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Reno Air Defense Sector

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Reno Air Defense Sector
Air Defense Command.png
Emblem of the Reno Air Defense Sector
Active 1959–1966
Country United States
Branch United States Air Force
Role Air Defense
Part of Air Defense Command
Map all coordinates using: OpenStreetMap 
Download coordinates as: KML · GPX
Map of Phoenix ADS
Map of Phoenix ADS

The Reno Air Defense Sector (ReADS) is an inactive United States Air Force organization. Its last assignment was with the 28th Air Division, being stationed at Stead Air Force Base, Nevada.

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  • Flint Water Crisis Course - January 21, 2016
  • 33rd Fleet Admiral Chester W. Nimitz Memorial Lecture
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Thanks. Good afternoon everyone. My name is Suzanne Seelig and I'm the director of the Department of Public Health and Health Sciences at the University of Michigan Flint. Our department is one of three within our school of health professions and studies. We also have a department of physical therapy and a department of nursing. Welcome to the first of eight sessions of the flint water crisis course. The Department of Public Health and Health Sciences has been working with a flint community for thirty five years this course reflects the longstanding commitment of our department to work to promote the health and well being of the community in which we reside. We are pleased to have the support of the University of Michigan Flint to provide this learning opportunity for our students and for you as you can see this is not a traditional course other than the students who are here they'll be no assignments your attendance is not required at all sessions. However if you do sign in and we have a record that you have attended five of the eight sessions at least five you will receive a certificate of attendance at the end of the semester the need for this course grew out of the collective wisdom. Of several individuals all of whom are passionate about plant and committed to reducing the health inequities which exist in our community these individuals include Marla Sievers who received her master's in public health from our to our department. And has gone back to her permanent residence in New Mexico. Dr Michelle Sali who is in the audience somewhere who's an epidemiologist and a faculty member in the Department of Public Health and all sciences. And three prominent Flint based community leaders. Dr Kent key. Where you. Who is. In the community engagement sector at the University of Michigan. Michelle are clinical research associate Mrs event even Lois who is one of our panelists and some of you know even well I'm sure. She is the of the new director of outreach for the Genesee health plan and also the executive director for the. About executive director and founder for the National Center for African-American health. I don't know why I didn't write that down. I would get into trouble when I write things down and last but not least Mrs Kay door and Kay where you is in the back a as a graduate of U. of M. Flint graduate of our department and currently chair of the Board of Health. We came together to develop a course which will provide you with information about many of the issues surrounding our water crisis as you know this is a very complex issue with many components and far reaching consequences. Each of the eight sessions will cover a different topic. The first hour of each session will be devoted to the panelists presentations followed by one hour of open discussion in your questions. This format was adopted to give you a chance to learn from the from the experts on our panel. But also to give our panelists a chance to learn from you through the sessions and through our dialogue. We hope that we will gain more insight into the complexity of this issue and take what we learn here to help us to improve the health and well being of our community in the near future and in the longer future. Mysie of on Lewis is going to be the moderator for these sessions. She's serving a double role today. Many of you know Miss Lewis Here's your title. I was down further. So you get to hear it again. She has served in many important roles in our community and she is the founder and C.E.O. of the National Center for American health when you're standing up here you don't always remember what you've written before. OK so we would appreciate you completing of brief evaluation at the end of the session. I think you receive that form when you check then if you have a question that was not answered during the dialogue time please write it down. We have three by five cards will be distributing and drop it in the box on your way out will do our best to address these issues and answer your questions. At our next section of the all of the sessions are going to be video recorded because it's a public form. We cannot guarantee that you will not be in a video. So we just need to let you know about that. These video recordings will be available on the U. of M. Flint Public Health and Health Sciences Department website. We're hoping that they'll be up as soon as Monday. If not sooner. And the university's main web site is also has has devoted a significant portion to the flint water crisis and this site at the university will continually to be updated to give you more and current information and in turn direct you to other relevant information. We thank you so much for your participation. Thank you for being here and being part of this class. We look forward to seeing you next week and may I just add I apologize for the late start because this is the first of our eight sessions we are learning as we go. And so I promise you that we will have more people checking you in. Next week when we meet again so that you will not have to be delayed as you were this evening. So I'm going to now turn it over to Mr Lewis thank you so much for being here. Good evening. And I want to also appreciate each one of you for coming tonight and let you know as we begin this dialogue how important your in Gauge minute your participation is the benefit of your sharing will inform not only what we do tonight. But what will be done in the future and so I really thank you. Because much of what has been birth through this class came out of conversations with community so often we would hear as we were going through the community. Questions about what was going on. Where can we get information. How do we know what's truth and how do we know what's not true. So many mixed information so many missed messages so many missed opportunities to really fully engage our community and be helpful in understanding that it didn't just start yesterday. This is been ongoing issue within our community and however we've been fortunate to have the lights and the cameras turned on to Flint Michigan in a way that is particularly unusual for us even though we've been in the news many many times before this has put us in a very very different space and yet it will be up to us to really determine our future. What will our destiny be. And so as you think about the conversations that we'll have tonight as you think about your own questions that maybe you have not gotten an. Answer four. I want to encourage you take a three by five card you might even ask for another three by five card or two. But we want to really hear from you. I've been a partner with the University of Michigan. Lit and the University of Michigan and arbor along with a number kuning partner since the early one nine hundred ninety S. And I'll tell you a little bit more about my story when we talk about the history. But it's so important for me tonight to see each one of you here and I want to ask you before we get any for the start thinking about people that you really know would benefit from being here. Start thinking about people who have questions that have not had a form through which they can ask their start thinking about people who you wish would know what you know so that we can have a better whole and healthy community and write their names down and consider inviting them to the next session. If we have to move to a larger facility I think that'll be all right. What do you think I heard a yes or two. Some will look forward to that. So tonight I just want to reiterate this will be filmed. Keep smiling. This will be an opportunity for us to learn where this started. How we will proceed it will be opportunity for us to actually engage in a discussion in a very respectful way I would encourage you that as you get up and speak and you will you have an opportunity to ask questions of the panel. There may be some questions at the panel might not be able to answer if they are questions that we cannot answer. We will certainly take note of those questions and ask you to drop those questions in the box on your way out. So we can be sure to address them in the future. Each one of you. I hope when you came in. You picked up the set this. Listing of the sessions that are to come and if there are questions that are relevant to those future sessions you can I. As you can write those down now as well. So we can prepare our prisoners to respond to those questions appropriately for you as the panel is giving their presentations. We will not entertain questions during the panel presentations and again write your questions down because following the panel presentation. You will have an opportunity to come to either of the microphones and ask your questions I want you to be mindful and I'll repeat this before we start be mindful that we are allowing about two minutes because of the size of the group tonight we want to hear from as many as possible. That you have about two minutes of you right to question down now to be really crisp in your head and in your mind you can come to the microphone if you have a comment make that comment in about a minute and then ask your question and the panel will respond if you will do this for us tonight. I believe that we would have one the most exciting in interactive discussions that will catapult us to even more exciting information in the future. So our first presented tonight is Dr Rick said and he is the associate assistant professor of family medicine in the Division of Public Health at Michigan State University. One of the newer emerging schools here in our community actually right down the street. Our Rick is a native of the Flint area so he's not new to this area but his expertise in geographic information systems has informed us in a many ways about the history of our community and what it even looks like today so would you please help me. Welcome to the podium. Mr Dr Rick said. Thank you. I just wanted to also add I'm a two thousand and seven alumnus of you than went so it's a special day to be able to be back and share with you some of the things that I've been working on and some of the things I've learned so today I'm going to share some key points about how the states long term. Isn't for urban development laid the groundwork that caused the flint water crisis so I'm going to start way back in time. Which hopefully will kind of lay some of the the background for what we're going to talk about in the rest of this course I'll share some past policy mistakes which prove that this situation was not inevitable specifically highlighting how the state has promoted suburban development to the detriment of central cities and also warn how the situation will repeat itself. If the state doesn't radically change the way it does mean this poor governance and important backdrop for us to remember that our regional population has actually changed that much since one nine hundred seventy. Because But because we were rapidly growing up until that point after one nine hundred seventy. We kept expanding into the suburbs so it's natural for cities to grow but. Because our cities stopped growing as a region. It meant that this momentum kept pushing us into the suburbs. This means we have way more infrastructure. Way more infrastructure than we need this would be like building a huge addition on your house but not budgeting any money for repairs. So cities. I like to think the city should function like homes they grow to accommodate the population but older infrastructure is updated a family of citizens updates the same economic space. So in theory adding on to a city does not absolve the new areas from existing infrastructure. This is a basic principle of urban finance. But this neglects toward cities is how the state of Michigan has designed Misbah land use law. This is obviously wasteful because it's more efficient to build adjacent to existing development. But we do instead is allowed development virtually anywhere. Meaning and over development of infrastructure we simply don't use the space we've allotted and as a result we're wasting money serving ridiculously low population densities in Michigan when cities grow we allow for the incorporation of separate municipalities within the same economic region and actually prevent central see. He's from an axing surrounding urbanized land. It's basically like coloring outside the lines in the context of urban growth the stuff outside of this line comes across as disorganized planned or illogical. You can also think of unplanned urban growth as like a tumor. Think of it like healthy growth that has morphed into a tumor because unrestricted growth. Hurts and urban region for Flint this all started way back in the one nine hundred twenty S. when the what they called the fringe which was Burton Flint township Mount Morris Township in Genesee township were seen as these extraneous appendages of the rapidly growing center city speculators divided land way beyond what was needed and we actually had fifty three thousand vacant suburban lots for purchase in one thousand nine hundred four. So these places were truly SOB urban in the barest sense most had no running water indoor toilets paved roads garbage collection public water's own encodes not that the city of Flint actually had the best infrastructure in the county and it didn't but it didn't have the resources to incorporate these unplanned areas these are places. Like the old Little Missouri or the ugly district or beach or and so on. So this growth can be seen here by looking at the relationship between the city limits currently in the black lines on the left. And the census defined urbanized area in green more and more of the population spilled over this line in the city wasn't able to incorporate these new areas. This is not the case elsewhere as we see it right and this is an example. This is an example from Ontario. But but this regionalism is not just a liberal idea or a conservative idea. It's it goes beyond politics in many states and provinces of Canada cities incorporate their suburbs and so those are just some of the examples where you see examples where an entire urban region functions as one city. So in good faith the city of Flint started servicing some of these outlying areas and this was and thirty. And forty's and fifty's suburban migration was subsidized through the provision of water sewer and road lines with the assumption that the city and its suburbs were all part of one organic whole. When suburban Minnes apologies began pushing back against the city. City leaders warned that. And this is a quote from Smith's dissertation historian that's written when. We should love our neighbor but I don't think we should love our neighbor to the extent that if his house needs a coat of paint that we buy the paint and put it on to that's the way that city leaders felt things were going by servicing the outcome. And in fact because many suburban areas didn't want to pay for urban servicing they were the sight of water related issues during the post-war era. Carmen Creek had a huge issue with partially treated sewage flushing ran out of water in the one nine hundred fifty S. and they had to run tanker trucks of flint water for nearly a year all official sought out a solution. Over time resistance to these new taxes less and as more and more people moved into this fringe area and became frustrated with the lack of modern servicing so suburban governments began spending millions of dollars on new infrastructure duplicating the infrastructure that existed in Flint and implementing zoning codes to attract more development with all this new growth forward thinking leaders proposed a regional solution a new flint to replace the forty five governments in the county at the time because this fragmentation wasted tax dollars undermine property values and quality of life and threaten public health standards in fact the city was already devising countywide land use and transportation plans to optimize this growth as you can see on the right side of the slide. In this old map from the fifty's new flint sought to overcome the growing gulf between the city and the suburbs representing a metropolitan approach to solving overdevelopment but suburban homeowners wanted city services without actually becoming a part of the city. This fringe problem as it was called reflected the inefficiency and inadequacy about county government. It's and the urban expectations of residents and many residents were also afraid of the prospect of integration as efforts were ramping up in Flint and so these maps that right. Show the deliberate discrimination against black population from one nine hundred thirty four to one nine hundred sixty. And frankly to out County residents this was a point of contention. Now as the springs areas grew they became more attractive for people and businesses from Flint where the infrastructure had started to age because of plans like new flint suburban residents appealed to the state to change land use law and ultimately townships were allowed to incorporate either as Charter townships or as cities by popular vote to prevent annexation by the Center City which is what a lot of the fringe did in the sixty's and seventy's simultaneously the passage of the Fair Housing ordinance in the city of Flint in one thousand nine hundred sixty eight actually created a lot of abandonment from the city due to prejudice feelings about integration strengthening suburbs feelings against incorporation into Flint when you combine this style of governance and these attitudes toward integration with the D.N. dust realisation that we faced since the one nine hundred seventy S. we get communities that actively fight with each other for increasingly limited tax generating activities and residents. So essentially Home Rule suffocated Flint Flint needed to grow but had nowhere to turn generating a desire for urban renewal among civic leaders. Started destroying its own neighborhoods to find more room for industrial growth with the shift in the economy much of this land was underutilized and many people were displaced in the substandard public housing with fewer jobs to go around what we're left with is an urban landscape with a malignant tumor whereby suburban Minnes apologies. Populated by the what you think of as the blood of Flint the people of our community are our the blood of our community. And so the these men in this apology siphon off the declining tax base to their benefit building new and off. An inferior landscapes to what existed before and taking no responsibility for existing infrastructure. While the core continues to deteriorate because of the growth. The paradox is that suburban areas will have to deal with the same issue and they may be less well equipped to manage the cost because of the low density of development. So my question is how far are we willing to sprawl before we more fully recognize the wastefulness of this development Pret pattern. The problem isn't our suburbs per se it's the way that our governments have been fragmented our state promoted this through refusing to recognize the inner relationships within an economic region such as greater Flint. So as we waste more resources building new infrastructure we continue to neglect what we already have. So that you can think of the cancer as becoming metastasized spreading back into the city by the closure of businesses and the abandonment of homes. As the region continues sprawling and our tax base keeps getting spread thin or we ensure financial ruin by ignoring our legacy costs so to bring it back to where we are now our urban area grew for a long time but the growth was not always captured by the existing city as these outlying areas grew they duplicated services like water sewer roads education. When the population started to stagnate the flow of population was still going into the suburbs and the way that our state manages municipal governance people in Suburban is a pal of these don't have a responsibility for the landscapes that they leave behind. We're not paying for a legacy costs. So it's important to remember that the states responsible for this infrastructure crisis I'd argue in a very long term way back many decades. That relate to Home Rule governance. So Jim's disinvestment had partially to do with the lack of new land. To build on obviously not all of it but. This was a piece of that puzzle. This fractured governance also led to the departure of far more people from the corps than would have been the case from just from job losses alone. And and also there's this general apathy toward maintaining existing infrastructure. You know it said that Americans are really good at building things but not necessarily very good at maintaining them. So these suburban as apologies benefit from fragmented governance and the mass of residents that left the city but a well intentioned state government would simply not create this environment that would let it happen through which a region could cannibalize itself by abandoning legacy infrastructure. So if suburban areas were incorporated into the central city there would be less impetus to continue moving outward for the sole purpose of escaping demographic and social change or for escaping legacy infrastructure all growth would benefit the city and the city would grow at the rate that it could handle while maintaining existing infrastructure suburban growth would also be less fragmented and thus offer more opportunities for the development of newer and better services like improved transit Parks and Recreation and neighborhood schools. The cause of the tumour is state policies that enable parasitic rather than symbiotic growth. So where does this put us today just to conclude very briefly this fragmentation essentially created the declining water system that resulted in elevated lead levels from the mandate that wouldn't have occurred if our city had been capturing its tax base for the last sixty years or so alarmingly the places that once had the best public health and disease as shown in this map from one thousand nine hundred eight on the left. Are now the places with the highest risk of elevated blood levels in children which is the map on the right. But I believe Dr Hanna Tisha in a few weeks will be talking more on that topic. So I'm going to leave that here and I will be in attendance. When Dr Hannah Tish's speaking if there are questions related to that. But for now I'll just leave you with my contact information. And then you'll to the next speak. Thanks. Thank you Rick. So we're talking tonight about a little bit about the history of it and where this all began. I happened to actually have grown up a little ways down the street from Flint and second and I remember coming to Saginaw on the I mean excuse me coming from Saginaw to Flint on a two lane highway. Dora highway how many of you are remember your house only where you could get to Flint I wasn't even to ask them if I have that and then along came the five I thought if I was really only to like they didn't get all these lanes until just a few years ago but we were so excited to come to Flint because Flint was the big city. They had this for man does downtown area how many of you can remember I ask you to remember when Montgomery Ward Smith be OK now some time ago right. Affectionately. Come and shop at the store because we didn't have those stores. So I remembered how many of you remember Chevy down in the hole over on Chevrolet avenue you go over every day. Do you see Chevy down in it no longer exists. Buick sitting where car was built from start to finish do pop paint. Do you remember doing member Fister body car built from start to finish. There were no people working at those places to be a city. What do you see now I remember communities where people and families all lived in CA. New knees the neighborhood how many of you remember the community schools Flint was not all over the world for community schools our children learned the arts. I was fortunate enough that I came to flit I moved to Flint in one nine hundred ninety six and when I moved here. Those things were still existing I worked at Fisher Body. I worked a Buick city a city spark plug up drive over down doors highway tell me what you see today there was no eye for seventy five and I for seventy five comes into the community and it divides the community. It separates families it's it separates that sense of connectedness urban Reno we go. Make it better for you but what we later found is there were there was isolation we've got a community on the other side of force and five north of here and usually a part of it is the forty five coat. Area. There's not even a grocery store schools are closing. How many remember how many brothers. Whereas I have any brothers we were from how many brothers a call girl and now in the city of Flint we don't even have a Kroger so many things have happened in our community to change the dynamics of a community and you are talk about the infrastructure of the community and that's one of the things we're concerned about today. Yes we have a water problem and we'd be water. I still live in the city. I made a conscious decision to live in the city and I've been in places across this nation and we're talking to people I don't know if you remember a few years ago for healthy people. Let me let me back up a few years ago when I first got into health. I had a business background I worked for General Motors and I discovered one day that my passion wasn't making. Cars but my passion was people and so in one thousand nine hundred seven. I left you know motors and I started working with people in communities and at that time the epidemic was crack cocaine and I sat around tables and I listened to people talk about mothers with their children as if they didn't care about their children because they had been a could become addicted to a substance and so they were not even been talked about like people that were being talked about like green eggs and I said to them one day I don't know who you're talking to but those are not the people I know that's my first experience to the healthy people documents Healthy People two thousand and then when I came and I started working here for the want to for opportunity to work with a community based partners in the University of Michigan and community based organizations and participated community based research and we started looking at the issues that really reside in our community and ask ourselves how we address them so community partners and academic partners and practice partners like the health department came together to discuss these issues and then we started looking at all the people twenty team and I was still learning about this so so so because I did have a business but only had a business background the folks in the health arena didn't really want to pay too much attention to what I had the size so I had to come back in and register and become a student at the University of Michigan Flint. So I could learn about research. So I could learn about public health and in community psychology because I was convinced that there was a psychology in our communities that kept us wrapped up in this kind of thing that we were experiencing over and over and over again. So Healthy People two thousand. We're looking at healthy people twenty. And the same suit to stick so I look at that when we look at Healthy People two thousand with the same I was looking at when we looked there healthy people to twenty stay. Disparities African-American babies die and three more three times more often European American babies and we're living in the same city going to the same hospital seeing the same doctors diabetes heart disease cancer. Nothing was changing and a few months ago as we were looking at these issues the healthy people twenty twenty data came out and what do you think I discovered when I looked at healthy people twenty twenty anybody hazard a guess. So I said what in the world. We have got to create something different because I'm driving through the community. I'm taking residents that are passionate about helping people on a van tour because I sat in a meeting and I was asked a question about why people in communities are non-compliant when the doctor tales and they need to be at the doctor's appointment on time and mothers need to be saying about their babies and get him to the pediatrician on time and never asking them what it took for them to get from wherever they lived to the doctor's office. So we go in a van to we go over on the far north side and we realize that you got across the four seventy five on a bus and then would you get on a bus you come over here to downtown which is where you exchange the downtown exchanges because you can't take a bus from the north side all the way over to the west that you've got to go downtown to get on an exchange bus and when you get close to where you need to be they'll let you off a block of here because there's no bus stop calls to where you need to be so I'm sitting on the office with the nurses and they're talking about this issue. Why don't these mothers called Why don't people keep their doctor's appointment and I ask about that when you look out your window today. I what do you see today when you look out your window. You see a mother walking down the street with her babies because what she had to cross. Ballenger how I weigh not remember F.O.H. who F.O.H. that's flat I asked about the cost and we don't have any more how remember St Joseph. Will have any more but anyway the the mother was on the east side of Ballenger highway where the bus stop was she had to wait for traffic to cross the street and there walk a half a mile to get to our doctor's appointment is writing she's late. You get she gets there and you won't see her because she's late. You gotta make another appointment. She's there. She took all the effort she had to get her and her baby there and you won't see her. So we started having conversations about what that meant to people in community the disconnect in what is expected and the disconnect to what is reality for some so our community is very different even though we are General Motors town a nearby thinks you want to have a car today there are still people who don't have cars. There's no people who can purchase more for the water and so when we get to thinking about this whole water issue. Many people think that it started just today but I want to both of you guys still live in a city of planet. If you're still here. How many of you know a couple years ago we. For the last few years we get these notices in the mail when I want to park you open it up and it's a water advisory it's too much of T T. In the wall. So then we get boring water advisory because something is going on with the water. This is prior to switching from when. From Detroit want to flip one water rates go up people getting shot off notices because I can't afford to watch and so when we hear people today which is so wonderful that we have gotten some national attention on this issue because it is an incredibly serious thing but I want to leave this with you as our transition to the next speaker because we want to talk a little bit about the water break. And what calls us to have some of the energy around is that we have today. I was asked a question on Saturday from a Reverend Jesse Jackson. He asked a group of folks that he was talking to he said Where are the people he said I see on the news media as see the reports and he said what are the people in this community doing because many times when the people in his community were doing things. It never got media attention when they were having water campaigns to ensure that people have water many times a media wasn't there because at that point it wasn't a very popular conversation. So the question is what are we going to do about what we really know are we really going to seek to know what is a truth for us. Or are we only going to listen to what somebody else thinks our truth is I hope as we listen to the conversations and I mean for the balance of these sessions that we will Street speak our own truth and understand this isn't a short term fix. We've got a long term problem and we need to develop some long term solutions and one of the ways we do that is a have people like Nigeria Sherry. Before it became popular. Organize people to make a difference for people who could not make a difference for themselves. So I want you to please put your hands together and welcome her to the podium as she shares her side of the history. Thank you thank you for the illustrious and her direction your. So my name is an Irish or reef. And I am with the plant democracy Defense League and I season league members on the audience. So please wave your hands through. All right. So and I wanted to kind of take a little bit backward for you move for because I know like with a lot of this national attention and we're talking about the water crisis and there has been possibly not intentional but there has been some divorcing of this crisis in the origins of this issue from the from our emergency managers and the emergency manager law which create which is the foundation that created this crisis because if we had access to democracy we wouldn't be in this whole boat that we're in right now so I want to talk about the emergency manager law the emergency manager law was passed into law in March of two thousand and eleven so before. Prior to March two thousand and eleven we had an emergency financial manager law and some of you guys who have been influence. May have been a part of the fact that by that because that happened in Flann two thousand and two it hurts when he came in and he was our emergency fine. Anshul manager but fast for two thousand and eleven we had an emergency financial manager emergency manager law which replays the emergency financial manager law which is which was public access to. And March two thousand and eleven the state legislature and Governor Snyder passes public act four and at that point in time there was three emergency financial manager use and a stay and then they were grandfathered in to be emergency managers and those communities were been Harbor Detroit Public Schools and a city a Pontiac So the power of an emergency manager is they have the power to bust union contracts so they can renegotiate a union contract and change things around with out the vote of the union members. They also have the power to hire and fire employees they have the power to they come in and they you serve answer plant two branches of your local government so they. They replace your executive branch and your legislative branch. So in a city flat that was our mayor and our city council and they also have the power to dissolve a minister palette which they have not done that they have not done and is a pallet of yet but effectively the murderously measure law has dissolved school districts specifically up in northern Michigan and through the consent agreement. One of us the public schools. So in the summer of two thousand and eleven a group of false. We decided that we wanted to repeal that law so we were out trucking along collect the signatures and fast forward to the November two thousand and eleven our election day we were electing our Mayor and Governor Snyder announces that the city afloat will be receiving an emergency. Manager this and that. Murder scene manager was Michael Brown who came in December first two thousand and eleven and Flint was the first community to actually have an emergency manager under this new law. So if you were paying attention you probably seen everything that Michael Brown and was that whole thing with the fire gate and then we had at Curtis because Michael Brown was not eligible under public acts I wanted to to be an emergency manager and then air currents again and then Michael Brown again and then there are no early and Michael Brown became our city administrator and then after the whole crisis then we had Gerry Ambrose as well. Now we are still under the emergency manager law and then we have Natasha Henderson who has all these broad sweeping powers. That Gerry and roles like bequeath to her and we have the receivership transition advisory board which that is a board appointed by the governor and they have veto power of all financial decisions of the city. So all the flat democracy Defense League the society in two thousand and eleven that we needed to safely organize to confront the fact that we're getting an emergency manager because while we're collecting signatures. I mean we were I had the logically opposed to it because we don't like. Communities being a serve their democratic rights but we actually had a face of what many call a fascist law. So we were we did primarily education and we did demonstrations creative the history and we really was educating people about that law the public act for so I mean two thousand and twelve. That was repealed. The popular vote within sixty days we had the replacement law public act for thirty six which we're currently under. So the democracy Defense League was actually the reason how how we even got into the water is because we discovered that there were people who did not have water. So a couple of months after to switch we noticed that people were. They were complaining about their hair falling out and rashes and on top of that we pay one of the highest water bills in the nation and so there were communes there were places specifically ambassador East which is on the north the north east side of of Flint. It's awful. Webster rolled there it's a trailer park and the people who are living out there they were paying their rent which included their water but the owner was not paying the water bill and so they were condemned so once we heard about that we went out there to actually investigate and speak to the people to see what was gone on because at that point in time in August two thousand and fourteen. They were without water for eighteen months they were going to a well and a cemetery to pump water or waiting for to rain and have buckets out to collect water to flush the toilet and and so we decided that we wanted to have a space for people to get water because we thought that this is just absolutely insane that we have our emergency manager. That's jacking up the water rates every single year. So one of our members Claire McClinton contact that mission of hope which is a homeless drop a seltzer that's on the corner. Roberson where I think it's forty five eighteen Roberson zero forty six eighteen Thank you. Forty six eighteen robbers three and at that point time and it is now his water was off and so we thought it was very symbolic to have an emergency water relief site at a place that's supposed to be for the homeless the come in already marginalized you. Unity that come in and and get water so we had that and it was it was really all by donations and so we were doing that and so in about the center of twenty four we decided we're like something has to happen because by that point. Early had hired two special investigators to investigate and prosecute people for quote unquote stealing water. But yeah we can't have a police officer come out through our halls if they break into it but they're but they're but they can find resources to to to prosecute people for stealing water so we decided that we wanted to have we want to create a series of meetings to really organize based on the Water Rates the water quality and the persecution of people for still in water so we had no idea that we were going to be receiving. A I save water drinking. Violation ladder so that kind of that kind of made us a little bit happy because now we had more people who were more outraged and the and we had the infamous city hall meeting which was just kind of like what not to do and how not to ever ever ever handle a public crisis worse that could be a whole case study all of this all but at that meeting and as people were activated and just upset so we were able to me. Melissa Mayes who I see here in the back over there and I walked. And just other folks who were just like really activated and really interested in doing a lot of research in the water quality and interest in that part. So we recruited them to come to our meetings and eventually we came this whole I would say like United Colors have been a time family. Because we were really upset with how we were treated as a community as we are trying to learn the truth and eventually we became a coalition with clergy and their kind of unsung hero here all with this whole thing and some of the academic community we had Dr Laura Sullivan at Kettering universities a mechanical engineer that really helped me understand some of the the more science see parts of it because I'm more of a policy wonk. So we really organized the trip really try to do stuff in do marches and educate the community because all of this was happening in opposition of our elected officials and we really had the push and absent of the media because the media was not interested. I remember specifically Liane waters I was trying to get the media to cover her story when when she got her lead test results and no one would listen I went and and because I work for public policy I was using all of my media contacts and trying to really bagging people and just people that I knew like really trying to capitalize on my own personal ation support them so they can get the story out there and there was resistance there was resistance at every level and hopefully And some of those people are all going to be on feature panel so I invite you to combat. And really you know like ask some of them the hard questions and really ask them like where you've been why why did it take you so long to act because you're We we elect that you to represent us and you are not listening to us. So I'm a big I'm going to end it there. This is joining us at the podium and of course. This has brought about some very interesting and I will say celebrity status for some of. Her Some of our community. She just she's a little bit late today because she was in New York. I believe. On the Dr Oz Show so. Being that we are appreciative that you made it. The weather was a little bit inclement that prohibited her from being here a little bit earlier. But that segue from you know going from high water rates. Well let's just follow this for a minute we have a community that we really don't understand the dynamic of how it was created and we see that we see that in a community that was separated by urban renewal and just what we call I dish no growth and development and included and that is where people live because we talk about lead in the want to but there are other ways that people are exposed to the land because when you live in one of those wonderful homes that was built before one thousand nine hundred seventy. They put the best of everything in it in and lit was the base of that plant. And so our children go and some of us can't keep up the homes in the same way and our children go and they play and we open the windows and we close the windows and the paint cracks in the dust lies and so we're also breathing in dust. So there are many elements to this conversation but in this case a recognition of something is wrong with my water a few months ago I had a gentleman bring me a vial of water that was discolored and he said will you please take this to Washington D.C. When you go because I've talked to people and I can't get any attention and maybe if they see this for themselves. They'll respond and that became the cry of Melissa Mays and some others. Lee and waters as was mentioned before this is something serious. How can we gain attention and. Her story with you and some of the group that she works with were and people kind of wanted you five Please join us and I apologize for being late. A big part of what I've done since we realized something was really truly wrong with the water was do everything I could that my big mouth would allow me to do to get the story out to get the science out to get the absolute cost to human life out. So people would realize we weren't just crazy people demanding free water. We weren't just complaining because the water looked funny. Again that should be an issue but these are some of the things that I've heard people are like you just want this you just want that it's you know you just want something for free. You're fluent who cares. Well we care and and as I was sitting there with Dr eyes and C.N.N. this morning I realized a lot of people care. Our state didn't care. The local people that were supposed to help us didn't care but people out there really do care. So the first thing before I even go into my story is I want to encourage everyone to tell your story because people out there are listening. They're learning. They're learning about water treatment and they're learning about the dangers of unsafe water and this is our story as being front citizens to tell we can they can learn from us. It can make a difference. So just be loud everybody can do this just tell your story and my family's story starts a couple of months after the switch. About July of two thousand and fourteen the water was becoming discolored yellow smelling like an open sewer sometimes like dirt our water came and blew it. Times. We would laugh and say well today. It smells like a swimming pool. It might as well look like one. About ten months later I found out from the gullible Toral of the day that that blue water that we thought was so funny was copper and that my family a copper poisoning on top of the lead. So we would we would ignore it because you hear on the news there were people that were complaining about brown water and I thought to myself OK I'm glad it's not that bad. It must just be their pipes because that's what we were told it's just hard water it's just their old plumbing and I'm like well you know we can't afford to have our pipes place right now so sure. OK We're going to be OK. Something would happen every once in a while my sons who are here tonight would come running and say Mom the tubs E.L.O. again and the entire tub would have filled up with yellow water with a film on top. I drain it and say OK no baths tonight. It's just a bump in the road. Nobody wants to believe that your water spoils in so fast forward a couple months August and September we started having rashes rashes to where you couldn't put eczema cream on it you couldn't do anything. My son had rashes up and down his arms and you would try to put the expensive creams on and he would be upset because it would burn it would hurt me trying to help him would hurt his skin and I stopped and I realized you know I've made those mistakes buying those expensive you know micro dermabrasion creams and stuff like that and put soap on it afterwards. This is chemical burn. I was like that's that's messed up. This is chemical burn soon after we started losing our hair in handfuls. During this time there were two advisories we knew nothing about we heard nothing about them. We found out on the third one. Somebody just happened to message me from out of state and said hey don't you live here. I'm like my God we're drinking e-coli that's wonderful. And our cat at that time was four years old healthy fat but healthy. We've been throwing up and losing his fur by the handfuls I'm like OK we're switching to bottled water. We're going to drink bottled water. Unfortunately we're. Still cooking with it. We didn't know because we were told that it was safe. It was safe to boil it. It was OK We didn't know that boiling it condensed all the heavy metals and contaminants and all the steam we were releasing was more dangerous than what we were in just doing. We didn't know this because we were not told we didn't know the questions to ask. So we just went with what the experts the state and the city were telling us. So during this time I had decided you know I'm to lose some weight. I'm going to the gym four to five times a day had a workout partner he and I lifted we it was great and I started hitting a wall to where I was more tired than I was beforehand and my progress wasn't working so I started seeing a nutritionist. She soon diagnosed me with Hashimoto's thyroiditis it's an autoimmune disorder completely out of the blue doesn't run in my family. It was odd. OK so now I had to change the way that that I ate. I was now severely allergic to gluten dairy knots night shades and several other things like and you know ibuprofen and such. So that changed our life. I started cooking more washing fresh vegetables in the water rinsing the meats cooking at home thinking I'm doing a good job. I'm actually helping my family healthier still using the tap water because nobody told us. I thought I was doing a good job by feeding my family better when in fact I was making them more sick. We would have been better off going to McDonald's every day. So as as time went on I just got worse and worse. We had our year and a half year old niece. That lived with us every time she took a bath. She broke out in blisters on her bottom. We took her to the pediatrician he said this is one of the worst cases of diaper rash I've ever seen and gave us expensive prescription cream. It never helped. And you can see there's photos where she just broke out from literally her or her little hips down and she would cry she'd fight to take a bath. She didn't want to and I couldn't understand it. I didn't understand why she was having such sensitive skin. Again the water safe when it's. You know we're not drinking it right. So we made sure she didn't drink it. December I developed an upper respiratory infection. The odd thing was my bones her and I've never been able to feel my bones before my bones hurt. I had random fever it wasn't know Monia but every time I coughed the phlegm tasted like cleaner. I said Ha that's really weird. That's very weird the emergency room nor my doctor knew what to do. Didn't work. It was just something that carried with me for over six weeks. Let's go January January we received a notice in the mail. Now we were already up in arms about our water bills because they had gotten up to five hundred thirty two dollars for this water and were going OK well we're parents using thirteen units of water which is odd but OK It's very expensive and we get a letter a very nondescript little letter folded up opened it up. I almost threw it away because again every time I get something from city if they're taxing me for another streetlight that I don't have and I you know I was going to toss it and be like I don't care but I opened it. And when I read that I should consult my doctor because for consuming this very expensive water. I lost it. That was it and I started piecing together what was going on. I started looking up with these total tri Halo Methane's are that they just so easily dismissed. It's not a big deal. It'll hurt you in sixty years not realizing that those figures they were giving us was research from one thousand nine hundred five. So really relevant started Googling this and the next day we protested our very first protest. My husband and I started doing research got in contact a bunch of us got in contact with Erin Brockovich she sent my email to Bob Bowcock who is it he's been a municipal water treatment for thirty years and he's like send me this go to the water treatment plant I lied I said I was a student. You know who I said I was which I was I was learning so it wasn't a total lie I didn't know what was going on but he was like send me this information. So he went through it all and he explained it to me took the time to explain what I was looking at and then I had Google like every other person and. And because it's time to find out what's going on. It's no longer just you know a hardness issue we've been lied to for nine months at this point in time. Not even realizing that when we were boiling our water. The lead was already spiking So here we are inhaling all of these metals and contaminants. So by doing something we thought was saving us again hurting us because we were not told. And I'll just pause here to say. I understand. Not everything works out. I understand that you know things on paper turn out way better than real life I've been in advance of a planning a long time disasters happen but you tell people you tell people you let them know my job as a parent is to protect those three kids of mine and the husband protect them to. You know I that's my job that is my job at home I protect these people a dare you to get between me and my kids. I just dare you. So they took away my ability to protect my sons and my husband. They took that away from me by lying to me and telling me it was safe. So I realized I'm no longer going to sit here and let them lie to me I am no longer going to let them lie to anybody else in the city. So my husband came up with the creative name what are you fighting for because he's an artist. I'm just a nerd and he created the website that all the research I was getting from Erin Brockovich and the research that so many citizens were pulling together at this point in time to get it out to the citizens that was our first goal. If I knew this stuff I can yell but you know what we get on the internet there we go we have to share it. Share share it is it can't just be us and it's not so that is how what are you fighting for was was founded and it just snowballed. We started going to meetings city council meetings we held educational meetings church after church after church yes the the clergy has been amazing letting us in you know no matter what our religious backgrounds or not they let us in to talk to their members because it was so important that the actual information get out because we all knew we were being lied to. We all knew in our guts. Again common sense should tell us that if you can see your water smell your water taste your water it's bad but when you're being told constantly you're crazy. You're crazy. You're crazy. You're just you know throwing a fit for no reason you just make a noise you're a fear monger. You're a rabble rouser that kind of thing I was actually told by citizens of flint that by bringing in Erin Brockovich I was putting a black eye on Flint as if poisoning children wasn't so we met with the great resistance but in the meantime I met wonderful people like Niagara that I now apparently can't live without and we've made such good friends and because we fought we fought and we've made a huge difference. So going through the year. Basically where we're at is. As our fight got bigger and stronger our health got worse. We started having seizures and not just me. Seizures. Tremors. I personally have a neurologist gastroenterologist for my new brand new diverticulosis and liver failure which is thumbs up. I have breathing issues I have a rescue inhaler when needed. My doctor feels that inhaling the through showering has damaged my lungs and I've never smoked a cigarette my life so great for me my kids. The fatigue. You can see it on their face. My middle child fell off of his bike and his wrist splintered for a twelve year old actually eleven year old at the time. Boy that's unheard of the doctor couldn't understand why he had to buckle fractures. Just falling off a bike. My youngest my youngest ever since August his white blood cell count has been four. He is he's waving he's unable to fight off infections so we get nervous when letting him out in public they want to play sports. I worry I've watched them go from stellar students to needing help my oldest is going to a high school where he's taking college classes. He will graduate with a diploma and an associate's degree. So he's bright and now he's dealing with C. plus. And he said getting tooter help. Now none of this would have happened had we been told the truth. Had they listened to us. And February when Leon Walters first lead test came back one hundred four we staged a little surprise kind of. Press conference about fluoride because of Florida's a chemical we had extra chemicals in the water. It was unnecessary The chemicals were eating away our pipes. Told us on Valentine's Day when we held a massive march through ten degree freezing blowing sideways weather that the city and state run violation of the copper rule. If we didn't have a lead cop and copper problem then we were going to what we already did we already did in the state already knew it they found out two dozen fourteen that the lead levels through their own testing they found the lead levels were increasing didn't tell us. Didn't actually even tell the gentleman with the highest lot at that time he never received a notice that he had high lead two and a half times the max at that time he never knew. So we continue to protest march we held a press conference and I threw Leanne in front of the cameras and said hold up your lead test. It was blacked out. Nobody covered it. They cut that part out. So I was all irritated N.P.R. marketing I was very frustrated What can I do next. So the next stop was we held another protest and it was for the anniversary of World Water Day and my husband designed these little door hangers. And with our tax return we printed up four thousand door hangers and a small group of us went door to door to door to let people know be careful highlight has been found in your neighborhood. Please see a doctor and please get your water tested. Please please don't ignore these symptoms you're not alone. We print up T. shirts cards whatever it was wherever it could be just as my goal was to be allowed. To let people know they're not alone. They're not crazy. This was affecting all of us in one way or another. And even though. I have a ridiculous slew of health problems I have the onset of lupus and other autoimmune disorders there's a whole bunch of things that I've been diagnosed with since since March of two thousand and fifteen and thirty seven. So this is looking awesome for me. I'm realizing the more meetings we have people are talking about their symptoms they're talking about what they're going through and it's some or all of what I'm going through. So we know it's not just us. It's not just a small group of us it's not just two percent like that genius said on T.V. that we won't talk about it. So it's not just a small percentage heavy metals these chemicals are not meant to go through our bodies. So through research through Google through talking to doctors outside of Flint because there are people that didn't want to believe that the water was poisoning people. My doctor when we found out an April we had copper and lead in not only our water but our blood. My doctor looked at me and he said Melissa I'm really sorry. The poison in you and I can't help you he said this is a first world country. I would even begin to know how to treat copper and lead aluminum to chromium and all these other chemicals that are destroying your body. And so he sent me to an environmental physician and that right there has helped so many people because not covered by insurance very expensive but we went ahead and made a video of the information that she gave my family take these eat this way and it's correlated with what we later found from Dr Mona as she you know corroborated everything we were learning. So this is back in April we pushed and pushed and pushed we were loud enough and through Leanne's very unlucky lead service line that was two and a half times hazardous waste levels. We were able to get the interest. Professor Mark Edwards. So the Coalition for Clean water the small group that you know Defense League caution the concern pastors for social action. Spent several weeks. We were talking to volunteers we needed their addresses. We wanted to go through this testing with scientific. Precision. We wanted to know that if it did come out high lead all across the country or the whole across the city that it wasn't going to be anything they could question. So we spent our wedding anniversary. I was in Cedar Point on the phone with Leanne trying to come up with five hundred volunteers so we could whittle it down to three hundred to make sure we had enough in each ZIP code and even when we fell short. We went door to door knocking on doors and demanding that we test their water basically and found out. Sure enough it was worse than we all thought there was a lady with a thousand and twenty nine parts per billion again fifteen being the max zero being the only safe level. We fielded phone calls and concerned people wanting to know what do we do next. There's a highlight in my water. So we held a huge press conference and we also had met from the A.C.L.U. back in April we held a one year anniversary March and he came up to talk about the emergency manager and found out. MY GOD YOU'RE waters poison. Again not something that people would really want to know or think about. So we continue to push on we continue to educate people we continue to interview with every single human being that asked us every person I don't care what they wrote to school papers. I didn't care I needed the story to get out there. We needed to be heard and we needed the world to know that we were being poisoned. We had zero voice as you all well know I mean it's pretty pathetic when your city council who can't get along at all. All votes to get off of the Flint River and as one human being. Says it's in comprehensible that you would want clean water and so we were stuck. Now speaking of being stuck. I would love to sell my house I love my house but not. No not so much anymore. Since we have a problem. We all do. It's illegal to actually sell your home. So we're stuck. So we're stuck with that. So then we are also stuck because if you don't pay your water bill. They'll shut you off. Cap your sewer condemn your home and Child Protective Services will take your children because not having access to running water is in danger and your children even though. What's running through your taps is endangered your children. So trapped is as a pretty decent word if anybody's seen Brick Mansions I compared to that earlier that movie you know might as well just rip us all off but the funny thing is as I don't think they expected anybody to speak up to do any research to fight back to say anything I expected. I guess they expect us all just to take it take your poisoned water take your high bills and either move out or live with it and fact I believe at the beginning of October Governor Snyder told us how to live with the lead. So yeah. No no no. So we didn't do that we continue to fight we continue to get loud we continue to educate as many people as we could because I watched my family's health the Cline and I watch my children fight and struggle as I struggle to get out of bed in the morning because the osteoarthritis that is now popped up makes it so hard for me to walk that I can't move my bones hurt these are weird things that at thirty seven. I never expected to to see to feel. Nobody should have to. And as I see the helplessness and the fear and other parents' faces it just infuriates me further. So I want everybody to start realizing that this isn't something that we are stuck with we're stuck here but we can continue to fight. There are laws in place. We're working on two different legislative packages. One's water accountability and the other is water affordability shot of protection and also quality to where they have to notify us right away. Shocking thing would have to notify us right away if there's something wrong with our water. We also have a lawsuit with the Natural Resources Defense Council the A.C.L.U. out to demand that the M D Q test properly and monitor the water properly and yeah notify the citizens when there's a problem we have to sue these people to make them do their jobs. I don't know if anybody watched the State of the state on Tuesday did anybody watch that way. Sorry. Sorry you know he said he was sorry that was fine. Forty. He said he was sorry I was sitting up and towards the front. I want to throw my shoe. I just didn't have another one. So you know I'm sorry doesn't give me clean water. I'm sorry doesn't fix my kid's bones. I'm sorry doesn't take the heavy metals out of our brain. So I hope that everybody feels the same way that we're kind of put up with this. I'm sorry. The best the best thing about Tuesday night was that I could hear the protesters from outside on the inside. So every single voice is welcomed every single story is welcomed. So I encourage everything everything that you're going through documented tell people get involved in the class action lawsuits. For your rights and never ever give and never ever shut up. So thank you thank you thank you Melissa. Passionate. Sharing of a personal experience and I'm sure that there are many many many others who have very similar stories but as we all know sometimes people are not comfortable standing up and speaking out and that's why it's important for somebody to do so and others will follow. So I want you to take a moment. Now if you have those questions you want to write your questions down and prepare what we will do and we want you to know there is water and I've been given to understand it's filtered water or bottled water back there and there's hot chocolate as well. If you like to refresh yourself for the next few moments while we segue into the next part of the session. I would really appreciate I have a follow a couple of follow up questions for the panel before before they move forward. Rick you talked about the differences in municipal What are some of the things that the community should think about as. Relates to this and what can what can we do. That's a really hard question. I mean the SO I mean the way that we've been doing land use and Michigan has been entrenched for decades and while it's not always the case a lot of times. There's an implicit racial discrimination that sits behind some of the ways that cities have been separated so I mean in terms of what we can do. Maybe now you're And Melissa can help me with that. I tend to be one of those quiet people so I. But honestly I think that the same kind of. We should be equally concerned about the fact that our that we're destroying our urban areas by allowing people just basically to run. I actually read and you might be familiar with this there's a township in Livingston County. They had a financial mess there millions of dollars in the hole and it was a Web site kind of talking about like well why didn't they get an emergency financial manager and this was a little tiny township so the amount of money that they were in the hole as a percentage of the number of people they had it was massive so and it's really troublesome to me when I read stuff like that. First of all why is a rural township developing hundreds of watts for building all this infrastructure. When there's already cities that exist. That's why cities exist. So. Maybe like to weigh in on that. Yes but one of the things I would just say from a more policy standpoint we do need to change our policies but we also need to change how we do revenue sharing. Because like right now it's like all the cities kind of like put their But poor all their money into a giant pile and then the state kind of disperses it however they see fit but they're not taking away recently but what's happening and I and I forgot. Like bridge magazine like they have that wonderful article caught the gray revenue sharing highest so you can look it up and read it but what does happen is as as with the with the housing crisis. You have revenue sharing that and this the client property values and in urban areas revenue sharing now you have more money going to plug up the state holes like in the plug holes in the state budget and stead of going into communities so you have a community life lead which. Which relies a lot more revenue sharing then communities like girls point but then also you have I will say legacies of cost and some of these structural debts which legacy cost is basically euphemism for retiree health care. So we really need to you have these cities that it with employees and they have more retirees than they have current employees so you really need to really change how I mean really. Hopefully we can eventually get to sing a pair. So you don't have to cities are saddled with that sort of. Because those are some of the structural inequalities that assisted and kind of catapult it. I will say as justification us and it's a true just with Haitian but it was one of the reasons that the state gave as why the city went to the receivership and you could go to Parma Treasury's website and read the report for that year. You also mention in your talk that sometimes people don't know the questions to ask. So what we want to encourage tonight to is as you're listening is to jot down some of the things but what are other ways people can learn about the questions that they need from the work that you do. I so this is kind of a weird segue but I'm going to do it anyway so Laura MacIntyre in the bag she has a less demand I would say. Like that the community has come up with first like the water crisis but the reason why I'm mentioning that is because there are three links to websites where you can actually learn. Some of the a lot of the information because I was fortunate because I was in at the ground for floor of the emergency manager law. So we had weekly study groups to keep up with all the resolutions and all the executive orders so we were kept up to speed with that. So as far as a lot of the research and documents and all that stuff. There are three websites there is the flint Water Study org And that is run by the Virginia Tech team so there are a lot of a lot of the documents that they fall way before the Snyder e-mails and all the redacted portions. There's also the A.C.L.U. of Michigan sold. Org slash democracy watch and that is the blog that's run by which is and which he's an investigative reporter with the Michigan and he was actually hired because mainstream media was not digging deep to the emergency manager really reporting on the actions of the emergency managers will get hired him to really specifically. Report on it and then Melissa mention what are you fighting for which is that so now there's so many of them distribute those in a moment if you can. Yes. Thank you. And there's a video up anybody has medical questions that just tells our experience and what the tests we've gone through in hopes to narrow it down because we've been through ridiculous amounts of testing so there's experience specific tests you can ask your doctor for and that's on where you're fighting for and that's also pinned to the very top of what are you fighting for on Facebook. So you can hit that up and of course ask me questions of my husband and I will answer. Your questions as fast as we can. So each one of our panelists will be here in future sessions so if you have some additional questions you'll be able to ask them specifically about I also want to say this. You're here tonight and I mentioned earlier think about someone who has and here tonight. I also have friends and family who don't do the Internet. So when I go on anybody's website and look for anything. So another goal is for those of you that do if you would write some of these things out and hopefully in the future and I'll refer this to doc to see because something perhaps for us to think about that when these websites and this information is made available if you as you continue to participate in the class. We will make this available for you. Because that's one of the things or happens we become so accustomed to ways of doing things we often forget that everybody isn't on that wavelength and so it's really important for us to identify ways that we can continue to educate our community because one of the most important and most critical things is education awareness. Do you really do you know that as recently as this week somebody saying it that there is not a problem with the water in Flint it done. Smale it doesn't look bad. I drink it every day and I'm fine I'm OK And so now that's that's a perspective but I also know the reality is that there are segments of our community even though we have now had the. People. Thank you. Our National Guard. They have not been in some of the areas in our community yet. And in some other areas they've been there two or three times already and so there's much education to do so again if you have a card. And you have a question we will now open the market falls Let me repeat to you that yes if you come to the mike. There is a red there are restrooms right at the rear of the room. You need to refresh yourself a little bit. Please feel free to do so we have mikes on either side of the room and so it will ask you to do if you would just because we want to kind of gauge it we've we only have a few moments. So I would ask those of you that have your questions. Don't don't wait to the end let's get in the land now because I may at the say you know you know time. So if you have a real burning question you want to get in line at this point. So we can be sure that your voices are heard. Let me remind you that this is a wonderful opportunity for us to share. We want to be respectful of everybody please be aware that those of us on the panel might not have all of your answers but rest assured. We'll take note of it and we'll get it for you. So let us be respectful and cautious and remember that this is an opportunity for us to make our voices count. So we'll start over here with you. So you were the first one in line please thank you. Now this is for a doctor SADLER And listen listen. Just so you realize now between the sure difference between Chloramine and try a little methane or are they synonymous. There's a difference. There's a difference. OK chloramine is a way to to avoid total trailer Methane's which is chlorine interacting with organic compounds OK what they've switched to is chloramine which is. Basically what. It's already water disinfectant. It's another ammonia it is very dangerous it is very caustic but it's ways that water treatment plants they try to pass the test. So they're not in violation. So they switch to chloramines which is one of the biggest health concerns and we do not have that our water. We had that to make sure that Professor Edwards tested for that to make sure they weren't using that so that we are lucky to not have it so many communities do and there's a lot of help. Problems with that. What about the Troy Hill a method of the total trade. That is a byproduct of chlorine basically interacting with the dirt and bacteria and whatever junk is that are broken pipes and so I'm still what you know when your water smells like chlorine your not smelling chlorine doesn't have a smell that is so if your water is high has a high chlorine smell. Please open your windows don't shower in hot showers please don't absorb that and bring the because that's a bad. We call that a bad day for chlorine and that's please please please please be very cautious of the small your water that is still happening in Flint because they're adding extra chlorine to fight off the possibility of increased bacteria. So just because of the water. So can your symptoms be associated with lead or some of the other chemicals being used my symptoms personally. It's a slew of all of it. The fact that your body's your body's not meant to filter any of these metals or the chemicals another a side effect of that is breathing issues. So that's what my Yeah that's what that's attributed to the fact that I can only push a four on a spiral and it should be ten to fourteen front on smoker. That is from the inhaling of the by products you later we'll talk later. Thank you. Yes Good evening everybody. Pardon me my name is Craig worked for for University of Michigan an arbor and the first thing I wanted to say was just a huge to everybody organize this class this to me is like an amazing example of turning crisis into opportunity. It's so important that we have spaces like this. These are rare. Spaces I work for the University of Michigan so I know where they are where we go out of our way to invite community members that we're all students. I know they're registered students here as well but to me the model. You know aside from the fact that you're teaching us and we're learning. Together hopefully mobilising these kinds of spaces are so rare and so very important. So and they take a lot of work to put together. So thank you so much for putting this together in this way and the other point I just wanted to make is is is and it's not really a question but it certainly relevant to the conversation tonight is how remarkable. Rick Snyder is a narrative in the state of the state was about all this and putting aside the criminal culpability that he faces in this which is his own long conversation which perhaps will come to is that how he's trying to turn this into a failure of government. It's the most ironic and despicable thing it's hit it's a failure and I'm only going to go on for ten more seconds of even less than a minute. It's a failure of his version of a dictatorial government. It's a failure of downsized government it's a fairly of austerity it's a failure of taking away the opportunity for the government which is thank goodness. Coca-Cola isn't responsible for the water that comes out of our pipes right. Imagine what that would be like. So it's the government's job to do that and it's a failure of the government not doing what it should do because it's been so cut for so many years and that's a failure and the failure that Rick Snyder is trying to pawn off on us is a complete fiction and absolutely ridiculous. So I'm so glad that this will be raised for the whole state and to see this and it's not just about him but it's about it. He's taking advantage of this narrative in a way that's very very very despicable and completely disingenuous. Thank you so much I can thank you. I do want to I want to thank you too and appreciate because what you say here this is a marvelous space and I hope that we will utilize it in that way that we will provide constructive opera information and opportunities for us to move with yes a. Tricky Ricky is something else. I'm We don't let him get away with it. He has so many questions and I don't know pick which one. The best one. Well I called Governor Snyder's office just a couple days ago to try to get a straight answer. And I still haven't received a clear answer what I was told is. It is safe to bathe in water. But being that skin is the largest organ in the body. It doesn't seem OK to me. But my environmental physician this is what she does she's an M D N A D O. OK And that is exactly right. Your body or your skin is your biggest organ and you're poor and your feet are going to absorb what you're bathing in for the love of God Don't sit in the tub don't absorb it. The information that they've given out saying it doesn't absorb quickly. It doesn't absorb doesn't absorb it. Your system quickly but they fail to talk about copper aluminum tin. Chromium all the chemicals that are sitting in there yes it does absorb copper does go into your eyes your nose your soft tissue your lungs. So yes it is we are not safe debates so you know what we've been telling my kids sit down in the tub. They feel a cup of water and dump it over their heads the tub does not fill up that's how they shower. I can't because of the arthritis. So we turn the heat down open the window turn a vent on and make it fast don't brush your teeth in it just limit your exposure together and yes no they completely have blown past the inhalation absorption so you're right. I am one of the reasons I accepted a job in Flint was actually because of the water crisis I first thought that it was going to get worse before it could actually get better so I wanted to take this and being involved in this community as a learning opportunities so my question for each of you know is that I keep hearing that phrase plant Michigan coming to a city near you and it sounds like a movie more than anything but it kind of implies that the history of play is not unique that this situation is something that can come about anywhere at any time so I want to hear from each of you know as public. Health professionals as public policy professionals as a voice for Concerned Citizens. Why is the one takeaway that you think that every single citizen in America and in the world should take from this situation. Well I mean what happened what Flint Michigan and the murders he managed this. This is was dirty looks like you say Flint Michigan coming to a town near you. This is the emergency manager do not want this to be Michigan's next great export there are they looking at trying to have versions of this law. I mean I remember during the whole austerity thing they were looking at Michigan to see how they could use this to to change some some of what's happening with their governance out there as a as a way to really take public resources and turn it into private hands because that's what it is. That right there also aging infrastructure all across the United States you find a city that decides to start cutting costs with their water treatment and I can tell you right now since my phone never made it out a few weeks ago into newspapers. I have received calls phone calls e-mails Facebook messages from cities where was it Mr Adam yellow water smells like this taste like this. Exactly. Hannibal Hannibal Missouri look bad up exactly what we're going through except they're still fighting it. It's still not been fixed. I mean. Ours is not fixed until our pipes are ripped out of ground but but this is a very good example of what happens when they do not take care of an infrastructure and start cutting costs where it could kill people. So yes it is coming to a city and already has in several cities near us and I just add to the agreement to what the first gentleman here commented on that you know there's this fear of government and we tend to forget that government is made up of people it's not just this invisible thing and there are governments that we should be afraid of. But you know. If we if we elect good people and we let them do their jobs and speaking to the austerity point austerity doesn't work we figured that out cutting resources to government doesn't work as you know if we all lived on twenty acre lot of acres of land with our own goats and sheep and made our own cheese and you know and OK maybe we don't need government but that's what we live in cities and we're modernized people. So we need government and I think that this speaks to that simple fact. And I mean to me that's less of a political issue than a logical issue. And so it's kind of sad that it became such a political issue that. You know we need to be afraid of the government without government this is where we're at so. I think one of the important things in addition to that is to recognise that we have the opportunity to be an example. When I hear from Dr Mark it was one of the things and I remember him saying. He appreciated he was excited about the fact that flick residents rose up so quickly. They're facing they did face a very similar situation in Baltimore. That's why he was able to inform us because he had already been there done that but it took them so much longer. So one important thing is for all of us to recognise that we have a voice and I think Melissa said that we need to stand up and speak out and that our voices be heard and there's a passes for that happening. Everybody that's eighteen or older you have the right to vote but you also must be an educated and informed voter and so I think that we should continue that and I also want to tell you. To look at for future sessions we have a session that you're going to be really excited about it's going to be you're going to be excited about all that this is relevant to your question is preparedness. We actually want to talk about how to prepare for the next because every life is what life is and we look at history there will be a next and rather than waiting to the crises happens what do we do in in. Initially. So please come to some the future. Yes or over here. This question is to one of my two friends up there. Nary a hybrid system in this maze. That took me on the coldest March I've ever been on in my life that you're welcome. Here's a question I'm going to ask you to do a favor for my community and that's the legal community and the community of people the volunteer on board. I'm on a board that has residential housing and I'm a family law attorney. And I'm going to ask you to create the Milissa short list because the attorneys and judges don't know right now. So think about this. That we don't know what to tell our clients when they live in Flint and the night. The other nine custodial or custodial parent live someplace else and they're being threatened to not let the kids come back to Flint. We don't know really what to tell them. It's OK. And I think we can create a rebuttable presumption but we have to have a base and nobody's telling us the minima So I'd like you to speak to all the caregivers in Flint in Genesee County the county. What do we tell the caregivers the minimum is they have to do to protect children or the if infirm that are living in Flint. The best thing you can do and I hate relying on these filters because the water's not been tested beyond the filters as it comes out but you got it right now until unless you can afford to have a whole home filtration put in your service line replace bottled water with everything that you can and I know it's a huge horrible burden and expense but it's what we've got water and filters on as many taps as possible. There are filters from I believe that now they're showerhead filters. So I'm going to look into those I just somebody just sent me a link about it. It's something to look into just as many filters as possible and take as much and as many precautions as possible and that is a very low thing I'm hearing that from from parents that here are here in our split like that and the other parent is using it against them which is very low and pitiful. But they just need to stand up and say I'm protecting the key. As much as I can and they just need to rely on filters and bottled water and don't ever run out. Don't ever go to the point where you're low and you have to resort to using the tap water because what it was good filters bottled water testing. Yes Run your water before you use it and you name one other thing and keep an eye on the kids and whoever you're taking care of the minute they start acting a little different or a little funny. Feel free to go to the doctor. That's what we did I always worried that I was going to be an over reactive mother you're not in this situation you are not. Don't be embarrassed go to the doctor go get tested and keep that clean bill of health as much as possible but we stay on top of it because it's way better to know and know how to plan if you are affected by this van to wait and then just get hit when it's so much further down the line. It's a lot less scary to actually know. We'll call it the Melissa maze doctrine thank you thank you. I'm a Thomas highway. I'm active with the Sierra Club and i also a member of A.C.L.U. League of Women Voters and Physicians for Social Responsibility. I'm a member of those organizations because what Frederick Douglass said power concedes nothing without the man never has been there very well. My question. To the panel is are you going to try to address income inequality in America which is I think our number one job. Are you going on address employment in this country. Because people need to work. I will I will share with you that if you come to some of the future session there will be sessions and to talk about economic. There are sessions ever talk about social justice and when we look at this whole scenario that we're talking about today we do need to look at it from a long term comprehensive perspective this is not just about the water water just happens to give us the platform that we need to utilize. To expose and clarify the larger issues so that we can come up with some positive solutions so please attend some of our future sessions. And this and I like that. If you have our list. You have our list of demands one of them is the creation of in the context of the water crisis is the creation of a citizen civilian courts to train local workers to fix the infrastructure. Thank you. Yes ma'am. My name is Jennifer Johnson a question for Dr SADLER When I asked you what to do you kind of said you don't know but there were some things implicit in what you said right. So stop building in new areas invest in all the areas sixty or seventy years ago the laws had been different and Flint had an extra ten ships in one one big city. If we would have had these problems and. Although I suspect that maybe Flint and axing all it would be really unpopular. I guess what I'm asking is are there a couple zoning laws that you can put in plain language for non zoning people about what you think would fix some of the land use problems. I mean you make a good point. It's not that there are solutions it's just that they're kind of politically unpalatable in terms of the big changes that you could make. But yeah some I mean some of the smaller changes. For instance like they are mentioned the fact that this tax revenue sharing has been diverted by the state. So if if we could to start if we could convince the state that tax base sharing actually does a really good service for. The whole regions in general that would be a start. If. Even if city township pairs so like you look at a place like Davis and Davis and Davis and township is thirty square miles and Davidson is six square miles and in the fifty's Davis and was the only thing that had servicing So even if you can. City township areas that are way off in the suburbs to collaborate more and concentrate development in those cores you know if even if we built in the city of Davis in the city of Fenton the city of flushing and the city of Flint specifically instead of killing it like destroying more of our farmland and moving out and out and reusing this land. Policies that made it more attractive to redevelopment redeveloped I mean that's the problem. It's so cheap for Wal-Mart to build a new store way out in the suburbs. It's easier for the trucks to get and it's easier for people to get to the store cars and it's simply so easy in Michigan to get more land. You know it's not like we're in Switzerland or something and we're hemmed in by mountains and there's people all around. So that's I mean that's the curse of land that we have in America but we need to think about it in terms of OK yeah we have this land but does it mean that we have to spread out as much as we possibly can. Or are there you know. Like for instance you know just individual collaboration between minutes polities and we see some of that like I think Davis in Richfield township collaborate on their fire department for instance and so people are starting to see some of these little tiny things but I think also taking a long view at what do these parochial subdivisions mean you know there's like the Bentleys and the Atherton's and the Bengals and the Hamady is and you know these things are only fifty years old. If we look back a hundred years. It was Flint and so if we take a longer view at the community and we see you know all these little subdivisions that people are making are frankly arbitrary and. Kind of getting into that psyche I think could help start helping people thinking a bit more about regional collaboration. And so is what you're saying in general better than a lot of little teeny minds. Yeah there are people that would obviously argue both and again it tends to become politicized. You know. In terms of fragmented government tends to be more attracted to Republicans because of this big government. But I think there's lots of good examples like I mentioned like Lexington Jacksonville most Virginia cities most New England I think if people would take an honest look at the region's regionalism that has worked. Then they'd be a little bit less afraid of giving it a go. Thank you. Yes sir. But how you doing. I misremember. You can go to my Facebook page. It's called like water. I met my I met the speaker years ago. Yeah I think about a program where I was trying to do the African American male health initiative you remember that. Yes I saw this try to make it short like never solve also come to because you have to deal with the inner voice is what's inside of you because I don't want to be in this position right now to stand up here to say what I've got to say but you get to a point where you've got to stand up for your kids and I got to stand up for my. I have video to show the people that poisonous. I have video to show to our state representative went to the plant that thousand dollars a pop to show to introduce us our community into drinking his Flint River water. It was the same thing I did when I tried to every Can American is I'm the one that they want to be quiet on want you want to hear what the word is goes. If you want the truth and answers you really can't handle. You can't handle me and I'm not going to be quiet and it goes to the point a member. Listen mace with the same shirt on right here. Flynn just like water that's what she's calling me when I come up with the Bobs. If you say Raymond Flynn just like why won't you speak up. I said no. Melissa. You have to short term because you know to racism in the city you know that the white woman must speak up before to get the notice that was going on in his community because when WANT TO spoke about a genocide. Nobody wanted to hear it. I knew it when an African-American male in this to nobody wanted to hear it. Actually the. I love university and I mean no Probably nobody but they fired me you know why because I spoke up about something that was going on. I knew. So the first thing I learned when I was working here. As back in one thousand nine hundred I did everything a video. I bring nothing to your paperwork somebody say something like that. So if you want to see it for yourself you want to handle the truth. That's the point you. We have the opportunity right now to bring with Shell Obama to the city of Flint. It's called a drink a program. If you want to participate if you want to call for things that we need in this city. We can get it because only giving us his water in a bridge. You know the bridge program has millions of dollars right now. That do the work pass the ball players. Entertainers. They also sponsor Mr Obama. It's awful us. It's millions of dollars millions the foundations are going to take like they took in one thousand eight hundred nine the schools are going to take this program to take care to say I'm speaking from my inner voice from my heart because I'm hurt and I know you don't want to hear what I've got to say because you can't handle the truth. For it is appalling. You do what you got to do. As Tupac saying you got to get yours I got to get mine. I'm not scared to live or die about this because I'm already time as a two hundred fifty pound mate. And I was feeding this dough to my keys and everything. And now I'm almost like a skeleton. Build up don't worry about me take care of yourself and your family. So I've got the right to manage. That's what you want to do right away. I want to handle this and I'll give you to Facebook which can only be my name right. Well what's what's your Facebook Life Water Flint jug like water on Facebook how the video is sitting right there for you right now and I got I got more than that but if you want the truth in the answers. That's the point you it's not for me to give it to you because it's already there. I was sitting on a video for three years I didn't even know I was a good thing when the in a do something for everyone. But you would understand that this whole system is set up on way and you know what would be a problem right for us not to have before those probably rightly soon to one brother a moment here offer when you do the right. Brother Raymond. I will let you go brother Raymond almost walked away from when you listen when you when you when you allow me to leap to pluck I'm your problem. Thank you. Not a problem that knows me a second a library from the day one with her but going a do your thing. Don't think anything is going to happen if you could turn his water off you would have a real Katrina and that's what you're really going to face with Time magazine is saying thank you. Because that's what it needs to be shut off. Then we realized by what we did being a nice walk that nobody wants problems with bottled water if people would start. Thank you. While we're gone. What brother Raymond if you if you would give me a moment just to speak to you please. What years. What you're doing. We're sharing with you look up here. I'm up here you member I'm I'm still your sister. I work with you a black man for social change. I'm talking to you right. I hear you. So please hear me because when we speak from a point of passion. It's because we've had experience and that experience causes us to want to share with others from our passion and so what I would like you to do is you take a moment when we're Dover brother brother can't key because some of the things that you share are relevant to other people to hear but what we want to do is provide the correct platform for you to do that so that you can get the kind of support that you need and others can have the benefit from the information that you have to share what you do have for us are less appreciate brother and which. This man was a question. Hi My name is Michelle I have a question regarding adding the phosphoric acid to the water. I understand that they're trying to add that to the water in order to build up scale in the pipes in the hope that in hopes that it will no longer be leaching the lead in the other chemicals. My question is what do we know about the safety of adding the fast for gas into the water and the efficacy of building up the scale in the pipes and their process and I have a second part to that is that I've also seen research. They've said that the phosphoric acid is safe because it is added to other other drinks such as soda. The research shows that the phosphoric acid in soda also can leach calcium from the bones in the body and I'm wondering also what the what the health impacts or potential impacts might be from that combination knowing that lead exposure also decreases calcium in the body because you just three questions like you know I'm a lot of I'm up acid is added to Coca-Cola anybody know what to do when your battery terminals have are corroded and so yeah so one thing I learned from Bob Bowcock is anything and an acid not good. We shouldn't have that in our bodies. I get what they're trying to do we do we need to protect the pipes we need to rebuild that biofilm that built up over fifty years. It's a gross disgusting looking thing but it protected the pipes from the water in the water from the pipes. Now and that was torn off from the acidic water. We have to do something to try to build it back. It is yet another just god awful Band-Aid. It is another Band-Aid because those phosphates are also known to breed bacteria anybody hear about Legionella and Legionnaire's disease that just popped up. Yeah so to. Fight that bacteria risk. There's more chlorine being added in the water and you know what happens with that those are back up on the rise. So you can probably more chemicals on it. That's just chemistry want to one you just cannot and should not ever do that especially when that water is pumping through to go into our bodies. So yeah it's horrifying. The only solution here is to replace the infrastructure those pipes need to be ripped up and they are destroyed. So yeah what they're doing is another and they're just trying to wait this out. That's why no shovels have hit the ground health concern and I will talk to you about my it's it's bad you are directly. Send whatever you are you fighting for on Facebook. I will share it because this obviously needs to be looked into further questions have gone ignored but we just need to get louder. Thank you. Thank you very much for having this program. I grew up in Flint. I'm a native I represented the city from one thousand nine hundred four until two thousand and eight I worked under five city attorneys. I worked with a lot of engineers in my law cases on the civil cases I've handled. And I wanted to mention about the emergency manager because I think the answers to our questions about why the water was not safe when it was switched if it was not safe and why it was not drink and this was a problem that could have been predicted is a detective story that an engineer can answer and with the emergency manager law in place at the time in the emergency manager law in place now I'm not certain. We can answer it. So my three questions are very specific and I'm really interested to know if an engineer panel is going to come along and if somebody is going to help us. Explain to those engineers that we don't have the information that we need to answer their questions but if we did we could so without the emergency manager we could. Have a different conversation we could decide what it takes to make the water safe and we could decide why if it wasn't safe at the time of the switch it wasn't safe because the engineering was not done correctly or not followed. So my first question is when the. Lockwood Andrews and Newman L.A. and firm was paid one hundred seventy one thousand dollars and then a significant amount more than that almost triple and they did their complete analysis. What did they say about the salinity of the water coming up through the salt aquifers in the groundwater and what did they say about the salinity and its ability to scale and leach the lead. Did they address it was it in the scope of the undertaking where the contracts where they asked to seal the plans that's my first question because if they didn't get asked the right questions and they didn't give the right analysis then the plant couldn't know it was safe. Right. And I'm asking because I don't think they were being given the engineering. I know the city council wasn't able to see all of it. And I know that the emergency manager needed approval from any deal and under the law for every contract over fifty thousand dollars so they know it's treated as privilege and it hasn't been turned over to anyone. OK So let's say you're a lawyer. Yes that's what it's not to me too so so so let me share this with you because you said you have three questions that we ask each person to really just give us one question. But let me share this with you there is a session coming where they were talking about the chemistry water and other things like that. And so our panel but they may have a perspective. That's not our forty eight. That's not our our gift tonight or if you will our skill set. So I would invite you to come to February where we discussion about the science and the and the water delivery. I think that would be a good opportunity for you to get some real answer. As to those questions in thirty seconds I'll give you my other two Allie and said you had. And my question is were they in the plant before they switched it and were they there to see that it wasn't being used and why didn't anybody make it happen that their recommendation was follow tell you what I want you to do write those questions down on a car put them in the box out there and we would definitely address them and if one of our panels has something briefly they might like to say to respond to that. The answer is no the equipment to install it wasn't even built until recently they had to just invest one hundred fifty thousand dollars to install that equipment to put in the crozier control so it wasn't even installed in the plant to begin with. And hopefully with some of this investigation to testify February third down to Congress. Perhaps we can learn more information. The reason why we did not know is because the governor's office has executive immunity and all those things are not and a lot of this we just thank you. Please. Yes sir. So to the best of my knowledge the way that I understand the situation that we're currently in I believe is in violation of Safe Drinking Water Act one hundred seventy four. So if that's the case it's a city to provide clean and safe drinking water for any public sporadic and they're not doing that. How can they still get away with charging for water that's not safe as well as preventing us from being able to dig a well that we could provide our own safe and clean drinking water at our homes. There's a there was a well. I'm going to a lawsuit. There's a class action lawsuit filed back in November the attorneys have come back and they filed another lawsuit in an injunction. What am I going to. Twenty first the twenty first. What day was the one thousand on the nineteenth. London together on the nineteenth the attorneys filed an injunction to stop. The shot off and demand that we no longer have to pay for unsafe water as a as a consumer you would think hey this product is faulty. It's poisoning me I shouldn't have to pay for it. So we've been fighting it. There are petitions circulating around but the attorney said we got this word They're demanding the judge came and revisit the stay on shut off and to look at the fact that since the water has been prepaid by the state and Ma foundation for the next nine months. Well starting back in October. Why are you receiving bills and two we shouldn't be forced even even attorney general shooty who is not my favorite person even said that you should not be forced to pay for poisoned water. So hopefully that comes to a very quick resolution. Sorry you are correct that there will be that we will have our legislators here. March. Twenty to twenty or so they're putting forward to address these issues as well. So please come back on the twenty third of March. Yes sir. There was ahead of me. Just so charming Thank you Justin. Thank you very much. And also of course who are palace and the events just want to second what everybody said here. You know my question concerns the corrosion but it's more one political economic slash equity question and it is. Through this travesty. You know we've learned that not only did the emergency manager Snyder administration. Place profits above people but I am aware that machines came before people as well. Local news is reported that G.M. had a private tat to Detroit water over a year ago and I you know I have been talking to people I know but I haven't heard anything in a nationally news I did you know I sent some questions out to some national. Reporting outlets. New York Times and so on. I haven't heard anything back. I'm just wondering if any of you have any information on that number one I mean I think this issue is really crystallizes in the ways in which you know corporate citizens in our society at times come over and above individuals and. You know this is a matter of it's it's not even a financial matter it's a matter of health and poisoning which is by definition a criminal act. So your question is specific question is if you if you can provide any insight contacts understanding and you know if it would seem to me that that decision is would be diagnostic of some. For knowledge and culpability. Go ahead. OK so I'll just briefly explain for just summarize for the people who may not have remember when this occurred in August of twenty fourteen which is a few months after we moved over to using the Flint River as our drinking water soars the General Motors met with the emergency manager and got off of the flat water system and went back to waters this because their pipes were rusting because it was too and I remember look at the time we like the people who are already like the marks eventually and we were already up or were alive. Why are they out to get off and go back to Detroit because as residents. We didn't have that option. We didn't have that right to negotiate that and be released from our contract and go and build something to Detroit and I remember Claire McClinton because and Detroit they. They have had the United Nations pass a declaration saying that water is a human right and that was what was happening was a violation of human rights and the United Nations went to Detroit and clear McClinton testified down there and people were incredulous that we are not only paying these high water rates we're paying for this of water and General Motors is able to make a deal and go and get clean water but yet were forced to pay for this at the time. Another thing I want to add the two things real quick one. When you talk about when one of the things I have been saying on the news and I said it on whatever I was on this morning. I have to have learned together I'm sorry. One of the things is is that now October of two thousand and fourteen for the system that was a loss of four hundred thousand dollars a year in revenue to the city of Flint keep in mind we were under emergency management the emergency manager and the governor were the only people allowed to make that kind of of change them to go out. So how the governor says he didn't know when when when a factory says I can't use the water because it's corroding the metal that it was not safe for people. It's of course yet another lie and Michigan Radio just gave me some awesome news. The president today is sending eight hundred eighty million dollars to the state of Michigan to start replacing our infrastructure. Thank you very much. THANK YOU THANK YOU THANK YOU want to thank you. And I'm pretty excited about that. That's thank you so much. I just wanted to add one more kind of historical piece of this and it obviously doesn't make it OK but I would just add that has been doing this with for years. So even in the fifty's they were paying a water rate that was less than half of what residents were paying and I mean this is why. You know liberalism. You know the whole Reagan era as a political idea has failed. This is standing any form of equity because it's this paradox in economic development like if you want to get business you're going to pay for it so G.M. continues getting this preferential treatment and. Again it just reflects that whole philosophy that business is first. So obviously not saying that that's OK but this is something that has its roots in the one nine hundred fifty S. here. So I also want to share with you if it's going to be specifically addressing economics. Around this issue. I think there will be some really important concepts and information that will come out to respond to your interest. Please come. And one question. On the water distribution system arising before the switch to the city of river water then before this which was two parts per billion ninety percent of the bigger average the first six months that we were on the flight river. It went up to six parts per billion and then the next six months I want to tell a lot of parts per billion. But let me throw in that this is using all the loopholes This is why we can't because there were things like a water so they used loopholes to pad the numbers down. So even even if those numbers were all padded it still showed a triple and then a doubling of it and then when we did the testing to Virginia in August of two thousand and fifteen. The average was twenty five or twenty seven parts per billion so it went from two parts per billion to twenty seven. So it was a much larger jump. So the jump. Happened after the switch. OK It tripled the first six months but I would just concur with that that from the research that Dr Hannah Titian I've been doing we found exactly the same things with the from the data that we were dealing with that there was absolutely nothing to suggest that the. He's prior. Thank you. This is on last question for tonight. Yes OK I'm all I'm allowed I guess. I just want to say speak on behalf of those who can't. I've been I've been on the streets all day trying to get the information out. It's about the water. I don't know if you guys are aware of it but we've had a lot of fatalities in because of the tainted water in Christmas a year ago. My cat died. Six four months later my senior dog died died agonizing death and all of tribute to lead Tuck city. I just want to get the word out to her and ask you guys. What are you doing to get information out because there's a lot of people's pets who are going through a tremendous amount that doesn't think about lead toxicity. They don't mind that didn't I was baffled by all her symptoms she was absolutely classic toxicity levels and died an agonizing death and I just want to get the word out to pay attention to those who can't speak. It's our animals. I know it was important people but if you're an animal lover like me they mean a lot to you. So please spread the word They need fresh water to us in the information that the health department put together. It does use filter water for pets and animals but I wanted to raise this up because this is what the governor is sending out door to door. As far as like the response team and if you actually read it it does not say Do not use this on filter water. It does not say do not boil the water is kind of implied. This is where you can get bottled water you can get filters here but we still have not received a letter from the city of Flint telling us to not use this water to drink and cook in thank you. This is very. Invigorating I hope that you have been offended let me just ask by a show of hands as it's been helpful for you tonight. Thank you so much. Now the question was how do we get the word out. This is one way. So we're asking you again. Think of friends family neighbors that you would like to invite to the session next week we will be back here in the same room next Thursday. And if you look at your outline we will be dressing this as a public health issue. One of the challenges is that people really don't know that this is really a public health issue. We think everybody gets that everybody does not get that but what does it mean for it to be a public health issue and how are we impacted by that. For you if you would Tonight complete the evaluation form and leave that with us this is the first session it's a first of its kind. We need your feedback. So we're sure that the next time we'll do even better and each session will get better and as a university I want to again appreciate Dr Susan C. like and Dr Donna Frye from the university the schools of public health and health professions and studies and all of that that goes along with it and everybody at the university but I certainly want to appreciate you. Those of you that have the courage to stand up. I've been in session sometimes and I wanted to ask a question but because of the crowd I didn't have the courage to do so. So for those of you who have the courage to do so. Thank you for those of you who did not want to stand tonight please write your questions down so that we can entertain them take a couple extra of the forms tonight the outlines of course outlines all wear out already. Well if you are e-mailed. Tech savvy go online and print some out now but next week if you don't remember anything else remember next Thursday the twenty eighth. We will be back here in this room we'll be talking about public health and as this is a public health issue our health officer will be here along with Dr kinky and Dr Jennifer Karrar from the universe from Michigan State University. Again let me say thank you God bless you will see you next week.



ReADS was established in February 1959 assuming control of former ADC Western Air Defense Force units in Nevada, most of Oregon east of the Cascade Range; southwestern Idaho and areas of California east of the Sierra Nevada and the northern Central Valley. The organization provided command and control over several aircraft and radar squadrons.

On 15 February the new Semi Automatic Ground Environment (SAGE) Direction Center (DC-16) became operational. 39°39′04″N 119°53′00″W / 39.65111°N 119.88333°W / 39.65111; -119.88333 (ReADS-SAGE DC-16) DC-16 was equipped with dual AN/FSQ-7 Computers. The day-to-day operations of the command was to train and maintain tactical flying units flying jet interceptor aircraft (F-94 Starfire; F-102 Delta Dagger; F-106 Delta Dart) in a state of readiness with training missions and series of exercises with SAC and other units simulating interceptions of incoming enemy aircraft.

The Sector was inactivated on 1 April 1966 as part of an ADC consolidation and reorganization; and its units were reassigned to the 26th Air Division.


  • Established as Reno Air Defense Sector on 15 February 1959
Inactivated on 1 April 1966



  • Stead AFB, Nevada, 15 February 1959 – 1 April 1966


Radar squadrons

Burns AFS, Oregon, 15 September 1960-1 April 1966
Winnemucca AFS, Nevada, 15 September 1960-1 April 1966
  • 821st Radar Squadron
Baker AFS, Oregon, 15 September 1960-1 April 1966
Fallon AFS, Nevada, 15 September 1960-1 April 1966
Tonopah AFS, Nevada, 15 September 1960-1 April 1966

See also


 This article incorporates public domain material from the Air Force Historical Research Agency website

  • A Handbook of Aerospace Defense Organization 1946 - 1980, by Lloyd H. Cornett and Mildred W. Johnson, Office of History, Aerospace Defense Center, Peterson Air Force Base, Colorado
  • Winkler, David F. (1997), Searching the skies: the legacy of the United States Cold War defense radar program. Prepared for United States Air Force Headquarters Air Combat Command.
  • Maurer, Maurer (1983). Air Force Combat Units Of World War II. Maxwell AFB, Alabama: Office of Air Force History. ISBN 0-89201-092-4.
  • Ravenstein, Charles A. (1984). Air Force Combat Wings Lineage and Honors Histories 1947–1977. Maxwell AFB, Alabama: Office of Air Force History. ISBN 0-912799-12-9.
  • Reno Air Defense Sector
External image
SAGE facilities
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