his new profession. Fine continued playing chess casually throughout his life (including several friendly games played in 1963 against Bobby Fischer, one of which is included in Fischer's My 60 Memorable Games). In 1956 he wrote an article, "Psychoanalytic Observations on Chess and Chess Masters", for a psychological journal. Later, Fine turned the article into a book, The Psychology of the Chess Player, in which he provided insights steeped in Freudian theory. Fine is not the first person to have examined the mind as it relates to chess: Alfred Binet, the inventor of the IQ test, had studied the mental functionality of good chess players, and found that they often had enhanced mental traits, such as a good memory. He went on to publish A History of Psychoanalysis (1979) and a number of other books on psychology.

Journalist Gilbert Cant observed:

A great chess player, Manhattan's Reuben Fine, has popularized a psychology of chess studded with phallic symbols, spattered with anal-sadistic impulses and imbued with latent homosexuality. In successive rounds, Fine once defeated Botvinnik, Reshevsky, Euwe, Flohr and Alekhine, and drew with Capablanca. When Fine switched his major interest from chess to psychoanalysis, the result was a loss for chess—and a draw, at best, for psychoanalysis. Many psychologists, some Freudians included, now believe that the sexual symbolism in chess is vastly overdrawn.[18]

As did many psychoanalysts of his day, Fine believed that homosexuality is mutable (through conversion therapy), and his opinions on the subject were cited in legal battles over homosexuality, including the legislative battle over same-sex marriage in Hawaii. Fine served as a visiting professor at CCNY, the University of Amsterdam, the Lowell Institute of Technology, and the University of Florence. Fine founded the Creative Living Center in New York City.

Personal life

Fine married five times, all but one ending in divorce. He had two biological children and one stepson.[19][20]

There are conflicting accounts of his first marriage. Per the Los Angeles Times, he married Charlotte Margoshes in 1937. The New York Times first mentions a marriage to Emma Thea Keesing (1916–1960), whom he met in the Netherlands, married in September 1937,[21] and divorced in 1944. The New York County registrar lists a marriage certificate for Charlotte Margoshes on October 8, 1936,[22] but the marriage was very short.[23]

Fine married again in 1946, to Sonya Lebeaux, in 1946. They had two children together, a son, Benjamin, and a daughter. He wrote The Teenage Chess Book with Benjamin.

His last marriage, to Marcia Fine, lasted to his death in 1993.[20]


On chess

  • Dr. Lasker's Chess Career, by Reuben Fine and Fred Reinfeld, 1935, ISBN 4-87187-531-8.
  • Modern Chess Openings, sixth edition, 1939.
  • Basic Chess Endings, 1941, McKay. Revised in 2003 by Pal Benko. ISBN 0-8129-3493-8.
  • Chess the Easy Way, 1942. 1986 Paperback re-issue. ISBN 0-671-62427-X, ISBN 0-923891-50-1.
  • The Ideas Behind the Chess Openings, 1943. Revised in 1989. McKay, ISBN 0-8129-1756-1, ISBN 4-87187-460-5.
  • The Middlegame in Chess. ISBN 0-8129-3484-9.
  • Chess Marches On, 1946. ISBN 4-87187-511-3.
  • The World's A Chessboard, 1948. ISBN 4-87187-512-1.
  • Practical Chess Openings, 1948. ISBN 4-87187-534-2.
  • The World's Great Chess Games, Crown Publishers, Inc. 1951, LOC # 51-12014; Ishi Press, 2012. ISBN 4-87187-532-6.
  • Lessons From My Games, 1958, ISBN 4-87187-533-4.
  • The Teenage Chess Book, 1965 (assisted by son Benjamin Fine), ISBN 978-4871875790[24]
  • The Psychology of the Chess Player, 1967. ISBN 4-87187-815-5.
  • Bobby Fischer's Conquest of the World's Chess Championship: The Psychology and Tactics of the Title Match, 1973. ISBN 0-923891-47-1.

On psychology

  • Freud: a Critical Re-evaluation of his Theories (1962).
  • The Healing of the Mind: The Technique of Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy (1971).
  • The Development of Freud's Thought (1973).
  • Psychoanalytic Psychology (1975).
  • The History of Psychoanalysis (1979).
  • The Intimate Hour (1979).
  • The Psychoanalytic Vision (1981).
  • The Logic of Psychology (1983).
  • The Meaning of Love in Human Experience (1985).
  • Narcissism, the Self, and Society (1986).
  • The Forgotten Man: Understanding the Male Psyche (1987).
  • Troubled Men: The Psychology, Emotional Conflicts, and Therapy of Men (1988).
  • Love and Work: The Value System of Psychoanalysis (1990).
  • Troubled Women: Roles and Realities in Psychoanalytic Perspective (1992).


  1. ^ Encyclopaedia Judaica, art. "Fine, Reuben"
  2. ^ "Fine, Reuben - Dictionary definition of Fine, Reuben | FREE online dictionary". Retrieved 2018-01-15.
  3. ^
  4. ^, the Reuben Fine results file
  5. ^
  6. ^
  7. ^ Bartelski, Wojciech. "OlimpBase :: the encyclopaedia of team chess". Retrieved 20 April 2018.
  8. ^ Denker and Parr, Fine Distinctions
  9. ^ a b c d, the Reuben Fine career results file
  10. ^ Edward Winter presents: Unsolved Chess Mysteries (9), by Edward Winter, Chessbase, July 3, 2007
  11. ^ The World Chess Championship: A History, by I.A. Horowitz, Macmillan, New York, 1973
  12. ^ [1] Fine–Lasker record
  13. ^ [2] Fine–Capablanca record
  14. ^ [3] Fine–Alekhine record
  15. ^ [4] Fine–Euwe record
  16. ^ [5] Fine–Botvinnik record
  17. ^ Denker and Parr, Fine Distinctions chapter, The Bobby Fischer I Knew And Other Stories, Hypermodern Press, San Francisco 1995
  18. ^ "Why They Play: The Psychology of Chess", Time, September 4, 1972, pp 44-45
  19. ^ Reuben Fine, American Chess Giant, Dead at 79, New York Times, March 27, 1993
  20. ^ a b "Corrections". The New York Times. 1993-03-28. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2018-01-14.
  21. ^ Chess, 14 September 1937, cited in Edward Winter, Chess Notes 7136, [6], 7 July 2011.
  22. ^ "Charlotte Margoshes and  - New York". Retrieved 2018-01-15.
  23. ^ "Paul Morphy the greatest chess player A.K.A  god of chess - Chess Forums -". Retrieved 2018-01-15.
  24. ^ Catalog of Copyright Entries. Third Series: 1965: January-June. Copyright Office, Library of Congress. p. 310. Lay summary. FINE REUBEN The teenage chess book With the assistance of Benjamin Fine New York D McKay 114 p © Reuben Fine 15 Feb65 A756582


External links

This page was last edited on 15 October 2018, at 13:25
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