To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.

Republic of Korea Army

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Republic of Korea Army
대한민국 육군
大韓民國 陸軍
Daehanminguk Yuk-gun
Seal of the Republic of Korea Army.svg
Coat of arms of the Republic of Korea Army
FoundedSeptember 5, 1948;
72 years ago
Country South Korea
RoleGround warfare
Size420,000 (2020)[1]
Part of Republic of Korea Armed Forces
Garrison/HQGyeryong, South Chungcheong, South Korea
Nickname(s)"ROK Army", "ROKA", "South Korean army"
Motto(s)"A Strong Friend, Republic of Korea Army"
(Korean: 《강한친구 대한민국 육군》)
March"Army Anthem" (Korean: 《육군가》, romanizedYukgunga)[2][3][4][5][6]
Mascot(s)Hogugi (Korean: 호국이)
Equipment2,130 main battle tanks
3,000 armored fighting vehicles
6,000 artillery pieces
270 multiple rocket launchers
60 guided missile systems
EngagementsYeosu–Suncheon rebellion
Korean War
Korean DMZ Conflict
Vietnam War
Coup d'état of December Twelfth
Gwangju Uprising
Persian Gulf War
War in Afghanistan
Iraq War
WebsiteOfficial website
Commander-in-ChiefPresident Moon Jae-in
Minister of National DefenseSuh Wook
Chief of Staff of the ArmyGeneral Nam Yeong-shin

The Republic of Korea Army (ROKA; Korean: 대한민국 육군; Hanja: 大韓民國 陸軍; Revised Romanization: Daehanminguk Yuk-gun), also known as the ROK Army, is the army of South Korea, responsible for ground-based warfare. It is the largest of the military branches of the Republic of Korea Armed Forces with 420,000 members as of 2020. This size is maintained through conscription; South Korean men must complete 18 months of military service between the age of 18 and 35.[7]


Korean soldiers in 1898
Korean soldiers in 1898
A U.S. Army drawing showing ROKA soldiers fighting in the Vietnam War in 1966
A U.S. Army drawing showing ROKA soldiers fighting in the Vietnam War in 1966

The modern South Korean army traces its lineage back to the Gwangmu Reform, when the Beolgyegoon was established by Emperor Gojong in 1881.

The 1st of every October is celebrated in South Korea as Armed Forces Day. It commemorates the day during the Korean War when units of the ROK Army first crossed the 38th Parallel, thus leading the UN Coalition north into North Korean territory for the first time.

The National Security Guard Of South Korea was originally formed out of the Republic Of Korea Army. This organization was created during the United States-lead occupation period from 1945–1948. The National Security Guard Of South Korea was initially a reserve unit of the National Police. In addition, some of ethnic Koreans were Nationalist Chinese and post-Manchurian soldiers remnants of the Imperial Japanese Army also contributed to the force. The National Defense Force was established on January 15, 1946, replacing the United States lead constabulary from 1945.

The outbreak of the Korean War caught the South Korean forces unprepared, requiring the United Nations to intervene with U.S.-led forces. The South Korean military rapidly developed during the Korean War, suffering enormous casualties and loss of equipment. As the Soviets had armed North Korea, the United States armed and trained the South Korean military throughout the Korean War.

Current operational status

The South Korean army is structured to operate in both the mountainous terrain native to the Korean Peninsula (60% mountainous) and in North Korea with its 950,000 strong Korean People's Army Ground Force, two-thirds of which is permanently garrisoned in the frontline near the DMZ. The current administration has initiated a program over the next two decades to design a purely domestic means of self-defense, whereby South Korea would be able to fully counter a North Korean attack.

The ROK Army was formerly organized into 3 armies: the First Army (FROKA), Third Army (TROKA) and Second Operational Command. Each with its own headquarters, corps, and divisions. The Third Army was responsible for the defense of the capital as well as the western section of the DMZ. The First Army was responsible for the defense of the eastern section of the DMZ whereas the 2nd OC formed the rearguard.

Under a restructuring plan aimed at reducing redundancy, the Second ROK Army was converted as the Second Operations Command in 2007, and the First and Third ROK Armies were merged as the Ground Operations Command in 2019.


The army consists of 495,000 troops, approximately 2,400-2,500 tanks, 2,700 armored fighting vehicles, 5,800 artillery pieces, 60 guided missile systems, and 600 helicopters as of 2014. Main battle tank types include: 880 M48 Patton series and its upgrades such as M48A3K, M48A5, and M48A5K, 33 Soviet T-80U and 2 T-80UK (given by Russia to pay off debt), as well as 1,524 K1A1 and K1 tanks, which bear a 120 mm smoothbore gun and are of local manufacture. The future replacement for the K1 and K1A1 MBTs has been named the K2 Black Panther (흑표;黑豹 Heukpyo), which will be fitted with a 1500 hp MTU-based engine, 55-caliber 120 mm main gun with autoloader. The new tank will also feature radar equipment as well as all-bearing laser detection and defense systems, anti-missile active protection, and heavy reactive armor and sensor package comparable to the American M1A2 Abrams and German Leopard 2A6. The ROK Army is planning to field approximately 390 Black Panthers.

In addition Republic of Korea manufactures the K-9 howitzer which have been exported to Turkey as the T-155 howitzer as well as the ZMA series TIFV's which saw action in UN peacekeeping operations (PKO) as part of the Malaysian peacekeeping forces. A variation of the K200, the KAFVs can be retrofitted to bear a 90 mm cannon, 40 mm grenade turret, M230-1 Chain gun Turret, or MK-30 Chaingun Turret. A replacement for K200 series IFVs are currently being tested, designated as K21 KNIFV (Korea Next generation Infantry Fighting Vehicle), which will have various capabilities for both land and naval warfare. The initial production is set for 2008, with the ROKA planning to field approximately 1,000 units until 2015.

The K21 KNIFV's chassis will be constructed entirely out of fiberglass, reducing the vehicle's load and enabling it to travel at higher speeds without bulky and powerful engines. When constructed, the NIFV will be lighter than other IFVs, including the American Bradley series and Russian BMP series, increasing both speed and payload.

The ROK Army also fields the mobile K-SAM "Pegasus"(천마/天馬; Cheonma), fitted with 8 missiles that fly at maximum speeds of mach 2.6, and the K-30 "Biho" series, which features a 30 mm twin gun system for anti-aerial fire support.

Besides having vehicles and equipment of their own design as well as American models, the ROK Army also possesses inventories of Russian-built AFVs, including BMP-3 IFVs and T-80U MBTs, given by the Russian government to pay off the financial debt owed to South Korea. Other notable foreign equipment in service with the ROK Army includes the Mistral MANPADS.

A new infantry rifle, the Daewoo K11 entered service in 2010. The overall concept of this weapon is similar to the American OICW, however it has recently been halted on production and abandoned due to too many issues targeting issues.


South Korean soldiers on a recon exercise in 2014
South Korean soldiers on a recon exercise in 2014
K-1 88 main battle tank during an amphibious beach assault exercise
K-1 88 main battle tank during an amphibious beach assault exercise
K-9 Thunder 155mm self-propelled howitzer
K-9 Thunder 155mm self-propelled howitzer

Republic of Korea Army Headquarters (대한민국 육군본부)

  • Capital Defense Command 'SHIELD' (수도방위사령부 '방패부대')[8]
  • 1st Air Defense Brigade (1방공여단)
  • 1st Security Group (1경비단)
  • 122nd Signal Group (122정보통신단)
  • 1113rd Engineer Group (제1113공병단)
  • Capital Defense Command Military Police Group (수도방위사령부 군사경찰단)
  • 1st Special Forces Brigade (Airborne) 'EAGLE' (1공수특전여단 '독수리부대')
  • 3rd Special Forces Brigade (Airborne) 'FLYING TIGER' (3공수특전여단 '비호부대')
  • 7th Special Forces Brigade (Airborne) 'PEGASUS' (7공수특전여단 '천마부대')
  • 9th Special Forces Brigade (Airborne) 'GHOST' (9공수특전여단 '귀성부대')
  • 11th Special Forces Brigade (Airborne) 'GOLDEN BAT' (11공수특전여단 '황금박쥐부대')
  • 13th Special Forces Brigade (Airborne) 'BLACK PANTHER' (13공수특전여단 '흑표부대')
  • Army Aviation Operations Command 'PHOENIX' (항공작전사령부 '불사조부대')
  • 1st Aviation Brigade (1항공여단)
  • 2nd Aviation Brigade (2항공여단)
  • Aviation Maintenance Brigade (항공정비여단)
  • Army Missile Command 'ENDLESSNESS' (미사일사령부 '무극부대')
  • Army Training & Doctrine Command 'CREATION' (육군교육사령부 '창조대')
  • Army Personnel Command (육군인사사령부)
  • Army Logistics Command 'SEVEN STARS' (육군군수사령부 '칠성대')
  • Army Mobilization Force Command (육군동원전력사령부)

Ground Operations Command (GOC) (지상작전사령부)

  • Capital Corps 'DEVOTION' (수도군단 '충의부대')
  • Capital Artillery Brigade (수도포병여단)
  • 2nd Armored Brigade 'LOYALTY' (2기갑여단 '충성부대')
  • 30th Armored Brigade (30기갑여단)
  • 1st Artillery Brigade 'FLYING TIGER' (1포병여단 '비호부대')
  • 1st Engineer Brigade (1공병여단)
  • II Corps 'DOUBLE DRAGONS' (2군단 '쌍용부대')
  • 7th Infantry Division 'SEVEN STARS' (7보병사단 '칠성부대')
  • 15th Infantry Division 'VICTORY' (15보병사단 '승리부대')
  • 27th Infantry Division 'LET'S WIN' (27보병사단 '이기자부대')
  • 20th Armored Brigade (20기갑여단)
  • 3rd Artillery Brigade (3포병여단)
  • 3rd Engineer Brigade (3공병여단)
  • 12th Infantry Division 'EULJI' (12보병사단 '을지부대')
  • 21st Infantry Division 'MT. BAEKDU' (21보병사단 '백두산부대')
  • V Corps 'VICTORIOUS ADVANCE' (5군단 '승진부대')
  • 1st Armored Brigade 'BLITZ' (1기갑여단 '전격부대')
  • 5th Artillery Brigade 'VICTORIOUS ADVANCE' (5포병여단 '승진포병부대')
  • 5th Engineer Brigade (5공병여단)
  • VI Corps 'ADVANCE' (6군단 '진군부대')
  • 5th Armored Brigade 'IRON STORM' (5기갑여단 '철풍부대')
  • 6th Artillery Brigade (6포병여단)
  • 6th Engineer Brigade (6공병여단)
  • VII maneuver Corps 'VANGUARD' (7 기동군단 '북진선봉부대')
  • 7th Artillery Brigade (7포병여단)
  • 7th Engineer Brigade (7공병여단)
  • VIII Corps 'DRAGON OF THE EAST SEA' (8군단 '동해충용부대')
  • 102nd Armored Brigade 'SUNRISE' (102기갑여단 '일출부대')
  • 22nd Infantry Division 'YULGOK' (22보병사단 '율곡부대')
  • 23rd Infantry Division 'IRON WALL' (23보병사단 '철벽부대')

Second Operations Command (2OC) (제2작전사령부)

  • 201st Special Assault Brigade (201특공여단)
  • 203rd Special Assault Brigade (203특공여단)
  • 5th Logistical Support Command (5군수지원사령부)
  • 31st Homeland Defense Infantry Division (31향토보병사단)
  • 32nd Homeland Defense Infantry Division (32향토보병사단)
  • 35th Homeland Defense Infantry Division (35향토보병사단)
  • 37th Homeland Defense Infantry Division (37향토보병사단)
  • 39th Homeland Defense Infantry Division (39향토보병사단)
  • 50th Homeland Defense Infantry Division (50향토보병사단)
  • 53rd Homeland Defense Infantry Division (53향토보병사단)


In officer ranks, "So" (小) equals small; "Jung" (中) equals medium; "Dae" (大) equals large. "Jun" (准) equals equivalent, used for Warrant Officer and 1 star general to ensure that they are regarded as officer/general, although these ranks are lower than the same grade with "So" rank. "Won" (元) equals principal, only used for Won-Su, General of the Army. Each of these is coupled with one of the following: "wi" (尉) equals company grade, "ryung" (領) equals field grade, and "jang" (將) equals general.

NCO rank is similar to officer. "Ha" (下) equals lower; "Jung" (中) equals medium; "Sang" (上) equals high; "Won" (元) equals principal, because this title is named after Won-Su, to ensure that this rank is higher than Sang-sa. Each of these is coupled with "Sa" (士) equals sergeant, although actual 'sergeant' rank is "Byeong-jang".

This system is due to the hanja or Sino-Korean origin of the names.[9]

NATO code
OF-10 OF-9 OF-8 OF-7 OF-6 OF-5 OF-4 OF-3 OF-2 OF-1 OF(D) & Student officer
 Republic of Korea Army
Marshal of the RoK
Superior general
Middle general
Junior general
Lesser general
Superior commander
Middle commander
Junior commander
Superior lieutenant
Middle lieutenant
Junior lieutenant
Lieutenant general
Major general
Brigadier general
Lieutenant colonel
Junior lieutenant
NATO code
OR-9 OR-8 OR-7 OR-6 OR-5 OR-4 OR-3 OR-2 OR-1
 Republic of Korea Army
No insignia
Sergeant major Master sergeant Sergeant first class Staff sergeant
(Sergeant junior grade)
(Master private)
(Senior private)
Private first class Private (Second class) Recruit

Warrant officers

ROK Army rank ROK Army insignia
Jun-wi (warrant officer)

(Warrant Officer)


¹: No one has yet held the rank of Won-su in the history of the ROK Armed Forces.
²: The Jun-wi (Warrant Officer)'s insignia is in gold color while the ones of Second Lieutenant and higher are in silver color.

See also


  1. ^ "2020 Defence White Paper" (PDF). December 2020.
  2. ^ Choi, Dalhee; Kim, Dongjin (1949). 육군가 (in Korean). YouTube. Retrieved September 8, 2016.
  3. ^ Choi, Dal-hee; Kim, Dong-jin (1949). 육군가 (in Korean). YouTube. Retrieved September 8, 2016.
  4. ^ Choi, Dal-hee; Kim, Dong-jin (1949). 육군가 (in Korean). YouTube. Retrieved September 8, 2016.
  5. ^ Choi, Dal-hee; Kim, Dong-jin (1949). "육군가". Retrieved March 21, 2017.
  6. ^ Choi, Dal-hee; Kim, Dong-jin (1949). 육군가 (in Korean). YouTube. Retrieved March 19, 2017. 백두산 정기 뻗은 삼천리 강산 무궁화 대한은 온누리의 빛 화랑의 핏줄타고 자라난 남아 그 이름 용감하다 대한 육군 앞으로 앞으로 용진 또 용진 우리는 영원한 조국의 방패 앞으로 앞으로 용진 또 용진 우리는 영원한 조국의 방패 높은 산 거친골짝 깊은 강물도 우리 용사 앞에는 거칠 것 없네
    대한육군 진격에 적이 있느냐 백천만 대군도 초로 같도다 앞으로 앞으로 용진 또 용진 우리는 영원한 조국의 방패 앞으로 앞으로 용진 또 용진 우리는 영원한 조국의 방패 자유 평화 정의는 우리의 정신 불의를 무찌르자 온 땅 끝까지 무쇠같이 튼튼한 넋과 사지는 대지를 뒤집고도 힘이 남는다 앞으로 앞으로 용진 또 용진 우리는 영원한 조국의 방패 앞으로 앞으로 용진 또 용진 우리는 영원한 조국의 방패
  7. ^ Klingner, Bruce. "South Korea: Taking the Right Steps to Defense Reform". The Heritage Foundation.
  8. ^ Pike, John. "Capital Defense Command".
  9. ^

External links

This page was last edited on 14 April 2021, at 13:53
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.