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Republic of Haiti (1859–1957)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Republic of Haiti
République d'Haïti
1859–1957
Motto: L'Union Fait La Force (French)
"Unity Makes Strength"
Anthem: La Dessalinienne  (French)
The Dessalines Song
LocationHaiti.svg
Capital Port-au-Prince
Common languages French, Haitian Creole
Religion Roman Catholic, Vodou
Government Presidential republic
President  
• 1859–1867 (first)
Fabre Geffrard
• 1957 (last)
Antonio Thrasybule Kébreau
Historical era 19th and 20th century
• Republic declared
15 January 1859
28 July 1915 – 1 August 1934
24 October 1945
22 October 1957
Currency Haitian gourde
ISO 3166 code HT
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Second Empire of Haiti
Duvalier dynasty

The period of 1859 to 1957 in Haitian history covers an era of political struggles, the period of American occupation and multiple coups and elections until the Duvaliers seized control of the country in 1957.

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  • Carnegie Mellon University's 120th Commencement

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[MUSIC] [APPLAUSE] >> Mr.President, as faculty marshal, I have the honor to declare the 120th commencement of Carnegie Mellon University, as authorized by the trustees, to be in session. >> [APPLAUSE] [MUSIC] >> Please rise for the singing of our national anthem by the vocal performance class of 2017. >> [MUSIC] >> [APPLAUSE] >> Good morning. We are gathered in a wonderful place of collaborative study, work and living. Please be seated. >> [APPLAUSE] >> Together, all of us, we are diverse in our fields of study, our talents and our abilities, our ethnicities and the places that we call home. In light of a respect for others, and with an acknowledgement of our differences, I invite you to join me, if you are able, in a moment of silence as we quiet our hearts in prayer in a posture of thankfulness for this day and for the class of 2017. Almighty God, we gather today to celebrate the diligent work and the dedication of the Carnegie Mellon University class of 2017. We pause for a moment to give thanks for those who have helped these students achieve this day. For the parents, family, friends, teachers, and any others who have been their providers of support throughout the years. We choose this day to be grateful for the vision and direction of those who helped make Carnegie Mellon the institution it is today. We give thanks to the leadership and the administration, who continue to carry on the vision of having a transformative impact on society through continual innovation in education, research, creativity, and entrepreneurship. Continue to teach these students, and us as well, to look with compassion on others. Take away any arrogance or hatred that may impact our view of others. Give us the grace and ability to love our neighbors and to seek justice and peace in all areas of life. Bless these students as they enter the next stages of their lives and seek to reach their full potential. Be with them as they take steps into the known and into the unknown. May all that they do, and the decisions that they make, honor you and the tradition of Carnegie Mellon University. We send them forth to impact society in transformative ways, through their work, through their lives, and their partnerships. Be with us this day and let these students bring You glory. Our heart is in the work. Amen. >> [APPLAUSE] >> Good morning, everyone! >> [APPLAUSE] >> It's a good day for the graduates. Whoo! On behalf of the Board of Trustees, Let me welcome you to the 120th Commencement of Carnegie Mellon University. My name is Jim Rohr, and it's my honor and pleasure to serve as the Board Chairman for the 2017 Carnegie Mellon Commencement. To all the students who are graduating today, let me begin by congratulating you on your achievement. This degree represents years of hard work and self discipline, of discovery and creativity and problem solving. I hope it has a little fun included as well. At Carnegie Mellon, a degree is a sign that you have surpassed a high standard of accomplishment in science, art, and ideas. And that you are ready to use this knowledge in your lives and your future professions. You are ready to take on the charge of continuing the long standing tradition of doing the work that matters. Congratulations to you all. >> [APPLAUSE] >> I would also like to wish congratulations to the family members, and to the friends, mentors, faculty, and staff who also take great pride in what the graduates have accomplished. Graduation from a demanding academic institution like Carnegie Mellon is a team effort. These students couldn't have done it without you. So I invite all of us to thank the support team with a wonderful round of applause for the supporters. >> [APPLAUSE] >> Now with us today at our 120th Commencement are some faculty and students from Carnegie Mellon's other locations around the world. I am particularly pleased to welcome students from the CMU Silicon Valley campus, and all the way from Rwanda in our CMU Africa program. And also our first to Lakshmi Subramanian CMU's Africa Student Excellence Award Scholars. We are delighted to have you here with us today. As members of the Carnegie Mellon community, you are ambassadors of our distinguished, distinctive university. It was at Carnegie Mellon that you gained solid grounding in your major field. And it was at Carnegie Mellon that you collaborated with people whose backgrounds were very different from your own. And it was at Carnegie Mellon that you discovered new ideas about the world, and, actually, new aspects about yourselves. As trustees, it's our job to uphold the university's values, and help CMU achieve further excellence in fulfillment of those values. Many trustees are here on the platform this morning, and I would like them to stand and be recognized. Trustees? >> [APPLAUSE] >> This year, Carnegie Mellon has added to its impressive momentum with a number of new initiatives and partnerships that are contributing to the growth of knowledge in the world. And we're moving forward rapidly with distinctive and collaborative education, ambitious research programs in areas ranging from energy, data science, workings of the brain, and even the science of learning. The campus footprint is growing, with plans fully underway for spectacular new spaces designed to make CMU a standard setter for the 21st century higher education. With emphasis on collaboration fields across the enterprise, create problem solving, as well as innovation. But behind all of this growth and expansion is our dynamic president, who joined the university in 2013 from the National Science Foundation, and who has already had a tremendous effect on this institution. It's my great privilege to introduce the ninth president of Carnegie Mellon University, Dr. Subra Suresh. >> [APPLAUSE] >> Good morning. >> Good morning. >> Good morning everyone and congratulations graduates. I'm going to be saying that a few times. Commencement is always a special day for family, friends, and faculty. But more than anything else it is a milestone for each of you, the graduates, the class of 2017. We are here to celebrate your accomplishments over the past four years. Or five years if you're from the School of Architecture. >> [APPLAUSE] >> You worked hard to get here, and we are very proud and honored to salute you today. Let me also express my deep appreciation for the Carnegie Mellon University Board of Trustees, and to the Chairman of the Board, Jim Rohr, for all their energy, vision, friendship and leadership. With their help, CMU is poised to have a bright future. Thank you, Jim, and thank you, trustees. >> [APPLAUSE] >> I would like to also recognize a number of alumni groups in attendance today. The 2017 Distinguished Alumni Award honorees, the class of 1967 50th reunion celebrants. And, of course, our legacy families. Just to give you an idea, yesterday morning when we met with the 50th reunion class, a number of things had changed. A postage stamp was 5 cents in 1967, today it's 49 cents, and it says forever if you can believe it. Carnegie Mellon's endowment at that time was $75 million, it's much greater now. There are many, many more things that have happened since '67, but the best news of all is that, with every incoming class, the quality and impact of Carnegie Mellon education has increased substantially, and you represent the very best of Carnegie Mellon. >> [APPLAUSE] >> Thank you. >> [APPLAUSE] >> CMU is a beloved tradition in so many families, and we are also pleased to see successive generations of family members attending CMU. All CMU alumni here today are specially designated by the blue stoles they are wearing. We are happy to see so many of you back here. Would all CMU alumni in attendance please stand and be recognized? >> [APPLAUSE] >> It's wonderful to have you here, and I hope our new graduates today continue this tradition and return to Commencement in the future. One alumna who our new graduates should get to know Is our Alumni Association Board President Debbie Yue, Dietrich College Class of 1989. Debbie joined the Alumni Association Board in 2010 and began her term nearly a year ago. While she was earning her Bachelor's degree in Technical Writing at Carnegie Mellon, she was a reporter for the Tartan and was active in the pre-law society. Now a partner at the firm of Gallagher Sharp in Cleveland, Ohio, Debbie has been an active volunteer for the Northeast Ohio Alumni Networks since 2007. Having served previously as network president. She also volunteers as a Carnegie Mellon admission interviewer and is active in a number of professional and community organizations. And since taking office, she's been an outstanding representative of all Carnegie Mellon alumni. I would like to invite Debbie now to the podium, Debbie. >> [APPLAUSE] >> Thank you, President Suresh, and congratulations to the Class of 2017 and welcome to the Carnegie Mellon alumni family. As you begin the next chapter of your lives, please remember that you are now lifelong members of the Carnegie Mellon community. Therefore, wear your Carnegie Mellon clothing, bring your CMU mugs to work and be proud to be part of such an amazing group. Although Carnegie Mellon alums make up only a small percentage of the world's population, our contributions are great, and our impact enormous. We just celebrated the achievement in service of a few of our dedicated and talented alums at the alumni awards ceremony on Friday and I was inspired not only by their achievement, but by their incredible passion for Carnegie Mellon, even 60 years after graduation. No matter where your life path will take you, you will find Carnegie Mellon alums in over 149 countries around the world. We are leading communities, companies and industries and we are making the world a better place. Although you are leaving the comforts of your Carnegie Mellon home, remember to always stay true to yourself, continue to be intellectually curious and continue to learn. Be supportive of each other as well as for those who are following in your footsteps. And always go outside of your comfort zone and embrace your vision for the future. The Carnegie Mellon Alumni Association provides many ways for you to continue to learn and to connect with each other and with the university. In addition to virtual programs, we have over 55 active alumni networks around the world. Therefore, as you settle into your new lives, please find your local alumni network and get involved. And as with any family, I wish that you will come back to visit often, stay in touch, and think of us. We wish you nothing but the best and brightest future. On behalf of the Carnegie Mellon Alumni Association and Board, it is my distinct pleasure to welcome you into the Carnegie Mellon alumni family. Congratulations, Class of 2017. >> [APPLAUSE] >> Thank you very much, Debbie. Our student speaker today, is one of 129 students from 30 countries and 75 universities chosen this academic year as a Schwarzman Scholar. Today, Krystal Thomas earns her bachelor's degree in biological sciences from Carnegie Mellon University's Mellon College of Science. >> [APPLAUSE] >> Krystal has been an active member of the Carnegie Mellon community, serving as founding president of Colors at CMU, a student organization that promotes open conversations on race and diversity. She served as one of the inaugural members of the Diversity and Inclusion Roundtable, and is a mentor in the Coaching Minority Progress and Success in Science program. She's a past president of the Gates Millennium Scholarship from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. And is an Andrew Carnegie Society Scholar, a distinction bestowed upon only 40 graduating seniors. The daughter of a Haitian immigrant, Crystal plans to complete a Master of Global Affairs with a concentration in public policy at Shanghai University in Beijing, China and work to address barriers to healthcare faced by immigrant families. It was a great pleasure for me this morning to meet Crystal's parents. Crystal, I would like to now invite you to the podium. >> [APPLAUSE] >> Hi everyone. Five years ago, I came to CMU as a high school student. I was here for the university's Summer Academy of Math and Science or SAMS for short. Now, I didn't know that Carnegie Mellon, or that SAMS, excuse me, was a program for minority students. And the entire time, I was surrounded by people who look like me. So I left thinking, this is great. Carnegie Mellon University, a historically black college for math and science, right? >> [LAUGH] >> I'm totally going here. [LAUGH] Even though CMU wasn't exactly what I expected, I'm still so glad I decided to come here. I have learned so much while here at Carnegie Melon, and not just academically. Problem solving, how to hold difficult conversations, and most importantly, I now know there's still so much more that I don't know. What drives people? How do our environments influence us? How is our world interconnected? I've started to think about these questions, because I've been fortunate enough to meet many of you. And getting to know your stories, your perspectives and the way you think about things, I've been blown away. As someone who came from a town where high school students thought they couldn't go to college if they didn't have the money. As someone whose pediatrician told her, at least one of us made it out of this worthless place. As someone whose relative told her, isn't Carnegie Mellon a bit too advanced for you? I am immensely proud to be a part of this campus. And I am so proud to be able to walk with you today. >> [APPLAUSE] >> But what now? We're about to leave the CMU bubble. Some of us may start working and receive nice paychecks. Some of us may go onto graduate school, and receive all right paychecks. [LAUGH] And some of us may take a well-deserved break. But what, then? Instead of thinking about the next achievement, now's our opportunity to reflect on purpose as we enter the next stage of our life. Purpose, the reason we exist. Maybe Carnegie Mellon has already helped you find your purpose. Maybe you're just getting started. We should reflect on purpose because it develops us, keeps us resilient and can lead us to happiness. So how do we crystallize purpose, or even find purpose in the first place? We help others. We are driven by the need to impact others. We're social animals, after all. I'm a biology major, trust me. So what's the relationship between purpose, helping others and happiness? Well, to me, there are three levels of happiness. First, you can get happiness from simply building something. Then there's a second level of happiness when people praise what you have built. And then there's this third level of happiness, when someone tells you what you have built has changed my life. That level of happiness just can't be beat. And the path that makes you feel the most fulfilled, the path that gives you the greatest happiness, can give you insight on purpose. We've already been practicing, impacting the lives of others. We've overloaded, become execs on boards, volunteered for 1000plus, tutored, TAed, researched, strived because CMU is a striving place. We're a bunch of overachievers who've been presented with so many opportunities, and have been encouraged to learn. Now's our time to put practice into action. Continue to strive. Continue to aspire. And as you leave here today, center your life around purpose. Center your life around impacting others. Let purpose guide you. And to everyone who helped us along the way, mentors who guided us throughout the process, faculty members who helped to see just what we could do, and loved ones who have been with us and encouraged us every step of the way. Thank you. And thank you, class of 2017. I know you'll do great things, thank you. >> [APPLAUSE] >> Thank you, Kristal. >> Now we come to the presentation of special doctor's degrees awarded to honor individuals who have had extraordinary impact in areas that reflect Carnegie Mellon's trends in the arts, sciences, scholarship, and society. Recipients of these honorary degrees have in common a notable record of achievement in their chosen fields. And they each have made in their own domains substantial contributions to the advancement of knowledge, the enrichment of the arts and culture, and to bettering the well-being of humanity. Provost Farnam Jahanian will present each candidate and cite the achievements that merit this honor. Then all candidates will together receive their degrees and their doctoral hoods. Farnam. >> Good morning, class of 2017. >> Good morning. [APPLAUSE] >> No, no, you don't understand. This is a celebration. We're gonna try this again. Good morning, class of 2017. >> [APPLAUSE] >> Much better. >> Let me add my warm welcome to all of you and extend my congratulations to the class of 2017. Will Mahzarin Banaji please come forward? Mahzarin Banaji, you are one of the most profound experimental psychologists in the world, co-author of Blind Spot, Hidden Biases of Good People. You're highly celebrated for your study of the disparity between conscious expression of attitudes and beliefs, and our less conspicuous implicit behavior. You have been the recipient of numerous accolades for your work as a social scientist, professor and senior adviser at Harvard University. A fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, you'll receive the 2017 American Psychological Association's Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award. In 2016, you garnered the Association for Psychological Science's William James Fellow Award for a lifetime of significant intellectual contribution to the basic science of psychology. And in 2015, you were elected a fellow of British Academy. Mahzarin Banaji, for your preeminent contribution to psychology and higher education, Carnegie Mellon is proud to award you the Honorary Doctor of Science and Technology. >> [APPLAUSE] >> Will Vivian Davidson Hewitt please come forward? Vivian Davidson Hewitt, as a CMU alumna, you have brought honor and acclaim to this university throughout your history-making career. Shortly after earning your bachelor's degree in 1944, yes, 1944. >> [APPLAUSE] >> You became the first African American librarian at Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh, then went on to become the first black president of the Special Libraries Association, and the first African-American chief librarian for the Rockefeller Foundation, the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, and the Council on Foreign Relations. An inductee of the Special Library Association's Hall of Fame, you were also sanctioned a dame by Queen Elizabeth II for your many years of dedication to the order of St. John. >> [APPLAUSE] >> While living in New York, your love for artistic expression led you and your husband to start a collection of Haitian and African-American art. Today, the Hewitt Collection is recognized as one of the finest collections of its kind in the world. Vivian Davidson Hewitt, for your epic contributions to library science and the arts, Carnegie Mellon is honored to award to you the honorary Doctor of Humane Letters. >> [APPLAUSE] >> Will Michael Keaton Douglas please come forward? >> [APPLAUSE] >> Michael Keaton Douglas, your extraordinary acting talent has brought you continuous critical and public acclaim for decades. Your outstanding leading performances in two films, in 1988, Beetlejuice. >> [APPLAUSE] [LAUGH] >> You can cheer. >> [APPLAUSE] >> And Clean and Sober earned you two Best Academy Awards from the National Society of Film Critics. Your portrayal of the iconic super hero in the blockbuster films, Batman- >> [APPLAUSE] >> And Batman Returns- >> [APPLAUSE] >> Has been entertaining audiences for generations. And you have been honored for numerous awards for your roles in Birdman and Spotlight, both of which won the Academy Award for Best Picture. Your passionate mentorship to students as a visiting scholar in CMU's Entertainment Technology Center is helping to shape the future of entertainment industry. Michael Keaton Douglas, for your extraordinary commitment and contribution to the entertainment industry, Carnegie Mellon is pleased to award you the honorary degree of the Doctor of Fine Arts. >> [APPLAUSE] >> Will Bernard Osher please come forward? >> [APPLAUSE] >> Bernard Osher, you have worked tirelessly since 1977 to improve quality of life through your support of higher education and the arts. Your generous philanthropy over many of those years has affected countless organizations. Your business acumen, rooted in your family's hardware and plumbing supply store, led you to become a founding director of the second largest saving institutions in the United States. A renowned art collector, you purchased the auction house of Butterfield & Butterfield, and oversaw its growth to become the fourth largest auction house in the world. Your support of Osher Lifelong Learning Institutes, including ours here at Carnegie Mellon University, which is by the way celebrating its 25th year anniversary, allows older adults to extend their education on university and college campuses all around the country. Bernard Osher, for your unwavering service and commitment to education and the arts, Carnegie Mellon is honored to award you the honorary degree of Doctor of Fine Arts. >> [APPLAUSE] >> Will Meg Whitman please come forward?. >> [APPLAUSE] >> Meg Whitman, your exceptional leadership, knowledge, and business acumen place you among the most respected and powerful women in the world today. Your stellar record of achievement is well-documented. At Hewlett Packard Company, you led an historic resurgence by creating two Fortune 100 technology firms, Hewlett Packard Enterprise, which you currently lead as President and CEO, and HP Inc for which you serve as Chairman of the Board. You also have held executive roles with Hasbro, FTD, and Walt Disney Company. And your leadership at eBay led to a truly remarkable expansion. Under your direction, the e-commerce company grew from 30 employees and 4 million in annual revenue to more than 15,000 employees and 8 billion in annual revenue. >> [APPLAUSE] >> Your elite stature in the business community serves as role model for women In leadership positions in every field, in every country. Meg Whitman, for your distinguished contributions to global business, your superior leadership abilities and your inspiration to future leaders across the globe Carnegie Mellon is pleased to award you the honorary degree of Doctor of Business Practice. >> [APPLAUSE] >> Mahzarin Banaji, Vivian Davidson Hewitt, Michael Keaton, Bernard Osher, and Meg Whitman, by virtue of the authority granted to me by the Board of Trustees, I hereby confer these honorary degrees upon you with all the rights, honors, privileges and responsibilities pertaining thereto. Congratulations. >> [APPLAUSE] Business leader, political activist, philanthropist, these are all descriptions of Meg Whitman, one of the most successful business executives in the world today. Since 2011, she's been president, CEO and/or chairman of Hewlett-Packard and since 2015 she's been the CEO and President of Hewlett-Packard Enterprise and chairman of HP Inc. Board of Directors. As someone who knows her from serving on that board at HP Inc., I can tell you, no one just shows up and becomes president, CEO and Chairman of one of the world's most important corporations. In a business world overwhelmingly run by men, Meg Whitman has earned every accolade, and has repeatedly demonstrated the benefit of pursuing new and unexpected challenges. Having been an accomplished high school student athlete, Meg set her sights on becoming a physician when she enrolled at Princeton just a few years after women were first admitted. But a summer spent selling magazine advertising revealed her true calling. This drove her to pursue her Bachelor's degree in economics, and then an MBA from Harvard. Meg's path from there is meteoric. She joined Procter & Gamble where she worked with Steve Case, who later founded AOL. She took a position with Bain & Company, where she rose to Senior Vice President. And along the way worked with Mitt Romney, who would later become Governor of Massachusetts and compete for the presidency of the United States. Meg then served as an executive with Disney, Stride Rite, FTD, and Hasbro before taking the helm of a fledgling company that made her a household name. AuctionWeb is probably not the name you were expecting. But under ten years of her leadership, Meg Whitman grew AuctionWeb into a multibillion dollar global phenomenon, now known as eBay, that has revolutionized the way humanity trades goods. Not content to rest on her laurels, Meg started a charitable foundation that has focused much of its giving on addressing global warming and ecosystem restoration. She's also dabbled in politics, running an historic campaign for governor of California in 2010. In fact, The New York Times singled her out as one of the women most likely to become the first female President of the United States. >> [APPLAUSE] >> Since 2011, Meg has worked tirelessly at Hewlett-Packard Company and Hewlett-Packard Enterprise after their historic split in 2015. I give you the person Forbes Magazine named the 20th Most Powerful Woman in the World, Meg Whitman. >> [APPLAUSE] >> Well, President Suresh, members of the class of 2017, members of the faculty, distinguished guests, fellow recipients of honorary degrees. Families of the graduating class, ladies and gentleman, it's a true honor to be with you today. And it's a great privilege to receive an honorary Doctor of Business Practice degree. And I am grateful to be earning my degree in a lot less time and with a lot fewer all-nighters than it took many of you to earn yours. To the parents of the graduating class of 2017, it is a magnificent and memorable day when your child graduates from college. It certainly is a wonderful day for you. And I'm guessing that for many of you parents, it's a pretty good day for your wallets as well. Congratulations for having traveled this journey with your children. A journey that began not with their enrollment at this university, but at the moment of their birth. Whether your children fully realized it or not, whether they have fully expressed it to you or not, and they will. They would not be here today without your love and support and encouragement along the way. So congratulations to the parents. >> [APPLAUSE] >> Most important to the class of 2017, congratulations. Graduating from college is an impressive achievement, but especially graduating from one of the leading universities in the world, an institution characterized by high standards and excellence. One that has produced winners of Nobel Prizes, and Turing, Tony, Emmy, and Academy Award winners. Carnegie Mellon University has prepared you for a life of purpose and meaning, and there are people and moments you will never forget. Including, I understand, the Spring Carnival, which includes what I gather are some pretty amazing amusement park rides, booths, and buggy races. To bag piping, which the school has made into an art form, and to my personal favorite, the Band Without Pants. >> [APPLAUSE] >> A tradition unique to Carnegie Mellon, and I'm confident I can say one you are unlikely to encounter in your first full-time job. You are graduating at a moment of great challenge for our nation. When our country will decide on matters having to do not with just commerce, but conscience. Not just with what we will gain, but what we will give. Not just with our military power, but with our deepest ideals. This is hardly the most difficult moment in American history. I believe you can safely argue that the Civil War, two World Wars, and the Great Depression have us beat by a long shot. You are a blessed generation in so many ways, with opportunities unimaginable to past generations. And gratitude is one of the hallmarks of a fulfilled life. But every life has hardships, every generation faces obstacles. And we are in the midst of a profoundly important moment in the political and civic life of America. The challenges today are more from within than without. And I believe this is a moment that, if we do not handle it well, could produce harmful effects on my generation and on yours, and on generations yet unborn. The stakes are that serious. So today I wanna speak about some disturbing trends in our national life. Trends that need to be challenged by people of both genders, every class, race, and ethnic background. Of every political party and ideology, but most especially by young people. Who are not only inheritors of the future, but will do so much to shape it. The first disturbing trend I want to mention is the attack on truth. There are many people these days, including people at the highest level in public life- >> [APPLAUSE] [APPLAUSE] >> Who use lies to devalue truth. Those who are part of this effort like describing what's happening euphemistically using phrases like alternative facts. >> [APPLAUSE] >> But we know better to paraphrase Shakespeare's Juliet, a lie by any other name is still a lie. >> [LAUGH] [APPLAUSE] >> What is so striking is the brazenness and rapidity of the lies and their purpose Which is to de-legitimize sources of information hostile to those in power. The lies tumble down like rocks in an avalanche. They are not subtle, they are overt, obvious, and part of a conscious effort. Language is being employed not to reveal reality, but to obscure it, not to simply mislead people but to disorient them, to assert power over truth in an effort to deconstruct it. So here's why this should matter to you. If we do not share a common reality, we can't reason together. Truth creates restraints on power. If we allow those with power to control the very idea of truth itself, then we cannot identify and stand against injustice. And if we can't identify injustice, then we cannot replace it with concepts like equality under law, respect, decency, compassion, and justice itself. >> [APPLAUSE] >> A great university is always enlisted against the spread of illusion, and on the side of reality, said President Kennedy. And that is the essence of your calling as graduates of a great university. My encouragement to you is to be women and men who stand for truth. Who spend your life in search of it, even if you never fully know it. Who believe in inquiries, in facts, in objective reality. And who have the courage to speak truth to power even when there may be a cost to doing so. >> [APPLAUSE] >> If you do, if you are defenders of truth in an age marked by lies, it will have a liberating effect on our fellow citizens and make more possible all good things in life. A second truth that needs to be confronted is the attack on free speech. >> In the last several years,- >> [APPLAUSE] >> We have seen a powerful movement, one that seeks to shut down free speech, gain traction in the academy. The very institutions that were created in order to allow for the free exchange of ideas. On some campuses, we've seen certain speakers not invited. On others, they've been shouted down. And on still others, we are witnessing violence. Now I understand this kind of thing isn't happening on most American campuses, but it's happening in too many places and it needs to end. But there's something else going on as well. College students are increasingly demanding protection from words and speech they find offensive. We hear a lot about trigger warnings and safe spaces which are designed to protect students from viewpoints that they might find upsetting and unsettling. Here's why I think this is problematic. For one thing, I don't think most of you want to be treated like porcelain dolls. And now that you are college graduates, the rest of the world and certainly the business world won't treat you that way. So no one is doing college students any favors when they intellectually isolate them. >> [APPLAUSE] >> But the issue extends beyond the walls of the academy and matters whether or not you ever step foot on a campus again. While many of you are about to complete your formal education, you will spend a lifetime continuing to learn, gathering and processing new information and dealing with people with different life experiences and points of view. Shutting down free speech, insulating ourselves from hearing competing points of view is the equivalent of injecting poison into the bloodstream of our republic. >> [APPLAUSE] >> John Stewart Mill in his 1859 classic, On Liberty, put it as well as anyone ever has. And I quote, he who knows only his own side of the case knows little of that, Mill wrote. His reason may be good and no one may have been able to refute that. But if he is equally unable to refute the reasons on the opposite side, if he does not so much as know what they are, he has no ground for preferring either opinion. Mill went on to say this, nor is it enough that he should hear the opinions of adversaries from his own teachers presented as they state them and accompanied by what they offer as refutations. He must be able to hear from persons who actually believe them. He must know them in their most plausible and persuasive form. So my encouragement to you is to be the men and women who stand up for free speech, who welcome debate. Who model for others what genuine dialogue is, and who are not afraid to have your beliefs challenged. Too many of us live in intellectual silos, where we seek out people and information that simply reinforces our existing opinions. Venture out of those silos. We are better when we are exposed to different ideas and competing philosophies. Learn to listen in order to understand others, not just to respond to them. And remain open to the possibility that you may have something to learn from others. Be the generation that embodies real tolerance, genuine inquiry and authentic open mindedness. It is what this nation desperately needs during this fractured and fractious time. >> [APPLAUSE] >> The third trend that needs to be confronted is the attack on civility. We live in an age of escalating incivility. We see it all around us, on our roads, in airways, in sports stadiums, and on social media, and in politics. The problem has gotten worse recently, with those running for high public office mocking reporters and demeaning opponents with childish names or worse. It seems that no words, no matter how hurtful or cruel to others are considered inappropriate. We are fostering the conditions in which we view others not as opponents, but enemies. We're treating one another as subhuman and that's a terribly, dangerous line to cross. Civility is more than nice manners, it's a precondition of democratic dialogue, in the words of Professor Steven L. Carter of Yale Law School. Civility is part of the, quote, etiquette of democracy, unquote. It allows for genuine social interaction. It's been said that the true genius of Martin Luther King Jr. was not his ability to argue the pain of an oppressed people, but his ability to inspire those very people to be loving and civil in their descent. We should treat each other with civility, not because we agree with others, but because it is a measure of our respect for human dignity. It's what we owe all people, including those with whom we have fierce disagreements. Our institutions, our culture, our communities cannot be sustained let alone thrive if civility is eroded. It is an essential democratic virtue. [APPLAUSE] >> Kingman Brewster, a former president of Yale, said, quote, the presumption of innocence is not just a legal concept. In commonplace terms, it rests on the generosity of spirit which assumes the best, not the worst of a stranger. My encouragement to you is to be the women and men who embody civility, who demonstrate a generosity of spirit in an ungenerous time. And who assume the best, not the worst, of the stranger, of those you do not know, people whose life experiences are different than yours, and who may see the world in a dramatically different way than you do. In doing so, you will make us a more decent and just society. This country desperately needs the skills you have developed during your years at Carnegie Mellon. But it needs something more than your skills, it needs your ideals. You leave this great university as better men and women than when you arrived, more knowledgeable and better educated, I'm sure, but I trust wiser and more hopeful. There's a beautiful line by William Wordsworth in his poem The Prelude, in which he says, quote, what we have loved others will love and we will teach them how. The faculty at CMU has taught you what to know and love and now it is your turn to teach others what you have come to know and love. I wish you all a life of joy and purpose, of success and fulfillment, and congratulations to the great class of 2017. Thank you very much. >> [APPLAUSE] >> Meg, thank you for your thoughtful and sobering remarks. We're not only inspired by your words but also motivated by your example. It's been an honor to have you as our keynote speaker. Thank you, again, Meg. Please join me, once again, in thanking Meg Whitman. >> [APPLAUSE] >> It is now my pleasure to recognize the faculty members who have recently accepted emeritus status. Like all of our educators, these distinguished individuals are scholars, scientists, artists and above all, teachers. They have left an [LAUGH] indelible mark on this university through the support and encouragement they have provided to our students and through their legacy of exceptional scholarship. The names of all retiring faculty will be projected on this screen at this time. Those retiring faculty who are present this morning, please stand as I read your name. Please hold your applause until I have read all their names. Mark Fichman, Associate Professor of Organizational Behavior and Theory, Tepper School of Business. Peggy Anne Knapp, Professor of English, Dietrich College of Humanities and Social Sciences. Kenneth Kotovsky, Professor of Psychology, Dietrich College of Humanities and Social Sciences. Gregory Lehane, Professor of Drama and Music, College of Fine Arts. Mel Siegal, Associate Research Professor, School of Computer Science. Please join me in thanking all of Carnegie Mellon's emeriti faculty for their service and dedication to the university. >> [APPLAUSE] >> I would now like to recognize those faculty members who were recently honored with the title of university professor. Being appointed a university professor is one of the highest honors that a faculty member can receive at Carnegie Mellon. Receiving this rank confers both honor and obligation onto its recipients, and denotes a legacy of exceptional contribution to education, artistic creativity and/or research. This prestigious group includes faculty from all of our colleges and schools. I am pleased to announce that three faculty members have joined these distinguished ranks this year. Nominated and recommended by academic leaders and university professors, and promoted to University Professor by President Suresh and me. As I read your name, please stand and be recognized. The first newly appointed University Professor is Marty Gaynor, E.J. Barone Professor of Economics and Health Policy, Heinz College. >> [APPLAUSE] >> I'm also pleased to congratulate Susan Tsu, Professor of Design, College of Fine Arts. >> [APPLAUSE] >> The third newly appointed University Professor could not be here today, but I would like to congratulate him, Alan Frieze, Professor of Mathematical Sciences, Mellon College of Science. >> [APPLAUSE] >> We will now begin the formal conferral of degrees on all students who have duly completed their requirements of their programs to the satisfaction and approval of their faculty members. [CHEERS] >> You can clap, it's okay. >> [APPLAUSE] >> The commencement program gives each student's degree an area of study, which will be called out and celebrated at departmental diploma ceremonies. I encourage families and friends to look and listen beyond just your own graduate's listing to get a sense of the unique educational environment at Carnegie Mellon. The environment that makes this institution so distinctive and this graduating class so exceptional. I wish to begin by acknowledging the achievements of this year's group of doctoral candidates. These outstanding scholars received their academic hoods at a special ceremony yesterday afternoon. In earning their doctorates, they have made a commitment to a life of scholarly pursuits, and have reaffirmed the importance and prominence of Carnegie Mellon as one of the nation's premier research universities. I would invite the doctor's candidates to please rise and be recognized. Doctor's candidates? >> [APPLAUSE] >> There were about 300 of them yesterday afternoon. >> [LAUGH] >> That party must have lasted really, really late last night. Please be seated. There are some of them back there as well, thank you. In addition, we're pleased to officially confer bachelor degrees to students graduating from Carnegie Mellon University, Qatar campus. These students earned degrees from the Dietrich College, the Mellon College of Science, the School of Computer Science, and the Tepper Business School. At this time I want to recognize the Dean of Carnegie Mellon University, at Qatar. Dean Ilker Baybars, who has been an exemplary leader of campus in Doha, and who just completed his last academic year as dean. For the past six years, Ilker has led the CMU Q campus with honor and distinction, enhancing the CMU experience through his passion for teaching and collaboration and his dedication to students. Once a successor is named, Ilker will resume his duties as George Leland Bach Professor of Operations Management in Tepper School of Business, where he has been a member of our faculty since 1978. Dean Baybars, thank you for your service and please stand to be recognized. >> [APPLAUSE] >> Candidates, I'm gonna give you some directions on what to do next. Class of 2017, are you ready? >> [APPLAUSE] >> Okay, we'll try again. Class of 2017, are you ready? >> [APPLAUSE] >> We will ask each degree candidate from each college, to stand and be recognized as you're called upon by your dean. When all schools and colleges have been recognized, the President then asks all students to stand again at which time he will formally confer your degrees. And don't be shy. Last year, we had a bit of a competition for the most boisterous school or college. So let's hear your enthusiasm as your dean calls on you. That's an open invitation. Are you with me? >> Yes. >>[APPLAUSE] >> If not, just follow the person next to you. >> [LAUGH] >> For the conferral of degrees at the University level, when we call for degree candidates to stand, we will be calling for broad categories of bachelors, masters or doctoral level candidates. I will now call on the dean of each school or college to present its candidate. President Suresh, please join me at the podium. >> We love you, Subra. >> [LAUGH] >> [APPLAUSE] >> To begin, I wish to recognize James Garrett, Dean of the College of Engineering. >> [APPLAUSE] >> This is when the fun begins. >> Making lots of noise, will all the candidates from the College of Engineering please rise. >> [APPLAUSE] >> Mr. President, upon the recommendation of our faculty I have the honor of presenting the bachelors, masters, and doctoral degree candidates from the College of Engineering. [APPLAUSE] >> [APPLAUSE] >> Will the new College of Engineering graduates please be seated and be quiet, thank you. >> [LAUGH] >> Dan Martin, the Dean of the College of Fine Arts could not be here today due to illness. We wish him a speedy recovery. To present the candidates from the College of Fine Arts on Dan's behalf, I now recognize Eric Anderson, Associate Dean. Eric? >> [APPLAUSE] >> Representing with even greater enthusiasm, will all the candidates from the College of Fine Arts, please rise. >> [APPLAUSE] >> Mr President. >> [APPLAUSE] >> Upon the recommendation of our faculty, I have the honor of representing the bachelors, masters, and doctoral degree candidates from the College of Fine Arts. [APPLAUSE] >> [APPLAUSE] >> Will the new College of Fine Arts graduates please be seated? >> [APPLAUSE] >> I now recognize the Dean of the Dietrich College of Humanities and Social Sciences, Richard Scheines. >> [APPLAUSE] >> Will all the candidates from the Dietrich College of Humanities and Social Sciences please show these other students what enthusiasm actually sounds like. >> [LAUGH] >> And do so as you rise. >> [APPLAUSE] [APPLAUSE] >> Mr President, upon the recommendation of our faculty, I have the honor of presenting the Bachelor's, Master's and Doctoral degree candidates, from the Dietrich College of Humanities and Social Sciences, [INAUDIBLE]. >> [APPLAUSE] >> Great job, now you can sit down. >> I now recognize the Dean of the Heinz College, Ramayya Krishnan. >> [APPLAUSE] >> Will all the candidates from the Heinz College, please rise. [APPLAUSE] That's a good demonstration. You need no prompting for me. >> [LAUGH] >> Mr President. Upon the recommendation of our faculty, I have the honor of presenting the Master's and Doctoral degree candidate from the Heinz College. >> [APPLAUSE] >> Will the new Heinz College graduates, please be seated. >> I now call on the Dean of the School of the Mellon College of Science, Rebecca Doerge. >> [APPLAUSE] >> Dean... >> [APPLAUSE] >> as you know, Dean Doerge has just completed her first year as the Dean of MCS, coming to us from Purdue University where she led their statistics department. We are delighted to congratulate her on her first ever CMU commencement. [APPLAUSE] >> Alright, don't disappoint me. Will the 2017 Mellon College of Science [LAUGH] candidates, please rise. And help Crystal. >> [APPLAUSE] >> [LAUGH] >> [APPLAUSE] [CHANTING] MCS. MCS.... >> Okay. Mr. President, upon the recommendation of our distinguished faculty. I have the distinct honor of presenting the Bachelor's, Master's and doctoral degree candidates from the Mellon College of Science. >> [APPLAUSE] >> Will the new Mellon College of Science graduates, please be seated. Congratulations. >> [APPLAUSE] >> I now call on the Dean of the school of Computer Science, Andrew Moore. >> [APPLAUSE] >> Okay, will this scarily awesome candidates from the School of Computer Science, please accomplish a decibel level of 06f. >> [LAUGH] [APPLAUSE] [CHANTING] SCS. SCS... >> Mr. President, upon the recommendation of our faculty, I have the honor of presenting the Bachelor's, Master's and Doctoral degree candidates, from the School of Computer Science. >> [APPLAUSE] >> Okay, will the New School of Computer Science graduates, please be seated. >> I now call on the Dean of the Tepper School of Business, Robert Dammon. >> [APPLAUSE] >> You heard the challenge. Will all the candidates from the small but mighty Tepper School of Business, please rise. >> [APPLAUSE] >> [LAUGH] Thank you. Mr. President. Upon the recommendation of our faculty, I have the honor of presenting the Bachelor's, Master's and Doctoral degree candidates, from the Tepper School of Business. >> [APPLAUSE] >> Will the new Tepper School of Graduates, please be seated. >> Carnegie Mellon, is proud to lead the world in interdisciplinary research and education, and nurture several University-Wide, Inter-College and Joint Degree Programs within our university. On behalf of all the Deans and Program Directors I will now present the candidates for degrees from these special programs. Will all of the Bachelor's, Master's, and Doctoral candidates in our interdisciplinary programs, please rise. >>[APPLAUSE] >> Mr President. >> [APPLAUSE] >> Upon the recommendation of our faculty, I have the honor of presenting these candidates from our University-wide, Inter-College and Joint Degree Programs. I would ask these students to remain standing and I would like to invite students from all other colleges and schools to stand once again, for the official conferral degrees by President Suresh. >> [APPLAUSE] >> By virtue of the authority granted to me by the Board of Trustees, I hereby confer these degrees upon these candidates, with all the rights, honors, privileges and responsibilities pertaining thereto. I'm pleased to join the deans and the faculty of the entire university, in congratulating you. Congratulations, class of 2017. >> [APPLAUSE] >> Will all the new Bachelor's, Master's and Doctoral graduates and the new Alumni Association members of Carnegie Mellon University, please be seated. I'm immensely proud to stand before you, the Carnegie Mellon University graduating class of 2017. In my charge to you, the graduates, I wish to focus on two themes. The number four, especially focusing on the last four years of your presence here, and some thoughts and suggestions for your career and life beyond Carnegie Mellon University. Four years, that's an interesting interval of time. Every four years we see a U.S. Presidential Election, Olympic Games, a soccer World Cup, and of course a leap year. Four years ago in the summer of 2013, you arrived on this campus as freshmen, accompanied by your family members. I had the enormous privilege and honor of welcoming you to CMU at the orientation event on the Mall. I told you and your parents at the time that like you, I had just arrived on campus as a freshman to begin the journey with you. How many of you remember that? >> [APPLAUSE] >> In the succeeding four years you have accomplished much in your learning, your field of specialization, in your personal growth, in your teamwork, and in your global perspectives. You have built valuable relationships with your mentors and advisors, staff across campus, faculty members, department heads, deans, coaches, alumni, and trustees. You've also contributed so much to the fabric of this university and its rich heritage. As you walk the corridors of various buildings, painted the Fence, strolled the cart, pushed the buggy at carnival, or exhibited your enormous creativity and technological prowess in formal classroom work, in theater, music and art. In research and poetry, and in presentations you produced and exhibited on campus, your determination to improve the human condition and your compassion and humanity came through in the numerous community service activities you initiated and executed locally and around the world. My wife, Mary, and I were privileged to host many of you on hundreds of occasions on campus and at our residence for conversations, entertainment, meals, and social interactions. And we came to see you not just as students but as members of our family. We celebrated major achievements together, and we came together to hold and support one another during times of deep sorrow and tragedy. While our faculty continued to garner international recognition for their research and creativity, you, our graduates today, have also accomplished much in these four years. Excelling in athletics, creating artificial intelligence programs that defeated four of the world's best professional poker players in a marathon 20-day poker competition. Winning the Putnam Competition, the premier mathematics competition for undergraduate students in North America. >> [APPLAUSE] >> Competing against the best undergraduate math students in the country. During your time here, your accomplishments helped the University scale new heights. Thanks to the generosity of about 450 donors and the efforts of many members of the CMU community the last four years saw a historical buildup of dedicated endowment to support students through presidential fellowships and scholarships. This program just established three years ago has grown to benefit a total of 255 students this year in every college and school at Carnegie Mellon. Similar efforts were created to support faculty through endowed professorships. Your ideas and exuberant engagement helped the University establish an historic expansion of the campus to benefit generations of students in teaching, learning and research. All this was fueled by one of the most sustained and successful fundraising efforts in a continuous four-year period the university has witnessed. This happened as the university's visibility expanded around the world, from pioneering university participation at the Tony Awards on Broadway. To faculty engagement at the World Economic Forum in Davos, to hosting the President of the United States on our campus and to attracting several large multi-national companies to Pittsburgh, while at the same time we nurtured and supported our activities at CMU campuses around the world. Your work at the university community also brought to the fore the critical need to enhance the CMU experience for all. This commitment has already produced initiatives and action plans for the next several years to improve programs and infrastructure for counseling, mentoring, and enhancing student support and services. We have accomplished all this together in close partnerships with faculty and staff, parents, families, friends, coaches, trustees, and alumni. Today we pause to reflect and celebrate as well as recognize and express our pride in what you have accomplished in your four years. And today, I challenge you again, what will you do in the next four years? As you go out into the world, in whatever you do as a Carnegie Mellon graduate, you have joined over 100,000 living alumni. We know that you will be enormously successful and impactful. If history is any indication, many of you will occupy leadership roles where your principles and values will determine the scale of your impact. If you are a change agent, your world will be changing even faster than ever before because of the accelerating pace of change around the world. If you are someone who, through hard work and aspiration, tirelessly seeks to improve status quo, it is imperative that you adhere to your principles even in the face of obstacles, adversity and setbacks, especially created by those who are uncomfortable with the disruptions that emerge from changing the status quo. Rosalynn Carter once said, a leader takes people where they want to go. A great leader takes people where they ought to go even if they do not want to go there. Such leaders make great personal sacrifices to move their organizations or their countries to a much higher level, against incredible odds and opposition. You may make some mistakes along the way but you will learn from it, and be a better person, and a better leader. Never be hesitant to voice your opinion. Sir Winston Churchill once famously said, when the eagles are silent, the parrots begin to jabber. Be an eagle, not a parrot. Consider the case of Abraham Lincoln, who many historians consider the greatest president of the Untied States. Lincoln, who led our country in the middle of the Civil War, established the Morrill Land Grant Act in 1862, that completely transformed the higher education system of the US. His signing of the Emancipation Proclamation, during a bloody Civil War that tore the country apart, on January 1, 1863, as a Presidential Executive Order, changed our society forever. Also in 1863, Lincoln established the National Academy of Sciences, with a remarkable vision that was free of political influence. Lincoln faced resistance during his entire leadership tenure. Another iconic leader of our times penned a speech that captures this theme because of the way it played out. As I read this quote, try to guess to whom it is attributed, the quote goes like this. There will always be dissident voices expressing opposition without alternatives, finding fault but never favor. Perceiving gloom on every side and seeking influence without responsibility. That was a speech that President John F Kennedy was supposed to deliver in Dallas on November 22, 1963. These words were in his prepared remarks and he never had a chance to deliver his speech. My charge to you is do the right thing based on principles, values, hard work, honesty, and integrity. As graduates entering a new world, facing new challenges, it is your duty to ensure that fake news does not overwhelm truth. Noise does not drown out the signal and mere superficial style does not replace deep substance. With a CMU degree, you are well prepared to separate signal from noise, fact from fiction, and evidence from a mere innuendo. As you accomplish much, we expect you to return to this campus sharing your knowledge and experiences. Whatever you do, wherever you live, you will have a profound impact on the world equipped with a CMU degree. I cannot wait to see how you change the world, you were my freshman class and therefore, you are my special class of students forever, with whom I have bonded. >> [APPLAUSE] >> With whom I have bonded so much over the past four years, I will always be connected with you, congratulations, class of 2017. >> [APPLAUSE] >> We will conclude today's ceremony by singing the alma mater by the vocal performance class of 2017. We invite you to please rise and sing along, the words to our alma mater can be found in your program. Also, please remain standing at the conclusion of the alma mater for the recession. [MUSIC] >> [APPLAUSE]

Contents

History

Building a republic and failure

Fabre Geffrard's government has held office until 1867, and he encouraged a successful policy of national reconciliation. In 1860, he reached an agreement with the Vatican, reintroducing official Roman Catholic institutions, including schools, to the nation. In 1867 an attempt was made to establish a constitutional government, but successive presidents Sylvain Salnave and Nissage Saget were overthrown in 1869 and 1874 respectively. A more workable constitution was introduced under Michel Domingue in 1874, leading to a long period of democratic peace and development for Haiti. The debt to France was finally repaid in 1879, and Michel Domingue's government peacefully transferred power to Lysius Salomon, one of Haiti's abler leaders. Monetary reform and a cultural renaissance ensued with a flowering of Haitian art. The final two decades of the 19th century were also marked by the development of a Haitian intellectual culture. Major works of history were published in 1847 and 1865. Haitian intellectuals, led by Louis-Joseph Janvier and Anténor Firmin, engaged in a war of letters against a tide of racism and Social Darwinism that emerged during this period.

The Constitution of 1867 saw peaceful and progressive transitions in government that did much to improve the economy and stability of the Haitian nation and the condition of its people. Constitutional government restored the faith of the Haitian people in legal institutions. The development of industrial sugar and rum industries near Port-au-Prince made Haiti, for a while, a model for economic growth in Latin American countries. This period of relative stability and prosperity ended in 1911, when revolution broke out and the country slid once again into disorder and debt.

From 1911 to 1915, there were six presidents, each of whom was killed or forced into exile.[1] The revolutionary armies were formed by cacos, peasant brigands from the mountains of the north, along the porous Dominican border, who were enlisted by rival political factions with promises of money to be paid after a successful revolution and an opportunity to plunder. The United States was particularly apprehensive about the role of the German community in Haiti (approximately 200 in 1910), who wielded a disproportionate amount of economic power. Germans controlled about 80% of the country's international commerce; they also owned and operated utilities in Cap Haïtien and Port-au-Prince, the main wharf and a tramway in the capital, and a railroad serving the Plaine de Cul-du-Sac.

The German community proved more willing to integrate into Haitian society than any other group of white foreigners, including the French. A number married into the nation's most prominent mulatto families, bypassing the constitutional prohibition against foreign land-ownership. They also served as the principal financiers of the nation's innumerable revolutions, floating innumerable loans-at high interest rates-to competing political factions. In an effort to limit German influence, in 1910–11, the US State Department backed a consortium of American investors, assembled by the National City Bank of New York, in acquiring control of the Banque Nationale d'Haïti, the nation's only commercial bank and the government treasury.

In December 1914, the U.S. military seized the Haitian government's gold reserve, urged on by the National City Bank and the National Bank of Haiti (which was already under foreign direction). The U.S. took the gold to National City Bank's New York City vault.[2]

In February 1915, Vilbrun Guillaume Sam formed a dictatorship, but in July, facing a new revolt, whom he massacred 167 political opponents, and was lynched by a mob in Port-au-Prince.

United States occupation

In 1915, Philippe Sudré Dartiguenave was appointed by US authorities to the Presidency of Haiti. Martial law was declared, and persisted until 1929. A treaty, which allowed the US government complete control over cabinet positions and Haiti's finances, was passed by the legislature in November 1915. The treaty also established the Gendarmerie d'Haïti (Haitian Constabulatory Force), Haiti's first professional military. Dartiguenave dissolved the legislature in 1917 after its members refused to approve a new constitution. A referendum subsequently approved the constitution, which allowed foreigners to own land, something which had been forbidden by Haitian law since independence in 1804.

The US occupation was a costly period in terms of human life. A revolt by disgruntled citizens was put down in 1918, with an estimated 2,000 killed. White foreigners, many with deep racial prejudices, dominated public policy, which angered the historically dominant Mulattos. However, Haiti's infrastructure, including roads, telephone lines, and plumbing, were repaired. Lighthouses, schools, hospitals, and harbors were built. Louis Borno replaced Dartiguenave as president in 1922, after he was forced out of office. He ruled without a legislature until elections were permitted in 1930. This newly formed legislature elected Sténio Vincent, a mulatto, as president.

By 1930, Haiti had become a liability to the United States. A congressional inquiry, known as the Forbes Commission, exposed many human rights violations, and while it praised improvements in Haitian society, it criticized the exclusion of Haitians from positions of authority. By August 1932, with the election of Franklin D. Roosevelt as US President, American troops withdrew and authority was formally transferred to local police and army officials.

Post-occupation, World War II and collapse

Vincent took advantage of the stability to gain dictatorial power. Vincent expanded his economic authority by referendum, and in 1935, he forced a new constitution through the legislature. This constitution gave him power to dissolve the legislature and reorganize the judiciary at will, as well as the power to appoint senators. He also brutally oppressed political opposition.

Rafael Leónidas Trujillo had come to power in 1930 in the neighboring Dominican Republic. In 1937, Trujillo attacked the border with Haiti, his forces killing an estimated 20,000 Haitians. This attack Vincent interpreted as an attempted coup against himself, and thus he purged the military of all officers suspected of disloyalty. Many of these later joined the Dominican military.

In 1941, Élie Lescot, a mulatto who was an experienced and competent government official, was elected as President. Despite high expectations, his tenure paralleled Vincent's in its brutality and marginalization of opposition. He declared war on the Axis powers during World War II, and used this as an excuse to censor the press and repress his opponents. Lescot also maintained a clandestine cooperation with Trujillo, which undermined his already-nonexistent popularity. In January 1946, after Lescot jailed editors of a Marxist newspaper, protests broke out among government workers, teachers, and business owners. Lescot resigned, and a military junta, the Comité Exécutif Militaire (Executive Military Committee), assumed power.

Haiti elected a legislature in May 1946, and after two rounds of voting, Dumarsais Estimé, a black cabinet minister, was elected president. He operated under a new constitution which expanded schools, established rural farming cooperatives, and raised salaries of civil servants. These early successes, however, were undermined by his personal ambition, and his alienation of the military and elite led to a coup in 1950, which reinstalled the military junta. Direct elections, the first in Haiti's history, were held in October 1950, and Paul Magloire, an elite black Colonel in the military, was elected. Hurricane Hazel hit the island in 1954, which devastated the nation's infrastructure and economy. Hurricane relief was inadequately distributed and misspent, and Magloire jailed opponents and shut down newspapers. After refusing to step down after his term ended, a general strike shut down Port-au-Prince's economy, and Magloire fled, leaving the government in a state of chaos. When elections were finally organized, François Duvalier, a rural doctor, was elected, on a platform of activism on behalf of Haiti's poor. His opponent, however, Louis Déjoie, was a mulatto and the scion of a prominent family.[3] Duvalier scored a decisive victory at the polls. His followers took two-thirds of the legislature's lower house and all of the seats in the Senate.

See also

References

  1. ^ Heinl 1996, p. 791
  2. ^ Bytheway, Simon James; Metzler, Mark (2016). Central Banks and Gold: How Tokyo, London, and New York Shaped the Modern World. Cornell University Press. p. 43. ISBN 9781501706509. 
  3. ^ http://countrystudies.us/haiti/16.htm
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