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Religion in Georgia (country)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Orthodox Christianity is the main religion in Georgia. Here, the icon by Mikhail Sabinin depicts the history of the Georgian Orthodox Church, which to this day is recognized as the majority religion of the country.
Orthodox Christianity is the main religion in Georgia. Here, the icon by Mikhail Sabinin depicts the history of the Georgian Orthodox Church, which to this day is recognized as the majority religion of the country.

Religion in Georgia (2014 census)[1]

  Islam (10.7%)
  None / Others (1.2%)

The wide variety of peoples inhabiting Georgia has meant a correspondingly rich array of active religions. Today most of the population in Georgia practices Orthodox Christianity, primarily in the Georgian Orthodox Church whose faithful make up 82.4% of the population. Around 1% belong to the Russian Orthodox Church, while about 3.9% of the population follow the Armenian Apostolic Church (Oriental Orthodoxy), almost all of which are ethnic Armenians.[2] Adherents of Islam make up 10.7% of the population[3] and are mainly found in the Adjara and Kvemo Kartli regions and as a sizeable minority in Tbilisi. Catholics of the Armenian and Latin churches make up around 0.8% of the population and are mainly found in the south of Georgia and a small number in Tbilisi. There is also a sizeable Jewish community in Tbilisi served by two synagogues.

The Georgian Apostolic Autocephalous Orthodox Church is one of the world's most ancient Christian Churches, founded in the 1st century by the Apostle Andrew the First Called. In the first half of the 4th century Christianity was adopted as the state religion. This has provided a strong sense of national identity that has helped to preserve a national Georgian identity, despite repeated periods of foreign occupation and attempted assimilation.

Georgia has a long history of religious harmony within its borders despite the historical conflicts with the surrounding nations. Different religious minorities have lived in Georgia for thousands of years and religious discrimination is virtually unknown in the country.[4] Jewish communities exist throughout the country, with major concentrations in the two largest cities, Tbilisi and Kutaisi. Azerbaijani groups have practiced Islam in Georgia for centuries, as have Adjarians and some of the Abkhazians concentrated in their respective autonomous republics. The Armenian Apostolic Church, whose doctrine differs in some ways from that of Georgian Orthodoxy, has autocephalous status.

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Transcription

Alright, let's learn about Georgia. No! Georgia. No, history of Georgia. Famous people from Georgia. *sigh* "Sakartvelo" Got it! [Intro] ♪ It's time to learn geography, NOW! ♪ Hey everyone, I'm your host, Barby. You have no idea how frustrating it is for these people to explain who and where they are from. We have reached our last country in the Caucasus Region And we're going to have a lot of fun, Because this place is so incredibly unknown and so incredibly interesting Welcome to the land of wolves! ♪ [Transition] ♪ Now ask a random person on the street where Georgia is on a map. 80% of them won't know, 19.3% of them will point to this, and the remainder 0.7% might get it right. For the 99.3% of you normies out there, Georgia is the northern-most Caucasus country located in this quarter slip of land, nuzzled between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea, below Eastern Russia, with Turkey and Armenia and Azerbaijan to the south and east. Now here's where the geographical dilemma commences. Is Georgia in Europe or Asia? Some will argue that it stands east of Turkey, which is kind of seen as like the "gateway to Asia," but culturally it identifies as closer to Europe. Ultimately, I guess you could conclude that it's kind of like both in one. It's a bunch of white people in Asia. Or... Cauc-asians! *Ridiculous laughter* Quick side note: the origin of their name, "Georgia," is kind of disputed. Some will say that it has to do with Saint George, their patron saint. Others will say that it came from the Greeks and their word "Giorgios" Which means "tiller of the lands" since the land was so fertile But a lot of scholars might say it comes from the Persian word "Gurğ" or "Gurğān" meaning wolf! Hence, "land of the wolves". I mean, that name does sound pretty cool. I mean if I were a scholar I'd probably discredit all the other claims in favor of that one. Nonetheless, Georgians call their own country "Sakartvelo" or, "The land of the Kartvelians" which is another word for Georgians. Now this is going to be my favorite part because, you know me, incredibly complicated and administrative division time! Georgia is a candy shop loaded with territorial anomalies. First of all: if you go to Georgia and look at a map of Georgia that they have drawn out themselves, you'll get something that looks like this. A country divided into what looks like 11 regions and one city: the capital, Tbilisi. Yeah I know it looks like, *tries to horribly pronounce Tbilisi* It's Tblisi. However, it's more like 10-ish regions and 2 Autonomous Republics. One of which cuts through parts of 4 of the regions. These Republics are Abkhazia, and be careful what you call the second one: Most people outside of Georgia will refer to it as South Ossetia, but in Georgian it's called Samchablo or the Skhincali Region. In the simplest way I can put this, these regions came about through a complicated history that involved independence from the U.S.S.R., then support from Russia after the U.S.S.R.. Technically, these are, at least considered by most in the international community, "Autonomous breakaway Regions of Georgia" that kind of govern themselves but are kind of heavily influenced by Russia as well. To this day, Russia, Nicaragua, Venezuela, and for some reason Nauru are the only fully sovereign countries that recognize Abkhazia and South Ossetia as independent nations. Travel between these two breakaway states is still possible though, it's just way more difficult for Georgians to enter the region than it is for Ossetians and Abkhazians to get into Georgia. Phew... So anyway! Aside from all that, Georgia is an incredibly vivacious, yet rustically refined nook hidden away in the mountains, hard to get to. ...Like Rivendell! The country laden with enigmatic castles and centuries old stony fortresses and arch ways...Like Rivendell! As well as an abundance of monuments and statues with the curiously, fascinating, curly, wispy script written all- Okay this is freaking me out! No but seriously, Georgia is a very rock and stone type of country. They love rocks! The largest cities and airports are of course in the capital Tbilisi, Kutaisi, and Batumi. Tibilisi is a bustling city with a stone and mortar Narikala fortress looming above on a hill, Batumi though is kind of like the fun city on the Black Sea with a more youthful flare and bold, sharp, dynamic architecture. All adjacent to the famous Batumi stone beaches. I'm telling you, they love stones! Some notable sites would include places like the Gori Fortress with the statues of the 8 warriors, or the Katskhi Pillar, a limestone monolith with a single Church on top only accessible by climbing. And finally, castles, castles, castles! Everywhere you go, notable ones like Rabati, Khinkani, Aspindza, and Ninotsminda. All of which are made of, you guessed it, stones. There's more to this country than stones I promise! Alright, let's discuss that! ♪ [Transition] ♪ Well as you may already figured, Georgia is quite mountainous, with an expanse of incredibly diverse, conveniently located hills and valleys. The reason why it's so convenient is because the entire country is pretty much nestled between the Greater and Lesser Caucasus Mountains which protects it from the blistering cold air masses that pummel Southern Russia, it also barricades against the hot and dry streams that penetrate from the South. This means that they have overall pretty comfortable weather and just the right amount of rainfall and sunshine. The mighty Kura, or Mtkvari is the longest river that flows upwards and arches south into the areas through Tbilisi, and the highest mountain and the 3rd highest in Europe (if you consider Georgia part of Europe) Mount Skhara, located in the north along the Caucuses. Concealed within the hills, lies the Javakheti volcanic plateau, and the Southern Georgia volcanic highland. These are some rather unstable geological regions that will produce hot springs, mineral water, and seismic activity. And of course: Caves. So many of them here! You have the yet still yet to be completely exploded Melouri cave in Imereti with waterfalls, the Prometheus caves that Greeks claim to be the spot where Prometheus was changed to his rock in Greek Mythology. Greeks have a history of diaspora in Georgia, since like the 7th century. But the most famous cave would probably be the Krubera cave, found in Abkhazia, otherwise known as the world's deepest cave, that goes further than 2000 meters down. Rapid fire round, you may also wanna see the Abasha Waterfalls, Martvilli canyon, Crybaby mountain because it rains there almost the entire year, the incredibly beautiful Blue Lake in Abkhazia, with peacocks around it for some reason. Speaking of animals, many might say that unofficially the national animal might be the wolf, The Caucasus region has some of the highest quality of soil in the world. In terms of land usage, Georgia has one of the oldest and finest wine-making traditions that go back as far as 300 BC. Otherwise, Georgia has been a hub for mineral mining and petroleum extraction. They share a pipeline that goes to Turkey into Azerbaijan. The national dish would have to be "Khachpuri", or unofficially referred to as "Georgian pizza", a decdent soft bread baked with gooey, melted cheese, sometimes served with eggs, and other ingredients often baked in. They love cheese -- they have so many different kinds, from the salty, briny Sulguni, to the weird, stringy Tenili. They even have a dish where they put cheese inside of cheese. Basically, all you have to know is that when it comes to Georgian cooking, they love cherry plums, and tarragon. That's like their "gold twos". Alright, enough about food, let's talk about the people that eat those foods. ♪ Beautiful Transition ♪ Now if you felt pointing to Georgia on a map was difficult, try explaining what a Georgian person is. First of all, one broader term you could use to refer to someone who is ethnically Georgian would be "Kartvelian", which encapsulates all the ethno-linguistic groups found in Georgia. If you include Abkhazia and South Ossetia, the country has about 4.8 million people, and is currently attempting a population rebound after losing about 1 million people in the past 20 years due to migration. The country is made up of about 87% of ethnic Georgians, or Kartvelians, 6% Azerbaijani and Azeri, 5% Armenians, and the rest are made up of other groups like Greeks, Russians and Ossetians. They also use the Georgian Lari as their currency, they use the C and F plug outlets, and they drive on the right side of the road. The most distinguishable facet about Georgia, though. would have to be the Georgian language. Like Armenian, it's unlike any others in the world, standing on its own, not derived from any Indo-european or even Asiatic language branch. The language is also written in the Georgian script. Technically they have three alphabets, but they only use one. The alphabet has 33 letters, no "f" sound, and a ton of strange, almost impossible-to-pronounce letters, for example, *demo of strange, impossible-to-pronounce letters* Thank you to those geograpeeps. You guys rockkkkkk. Keep in mind though, there are other Kartvelian minority langauges spoken in Georgia as well, such as Mingrelian and Svan in the west, and partially in Abkhazia, as well as Laz in the south. Abkhazia and South Ossetia each has their own distinct languages and cultures, that contrasts with Georgia, although Georgians like to think that Abkhazians are basically just Georgians that speak a different language. The Abkhazian people write in the Cyrillic alphabet, and the Ossetians are actually a Christian Iranian-based ethnic group that inhabited the area. Keep in mind that I said "Iranian", not "Persian". Not all Iranians are Persians, just, keep that in mind. Now we don't really have time to explain the complete history, but basically all you have to know is that in the third century BC, some dude named King Parnavaz of Kartli united all the Kartvelian-speaking tribes in the Caucasus area, hence creating what was essentially the first "proto-Georgian" nation. From there, you had Romans, Persians, Arabs, Turks, Golden Age, where they had woman under the title of "King", Mongols, Ottomans, Russians and finally back to Georgia. DONEEEE. The funny thing is, even after two millennia of Euserbian(?) empire, Georgia still maintained and held on to their own distinct identity, refusing to completely assimilate into any outside systems. Christianity is a dominant religion. It has about 84% of population that adheres to the Eastern Orthodox faith. 10% mostly being Muslim from the Azerbaijani population, and the remainder are mostly Armenian Apostolic or Roman Catholic. Christianity is kind of like a big deal here. Georgia became one of the first countries in the world to adopt Christianity, and as tradition holds, Jesus' disciple, Andrew, preached the gospel into ancient Scythia, which included the regions that Georgia lies in today. Also, a lady named Saint Nino converted the entire country. Culture wise, Georgia is kind of strange, because it is not quite European, and it's not quite Asian. It's its own thing. Georgian polyphonic singing is actually filed under UNESCO intangible heritage list. *Astonishing polyphonic singing* All Georgians will tell you that Georgian traditional dance is something that they are proud of, fast, difficult, dynamic, bold with lots of leaping, pointing. Georgians are also known for being into strength sports, even woman. They love wrestling, weightlifting and judo. They typically compete well in these events at the Olympics. Konstantine Janashia reaching some of the highest ranks in the world's strongest men competition. Speaking of which, the most notable Georgian in the world ever seen although they might not be proud of him would probably Joseph Stalin. Although to be fair, he did spend a lot of his time in Russia, being a Russian dictator, so yeah. Hospitality is a huge deal out here, as a saying goes in Georgia, "a guest is a gift from God", and granted, no matter who you are, they will pretty much treat you to some khachapuri. That's kind of how they are with their diplomacy, mostly. *COUGH* Russia. Let's explain. *Grandioso transition camera sweeping backwards through the streets* In the simplest way I can put this, Georgia is like the Christian country with most Muslim friends. It's really because everything is like a high school drama, with their neighbors. They get along well with Azerbaijan and Turkey. Trade and travel have been open for centuries. However, the memory of the Ottoman times still lingers ever so slightly, so they keep things at a flat, platonic cordial level. Armenia kinda used to be their best friends, but then too many things happened and they kinda decided not to hang out as much. She first started in the 6th century with the Council of Chalcedon, in which they split over secondary Christian doctrine issues. Armenia became Apostolic Orthodox, similar to the Coptic, Syriac, Ethiopian branches, whereas Georgia stayed Eastern Orthodox like the Greeks, Serbians and Russians and most of the other Eastern European states. Also, keep in mind -- Armenia favored Russia after all that drama with Abkhazia and South Ossetia, so that kind of split and divided a little bit more. Their best friend though, would probably the Ukraine, and the Balkan countries, like Latvia and Lithuania, and Estonia, even though Estonia is kinda too busy chatting it up with Finland. All these countries have had the same scenario of dealing with some kind or form of aggression with Russia, and in a sense, bond over the shared calamity. However, there's a strange twist -- because even though you would think Georgia's worst nightmare would be Russia, they kinda secretly still kind of a little bit maybe still have a soft spot for them. Each country has family of their own residing in each side, and loves to visit each other Even though politically it looks bad, the general citizens of each country still love each other and look forward to each encounter Ha! Isn't it funny how the general populist of a country is not always rightly represented by their government? shockinggggggggggg~ In conclusion, Georgia is an elaborately hidden, rustic yet modernized medieval domain, locked away in the secret hidden mountains caught between two worlds that it refuses to identify with, with its own vibrant heritage that stood the test of time, on its own Especially that melted cheese bread part :P Stay tuned, the big guy, Germany is coming up next. *Thank you for watching* *Enjoy the music and the long list of names* *Barby is awesome*

Contents

Religious demography

The country has a total area of approximately 25,900 square miles (69,700 km²), and a population (as of 2014) of 3.7 million people.

According to a 2014 census, 83.4% of the Georgian population identified themselves as Eastern Orthodox Christian, 10.7% Muslim, 3.9% Armenian Apostolic, and 0.5% Catholic.[5] Orthodox churches serving other non-Georgian ethnic groups, such as Russians and Greeks, are subordinate to the Georgian Orthodox Church. Non-Georgian Orthodox Churches generally use the language of their communicants.

In addition, there are a small number of mostly ethnic Russian believers from two dissenter Christian movements: the ultra-Orthodox Old Believers, and the Spiritual Christians (the Molokans and the Doukhobors). The majority of these groups have left the country since the mid-1980s.[6]

Under  Soviet rule (1921-1990), the number of active churches and priests declined sharply and religious education became nearly nonexistent. Membership in the Georgian Orthodox Church has increased markedly since independence in 1991. The church maintains 4 theological seminaries, 2 academies, several schools, and 27 church dioceses; it has 700 priests, 250 monks, and 150 nuns. The Catholicos-Patriarch of All Georgia, Ilia II, with his seat in Tbilisi, heads the Church.

Several religions, including the Armenian Apostolic Church, the Catholic Church, Judaism, and Islam, traditionally have coexisted with Georgian Orthodoxy. A large number of Armenians live in the southern Javakheti region, in which they constitute a majority of the population. Islam is prevalent among Azerbaijani and north Caucasus ethnic communities in the eastern part of the country and also is found in the regions of Adjara and Abkhazia.

Judaism, which has been present since ancient times, is practiced in a number of communities throughout the country, especially in the largest cities, Tbilisi and Kutaisi. Approximately 8,000 Jews remain in the country, following two large waves of emigration, the first in the early 1970s and the second in the period of perestroika during the late 1980s. Before then, Jewish officials estimate, Georgia had as many as 100,000 Jews. There also are small numbers of Lutheran worshippers, mostly among descendants of German communities that first settled in the country from 1817. A small number of the ethno-religious group of the Yezidis have lived in the country for centuries.

Since the collapse of the Soviet Union (1991), Protestant denominations have become more prominent. They include Baptists (composed of Russian, Georgian, Armenian, Ossetian, and Kurdish groups); Seventh-day Adventists; Pentecostals (both Georgian and Russian); the New Apostolic Church; and the Assemblies of God. There also are a few Bahá'ís, Hare Krishnas and Jehovah's Witnesses (local representatives state that the group has been in the country since 1953 and has about 15,000 adherents[citation needed]). There are no available membership numbers for these groups but, combined, their membership most likely[original research?] totals fewer than 100,000 persons.

Christianity

A page from a rare Georgian bible, dating from AD 1030, depicting the Raising of Lazarus
A page from a rare Georgian bible, dating from AD 1030, depicting the Raising of Lazarus

According to Orthodox tradition, Christianity was first preached in Georgia by the Apostles Simon and Andrew in the 1st century. It became the state religion of Kartli (Iberia) in 337.[7][8] The conversion of Kartli to Christianity is credited to St. Nino of Cappadocia. The Georgian Orthodox Church, originally part of the Church of Antioch, gained its autocephaly and developed its doctrinal specificity progressively between the 5th and 10th centuries. The Bible was also translated into Georgian in the 5th century, as the Georgian alphabet was developed for that purpose. As was true elsewhere, the Christian church in Georgia was crucial to the development of a written language, and most of the earliest written works were religious texts. From the first centuries C.E., the cult of Mithras, pagan beliefs, and Zoroastrianism were commonly practiced in Georgia.[9]

Christianity gradually replaced all the former religions except Zoroastrianism, which became somewhat of a second established religion in Iberia after the Peace of Acilisene in 378,[10] which placed Georgians permanently on the front line of conflict between the Islamic and Christian worlds. Georgians remained mostly Christian despite repeated invasions by Muslim powers, and long episodes of foreign domination. After Georgia was annexed by the Russian Empire, the Russian Orthodox Church took over the Georgian church in 1811.

The Georgian church regained its autocephaly only when Russian rule ended in 1917. The Soviet regime that ruled Georgia from 1921 did not consider revitalization of the Georgian church an important goal, however. Soviet rule brought severe purges of the Georgian church hierarchy and frequent repression of Orthodox worship. As elsewhere in the Soviet Union, many churches were destroyed or converted into secular buildings. This history of repression encouraged the incorporation of religious identity into the strong nationalist movement and the quest of Georgians for religious expression outside the official, government-controlled church. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, opposition leaders, especially Zviad Gamsakhurdia, criticized corruption in the church hierarchy. After Ilia II became the patriarch (catholicos) of the Georgian Orthodox Church in the late 1970s, Georgian Orthodoxy experienced a revival. In 1988 Moscow permitted the patriarch to begin consecrating and reopening closed churches, and a large-scale restoration process began. The Georgian Orthodox Church has regained much power and full independence from the state since the restoration of Georgia's independence in 1991. It is not a state religion, but its special status is recognized by the Concordat of 2002.

Apart from the Georgian Orthodox Church, Christianity in Georgia is represented by followers of the Armenian Apostolic Church and the Russian Orthodox Church, and a Georgian Catholic Church which mostly follows either the Latin Rite or the Armenian rite.

A 2015 study estimates some 1,300 Christian believers from a Muslim background in the country, most of them belonging to some form of Protestantism.[11]

Islam

Botanical Street and Sunnite Mosque, Tbilisi. Middle of 1880
Botanical Street and Sunnite Mosque, Tbilisi. Middle of 1880

Islam in Georgia was introduced in 645 AD during the reign of third Caliph of Islam, Uthman. During this period, Tbilisi (al-Tefelis) grew into a center of trade between the Islamic world and northern Europe. Islam's history continued in Georgia throughout the late 14th and early 15th centuries with Timur's invasions of Georgia and during the 16th and early 19th centuries, the Iranians (Safavids, Afsharids, Qajars) and Ottomans commanded influence in the region until its annexation by Russia in 1801. In 1703, Vakhtang VI became the ruler of the kingdom of Kartli and he embraced Islam. Other notable Georgian Muslims from that era include David XI of Kartli, Jesse of Kakheti[12] and Simon II of Kartli.

Muslims constitute 9.9%,[13] or 463,062 of the Georgian population. There are two major Muslim groups in Georgia. The ethnic Georgian Muslims are Sunni Hanafi and are concentrated in Autonomous Republic of Adjara of Georgia bordering Turkey. The ethnic Azerbaijani Muslims are predominantly Shia Ithna Ashariyah and are concentrated along the border with Azerbaijan and Armenia.

Judaism

The Jews have a history in Georgia extending back over 2000 years. Today there is a small Jewish community in the country (3,541 according to the 2002 census),[14] although the Jewish population was over 100,000 as recently as the 1970s. Especially following the collapse of the Soviet Union, almost all of the country's Jews have left, mainly to Israel. The majority of Georgia's remaining Jews today live in Tbilisi and are served by its two synagogues. Because the size of the community is now so small, and for economic reasons, the two congregations are now housed on two storeys of one of the formerly separate synagogues.

Bahá'í Faith

The history of the Bahá'í Faith in Georgia begins with its arrival in the region in 1850 through its association with the precursor religion the Bábí Faith during the lifetime of Bahá'u'lláh.[15] During the period of Soviet policy of religious oppression, the Bahá'ís in the Soviet Republics lost contact with the Bahá'ís elsewhere.[16] However, in 1963 an individual was identified[17] in Tbilisi.[18] Following Perestroika the first Bahá'í Local Spiritual Assembly of Georgia formed in 1991[19] and Georgian Bahá'ís elected their first National Spiritual Assembly in 1995.[20] The religion is noted as growing in Georgia.[15]

Religious freedom

The Georgian Constitution provides for freedom of religion, and the Government generally respects this right in practice. Citizens generally do not interfere with traditional religious groups; however, there have been reports of violence and discrimination against nontraditional religious groups.

See also

Further reading

References

  1. ^ "საქართველოს მოსახლეობის საყოველთაო აღწერის საბოლოო შედეგები" (PDF). National Statistics Office of Georgia. 28 April 2016. Retrieved 29 April 2016.
  2. ^ http://www.nationmaster.com/country/gg-georgia/rel-religion
  3. ^ CIA - The World Factbook - Georgia
  4. ^ Spilling, Michael. Georgia (Cultures of the world). 1997
  5. ^ "საქართველოს მოსახლეობის საყოველთაო აღწერის საბოლოო შედეგები" (PDF). National Statistics Office of Georgia. 28 April 2016. Retrieved 29 April 2016.
  6. ^ Hedwig Lohm, "Dukhobors in Georgia: A Study of the Issue of Land Ownership and Inter-Ethnic Relations in Ninotsminda rayon (Samtskhe-Javakheti)". November 2006. Available in English Archived 2010-06-02 at the Wayback Machine. and Russian Archived 2010-09-02 at the Wayback Machine.
  7. ^ Toumanoff, Cyril, "Iberia between Chosroid and Bagratid Rule", in Studies in Christian Caucasian History, Georgetown, 1963, pp. 374–377. Accessible online at [1]
  8. ^ Rapp, Stephen H., Jr (2007). "7 - Georgian Christianity". The Blackwell Companion to Eastern Christianity. John Wiley & Sons. p. 138. ISBN 978-1-4443-3361-9. Retrieved 11 May 2012.
  9. ^ "GEORGIA iii. Iranian elements in Georgian art and archeology". Retrieved 22 April 2015.
  10. ^ "The Making of the Georgian Nation". Retrieved 22 April 2015.
  11. ^ Johnstone, Patrick; Miller, Duane (2015). "Believers in Christ from a Muslim Background: A Global Census". IJRR. 11: 14. Retrieved 20 November 2015.
  12. ^ A history of the Georgian people, By William Edward David Allen, p. 153
  13. ^ Religion and education in Europe: developments, contexts and debates, By Robert Jackson, pg.67
  14. ^ 2002 population census, Population by Religious Beliefs Archived 2009-03-04 at the Wayback Machine.
  15. ^ a b Balci, Bayram; Jafarov, Azer (2007-02-20). "Who are the Baha'is of the Caucasus? {Part 1 of 3}". Caucaz.com{{inconsistent citations}}
  16. ^ Effendi, Shoghi (1936-03-11). The World Order of Bahá'u'lláh. Haifa, Palestine: US Bahá’í Publishing Trust, 1991 first pocket-size edition. pp. 64–67.
  17. ^ Monakhova, Elena (2000). "From Islam to Feminism via Baha'i Faith". Women Plus... 2000 (3).
  18. ^ Compiled by Hands of the Cause Residing in the Holy Land. "The Bahá'í Faith: 1844-1963: Information Statistical and Comparative, Including the Achievements of the Ten Year International Bahá'í Teaching & Consolidation Plan 1953-1963". p. 84.
  19. ^ Ahmadi, Dr. (2003). "Major events of the Century of Light". homepage for an online course on the book “Century of Light”. Association for Bahá’í Studies in Southern Africa. Archived from the original on 2009-09-02. Retrieved 2009-05-05.
  20. ^ Hassall, Graham. "Notes on Research on National Spiritual Assemblies". Research notes. Asia Pacific Bahá'í Studies. Retrieved 2009-05-05.

 This article incorporates public domain material from the Library of Congress Country Studies website http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/.

This page was last edited on 29 October 2018, at 18:50
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