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Region of Murcia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Region of Murcia

Región de Murcia
Región de Murcia (in Spanish)
Map of the Region of Murcia
Location of the Region of Murcia within Spain
Coordinates: 38°00′N 1°50′W / 38.000°N 1.833°W / 38.000; -1.833
CountrySpain
CapitalMurcia
Government
 • PresidentFernando López Miras (PP)
Area
(2.2% of Spain; Ranked 9th)
 • Total11,313 km2 (4,368 sq mi)
Population
 (2018)[1]
 • Total1,478,509
 • Density130/km2 (340/sq mi)
 • Pop. rank
10th
 • Percent
3.0% of Spain
Demonym(s)English: Murcian
Spanish: murciano (m), murciana (f)
Ethnic groups
ISO 3166 code
ES-MC (region) ES-MU (province)
Official languagesSpanish
ParliamentRegional Assembly of Murcia
Congress seats10 (of 350)
Senate seats6 (of 265)
HDI (2017)0.869[2]
very high · 12th
WebsiteComunidad Autónoma de la Región de Murcia

The Region of Murcia (/ˈmʊərsiə/, also US: /ˈmɜːrʃ(i)ə/;[3][4][5] Spanish: Región de Murcia [reˈxjon de ˈmuɾθja]), is an autonomous community of Spain located in the southeast of the state, between Andalusia and the Valencian Community, on the Mediterranean coast.

The autonomous community consists of a single province, unlike most autonomous communities, which have several provinces within the same territory. Because of this, the autonomous community and the province are operated as one unit of government. The city of Murcia is the capital of the region and seat of government organs, except for the parliament, the Regional Assembly of Murcia, which is located in Cartagena. The autonomous community and province is subdivided into municipalities.[6]

The Region of Murcia is bordered by Andalusia (the provinces of Almería and Granada), Castile–La Mancha (the province of Albacete, which was historically connected to Murcia until 1980), the Valencian Community (province of Alicante), and the Mediterranean Sea. The community covers 11,313 km² in area and has a population of 1.4 million.[7] About one-third of its population lives in the capital. The highest peak of the region is Los Obispos Peak, in the Massif of Revolcadores, with 2,014 m. altitude.[8]

Of its extensive heritage, it is worth mentioning the 72 cave rock art ensembles belonging to the rock art of the Rock art of the Iberian Mediterranean Basin declared World Heritage Site,[9] as well as the Council of Wise Men of the plain of Murcia, declared Intangible world cultural heritage,[10] in the same way as the Drums of Moratalla and Mula are Intangible world cultural heritage.[11] in the region of Murcia is the town of Caravaca de la Cruz, place of reference for the worship of the Catholic Church by having the privilege of celebrating the Jubilee Year in perpetuity every seven years around the Vera Cruz de Caravaca.[12]

The region is one of the largest producers of fruits, vegetables, and flowers of Europe, with important vineyards in the municipalities of Jumilla, Bullas and Yecla, which produce wines with Denominación de origen. It also has an important tourist sector, concentrated on a coast with many virgin spaces (many of them threatened) and that has the saltwater lagoon of the Mar Menor. Its industry stands out for the petrochemical and energy sector (centred on Cartagena) and the food industry. Murcia is mainly a warm region which has made it very suitable for agriculture. However the precipitation level is low and water supply is a hot subject today since, in addition to the traditional water demand for crops, there is now also a demand of water for the booming tourist developments. Water is supplied by the Segura River and, since the 1970s, by the Tajo transvasement, a major civil engineering project which, under some environmental and sustainability restraints, brings water from the Tajo into the Segura.

The Region of Murcia is a historical region of southeastern Spain, heiress of the ancient Kingdom of Murcia, which has traditionally included as biprovincial region the provinces of Albacete and Murcia.[13] during the Transition, Albacete moved to the new Castile–La Mancha, forming the uniprovincial autonomy of the Region of Murcia.

Toponymy and denomination

The toponym Murcia has a controversial origin. According to Francisco Cascales, this toponym could refer to the Roman goddess Venus Murcia, related to the myrtles on the banks of the Segura River; hypothesis that has been discussed in this regard. Historical studies conclude that, like the above-mentioned divinity, Murcia is a place name of Latin origin that derives very probably from Myrtea or Murtea (“place of myrtles” or “place where grow the myrtles”) and that Mursiya (first name already documented in the Islamic period to the city of Murcia) was the adaptation of the Arabic from the Latin term pre-existing.[14] According to Bienvenido Mascaray, the name would come from the Iberian language in the form m-ur-zia, meaning "the water that empowers or moistens".[15] as Bienvenido Mascaray, the name would come from the Iberian language in the form m-ur-zia, meaning "the water that soaks or moistens"[16]

Map of the Kingdom of Murcia in 1795
Map of the Kingdom of Murcia in 1795

The use of this term to define the present region also has its origin in the Taifa of Murcia (Arab kingdom) that existed at different times of the 11th, 12th and 13th centuries,[17] a political entity that served as the basis for the conquest (which took place in this area between 1243 and 1266) to also emerge the Christian kingdom of Murcia, territorial jurisdiction that came to have its own institutions and that existed until 1833.[18]

After the provincial administrative reform of that year there began to exist a first Region of Murcia formed by the provinces of Albacete and Murcia. In the first decentralizer attempt in the history of Spain during the First Republic, this region was one of the 17 member states that contemplated the Spanish Draft Constitution of 1873,[19] proclaiming during that year the so-called Cantón Murciano as an attempt of regional canton in the context of the Cantonal rebellion.[20]

In 1978, the Regional Council of Murcia was created as a pre-autonomous body until 1982, when the Statute of Autonomy of the Region of Murcia was approved, where the province of Murcia exclusively granted autonomy under the official name of Autonomous Community of the Region of Murcia in the framework of the political process experienced during the Spanish transition.

Symbols

Map of the Kingdom of Murcia in La Geographia Blaviana by Joan Blaeu (1659). In the upper left quadrant appears the coat of arms of the kingdom, which was included in the flag and coat of arms of the Region of Murcia.
Map of the Kingdom of Murcia in La Geographia Blaviana by Joan Blaeu (1659). In the upper left quadrant appears the coat of arms of the kingdom, which was included in the flag and coat of arms of the Region of Murcia.

The flag of the Region of Murcia is rectangular and contains four battlement castles in gold, at the upper left corner, distributed two in two (symbolizing the border character of the ancient Kingdom of Murcia and the four borders that it had at some point in its history), and seven royal crowns at the lower right angle (these being the escutcheon of the historical coat of arms of the Kingdom of Murcia), arranged in four rows, with one, three, two and one elements, respectively; all on a crimson background or Cartagena.[21]

Its origin dates back to the Spanish transition, when the president of the Regional Council of Murcia, Antonio Pérez Crespo, commissioned a commission in 1978 to study the future flag of the Region of Murcia. Commission formed by historians Juan Torres Fontes and José María Jover and senators Ricardo de la Cierva and Antonio López Pina. The project was approved on 26 March 1979 and was first hoisted on 5 May 1979 on a balcony of the Regional Council building, the former Provincial Council of Murcia (now the Ministry of Finance).[22]

The same committee established that the coat of arms of the Region of Murcia had the same symbols and distribution as the flag, with the royal crown. Flag and shield were collected in Article 4 of the Statute of Autonomy of the Region of Murcia, approved by organic law in 1982.

The Day of the Region of Murcia is celebrated on 9 June, commemorating the promulgation of the Statute of Autonomy.

Physical environment

Location

Satellite view of the Region of Murcia.
Satellite view of the Region of Murcia.

The Region of Murcia is an autonomous community of Spain located in the southeast of the Iberian Peninsula, on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea. With 11,313 km2, it is the ninth region of Spain by area and represents 2.9 % of the national extension. The Community extends over the greater part of the hydrographic basin of the Segura River, thus counting with a defined geographical unit, except for the comarcas of the Sierra de Segura and the Campos de Hellín which were in the province of Albacete, Los Vélez in Almería and La Vega Baja in the province of Alicante, all belonging to the same basin.[23]

Its geographical position is 38º 45'at the northern end, 37º 23' at the southern end, 0º 41' at the eastern end and 2º 21' at the western end.

Relief

The Massif of Revolcadores is the highest point of the Region of Murcia, its peak is the Los Obispos Peak with 2014 m altitude.
The Massif of Revolcadores is the highest point of the Region of Murcia, its peak is the Los Obispos Peak with 2014 m altitude.

The region of Murcia is located at the eastern end of the Baetic System, being affected climatologically by an orography that isolates it from the Atlantic influence. These mountain ranges are divided in turn from North to South in:

  • the Cordillera Prebética: the northernmost, where the Sierra del Carche stands out among others.
  • the Cordillera Subbética: it consists of numerous dipping faults superimposed on each other or on the materials of the Prebaetic. The Massif of Revolcadores, the highest in the region with 2,015 meters, belongs to this system.
  • and the Cordillera Penibética: with three lithological complexes distinct from North to South (Nevado-Filabride, Alpujárride and Maláguide). They are very fractured, although there is a predominance of dipping faults and inverse faults between these complexes. Sierra Espuña is one of the fundamental penibaetic mountains.

Approximately 27% of the Murcian territory corresponds to mountainous reliefs, 38% to intramountain depressions and corridor valleys, and the remaining 35% to plains and high plateaus.

Some of these valleys and plains are the coastal depression of the Campo de Cartagena-Mar Menor, a little further inland is the Valle del Guadalentín (also called the Murcian pre-coastal depression) that travels much of the Murcian geography in the direction of SW-NE,[24] The fertile plains of the Segura that are arranged since that river enters the region (being one of the most famous ones the so-called Valle de Ricote), and other inland valleys formed by tributaries of the Segura like the basin of Mula. Among the high plateaus are the Campo de San Juan and the Altiplano murciano.[24]

As an explanation for this complex relief, it is important to highlight the existence of important faults throughout the area, such as the Fault of Alhama de Murcia, the Fault of Bullas-Archena or the Cicatriz Nor-Bética, which, along with the intersection with other minor faults, generate numerous earth movements, such as the 2011 Lorca earthquake.

Climatology

The Region of Murcia enjoys a Mediterranean climate of semi-arid type, with mild winters (an average of 11 °C in December and January) and warm summers (where the daily maximum regularly exceeds 40 °C). The average annual temperature is 18 °C.

With little precipitation of about 300 to 350 mm per year, the region has between 120 and 150 days in the year where the sky is totally clear. April and October are the months with the most precipitation, there being frequent heavy downpours in a single day.

The distance to the sea and the relief causes a thermal difference between the coast and the interior, specially in winter, when the temperature rarely descends below 10 °C on the coast, while in the interior regions the minimum does not usually rise above 6 °C and the precipitation level is higher (up to 600 mm).

The city of Murcia holds the record temperature of the 20th century in Spain. It reached 46.1 °C (115 °F) on July 4, 1994. The winter of 2005 was the coldest in a long time, with snow even falling on the Murcian coast. [1]

Lands around Moratalla and river Alharabe.
Lands around Moratalla and river Alharabe.

Hydrography

Rivers

The hydrographic network of the region is made up of the Segura river and its affluents:

  • Mundo (which is born in Albacete), it is the one that contributes to the Segura with the greatest volume.
  • Alhárabe and its affluent, the Benamor.
  • Mula river.
  • Guadalentín, Sangonera or Reguerón (which is born upper before Lorca).

Due to the water supplying incapacity of the Segura river basin, contributions to this river basin are made, originated from the basin of the Tajo river, by means of the Tajo-Segura transvasement.

Seas

Satellite view of the Mar Menor
Satellite view of the Mar Menor

The greatest natural lake of Spain can be found in the region: the Mar Menor (Small Sea) lagoon. It is a salt water lagoon, adjacent to the Mediterranean Sea. Its special ecological and natural characteristics make the Mar Menor a unique natural place and the largest saltwater lake in Europe. With a semicircular shape, it is separated from the Mediterranean Sea by a sand strip 22 km (14 mi) in length and between 100 and 1200 m wide, known as La Manga del Mar Menor (the Minor Sea's Sandbar). The lagoon has been designated by the United Nations as a Specially Protected Zone of Importance for the Mediterranean. Its coastal perimeter accounts for 73 km (45 mi) of coast in which beaches follow one another with crystal clear shallow water (the maximum depth does not exceed 7m). The lake has an area of 170 square kilometers.

History

Roman Theatre, Cartagena.
Roman Theatre, Cartagena.

The Carthaginians established a permanent trading port on the coast at Cartagena, which the Romans called Carthago Nova. For the Carthaginian traders, the mountainous territory was merely the Iberian hinterland of their seacoast empire. During The Roman period Murcia did not exist but its current borders could have been inside of the province of Hispania Carthaginensis. Under the Moors, who introduced the large-scale irrigation on which Murcian agriculture depends, the province was known as Todmir; it included, according to Idrisi, the 12th century Arab cartographer based in Sicily, the cities of Orihuela, Lorca, Mula and Chinchilla.

Muslim architecture of the Alcázar Seguir in Santa Clara Museum inside of Monasterio de Santa Clara la Real (Murcia).
Muslim architecture of the Alcázar Seguir in Santa Clara Museum inside of Monasterio de Santa Clara la Real (Murcia).

The Kingdom of Murcia became independent as a taifa centered on the Moorish city of Murcia after the fall of the Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba (11th century). Moorish Taifa of Murcia included Albacete and part of Almería as well. After the battle of Sagrajas in 1086 the Almoravid dynasty swallowed up the taifas and reunited Islamic Spain. Ferdinand III of Castile received the submission of the Moorish king of Murcia in 1243 under the terms of the Treaty of Alcaraz.

In the usual way, the Muslims were evicted from the cities, and Ferdinand's heir Alfonso X of Castile, who benefited from rule over a largely depopulated Murcia, divided the border kingdom in three regions for administrative purposes, entrusted respectively to the concejos de realengo, to the ecclesiastical señores seculares, as a reward for their contributions to the Reconquista and to the Military Orders founded in the 11th century. Alfonso annexed the Taifa of Murcia as King of Murcia outright in 1266, and it remained technically a vassal kingdom of Spain until the reforms in the liberal constitution of 1812. Murcia became an autonomous region in 1982.

The Castilian conquest of Murcia was significant because it gave the former access to the Mediterranean for the first time and ended the expansion of the Kingdom of Aragon which had been moving south along the coast.

Demography

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1900577,987—    
1910615,105+6.4%
1920638,639+3.8%
1930645,449+1.1%
1940719,701+11.5%
1950756,721+5.1%
1960800,463+5.8%
1970832,313+4.0%
1981955,498+14.8%
19911,045,601+9.4%
20011,197,646+14.5%
20111,462,128+22.1%
20171,472,949+0.7%
Source: INE

The Region of Murcia has a population of 1,424,063 inhabitants (INE 2008, National Statistic Institute of Spain), of which almost a third (30.7%) live in the municipality of Murcia. It makes up 3.0% of the Spanish population. In addition, after Ceuta and Melilla, Murcia has the highest population growth (5.52 by thousand inhabitants) and also the highest birth rate of the country.

  • Birth rate (2004): 13.00 per 1,000
  • Mortality rate (2004): 7.48 per 1,000
  • Life expectancy (2002):
    • Men: 76.01 years
    • Women: 82.00 years

In the 1991-2005 period the Murcian population grew at by 26.06%, as opposed to the national average of 11.85%. 12.35% of the inhabitants are of foreign origin, according to the INE 2005 census, which is 4% more than the Spanish average. The most notable groups of immigrants are Ecuadorians (33.71% of the total of foreigners), Moroccans (27.13%), Britons (5.95%), Bolivians (4.57%) and Colombians (3.95%).

Roman Catholicism is, by far, the largest religion in the Region of Murcia. In 2012, the proportion of Murcians that identify themselves as Roman Catholic was 85.0%.[25]

Municipalities

Municipalities in Region of Murcia
Municipalities in Region of Murcia

The Region of Murcia comprises 45 municipalities, the most populated being Murcia, Cartagena, Lorca, and Molina de Segura.

Language

The Spanish spoken in the region has its own accent and local words. The Murcian dialect is one of the southern dialects of Spanish and tends to eliminate many syllable-final consonants and to emphasize regional vocabulary, much of which is derived from Aragonese, Catalan and Arabic words. The general intonation and some of the distinctive vocabulary of the Spanish dialect spoken in Murcia share several traits with the one spoken in the neighboring province of Almería, north of Granada, and the Vega Baja del Segura in the Alicante province.

The Valencian language is spoken in a small area of the region known as El Carche.

Tourism

Despite the famous seaside resorts, the overall region is relatively unknown even within Spain, so it continues to be relatively unspoilt compared to other more overcrowded areas of the Spanish Mediterranean coast. Nevertheless, its more than 300 sunny days a year with an average temperature of 21 degrees Celsius, and the 250 km (160 mi) of beaches of the so-called Costa Cálida (Warm Coast) have attracted tourists for decades.

The region is also being promoted as a cultural destination with a lot of highlights for visitors: monuments, gastronomy, cultural events, museums, historic remains, festivals etc. The Region of Murcia is one of the Spanish autonomous communities that has grown the most in the last years, and this has conferred it the character of an ideal destination of services, shopping and for the organization of cultural events and conventions.

Cultural tourism

Major tourist destinations

Murcia Cathedral.
Murcia Cathedral.
  • Murcia, the capital city, offers the facilities, equipment and services of a large city. It is the seventh largest Spanish city by population with approximately 440,000 inhabitants in 2009. Murcia's sights include a very tall belfry and its famous Cathedral. Murcia is also a large University town with more than 30,000 students per year. It has more than 2 million m2 of parks and gardens. Murcia has a rich history tied to the Jewish community.
  • Cartagena is the region's second largest city and one of the main Spanish naval bases. Sights include its recently restored Roman Theatre (among its numerous other Roman remains) and a number of modernist buildings made for its military fortifications.
  • Lorca is a large medieval town at the foothills of which its famous castle stands. It is the second largest municipality of Spain by area.
  • Caravaca de la Cruz, or simply Caravaca, is one of the five official Holy cities for Catholicism since it is claimed to house part of the Lignum Crucis, the Holy Cross.

The castles itinerary

Castle of Lorca
Castle of Lorca

the interior of the region of Murcia has plenty of castles and fortifications showing the importance of these frontier lands between the Christian Castile and the Muslim Andalusia. They include:

  • Castle of Jumilla, a former Roman fortification turned by the Moors into an Alcazaba. The Castilian Kings and the marquis of Villena gave it its appearance of Gothic royal residence.
  • Castle of Moratalla, one of the largest castles of the province, built to defend the town of Moratalla from the invaders from the nearby Muslim Kingdom of Granada.
  • Castle of Mula, of Muslim origin, but as with many castles, eventually restored and renovated.
  • Real Alcázar of Caravaca de la Cruz, where the Holy sanctuary was built, also of Moorish origin, conquered by the Christians and finally home of several noble families.
  • Concepción Castle, in Cartagena, built on one of the five hills of the old Carthagena, following the Roman taste. Now is home of the Centre for the Interpretation of Cartagena's History.
  • Lorca Castle, also known as the Fortress of the Sun.

Festivals

Cartagena's and Lorca's Holy Week's processions have been declared of International Tourist Interest, together the Murcia's "Bando de la Huerta" and "The Burial of the Sardine in Murcia", included in its Spring Festivities. Murcia's Holy Week is also interesting since its processions include Murcian sculptor Francisco Salzillo's statues.

Cartagena's main festivities are the Carthagineses y Romanos, re-enacting the Punic Wars. They have been declared of National Tourist Interest.

The Águila's Carnival is one of the most important and colourful of Spain.

Beaches and Gulf

La Manga del Mar Menor
La Manga del Mar Menor

This is the most developed tourist resource in Murcia. The Costa Cálida has 250 km (160 mi) of beaches, from el Mojón at the North near Alicante to Águilas, South West Murcia, near Almería. One of the major destinations of Murcia is the Mar Menor or Small Sea, the largest natural lake of Spain and the largest salty lagoon in Europe, located by the Mediterranean. It is separated from the mediterranean by a 22 km (14 mi) narrow sandy strip known as La Manga del Mar Menor or simply La Manga. It is probably the most developed and overcrowded holiday area of Murcia, despite being declared a Specially Protected Area of Mediterranean Importance (SPAMIs) by the United Nations.

Mar Menor's muds are famous for its therapeutic properties. Apart from Mar Menor, the Murcian coast from the historical city of Cartagena to the frontier with Andalusia, that corresponds to the Mediterranean Sea alternates wild and unspoilt rocky areas with large sandy beaches, with the towns of Mazarrón and Águilas standing out.

The tourism needs have forced the area to add all kinds of facilities and services. The construction boom shows the huge amount of estates, including the controversial holiday resorts of Polaris World and second residences, as well as numerous malls. Thanks to the orography and climate of the region of Murcia, these lands are suitable for golf courses, a fact that has been very controversial because of the need for water, which Murcia lacks, being a very dry region.

Other services includes nautical charters; yacht facilities; golf courses; adventure tourism companies; sports federations; tourist routes; guided visits and excursions by sea.

Natural resources and rural tourism

The region of Murcia has 19 areas under different statutes of protection, representing 6% of its territory.

San Pedro's marsh
San Pedro's marsh
  • The Sierra Espuña, a protected natural space, has an area of 17,804 ha. It is located on the Baetic Cordillera within the basin of the Segura. This Regional park is centred around the 1 583M Sierra Espuña mountain. It is also declared as Special Protected Area for the Birds.
  • Salinas y Arenales de San Pedro del Pinatar, a salt marsh by the Mar Menor.
  • Cabo Cope-Puntas del Calnegre, between Águilas and Lorca, by the Mediterranean sea. The government of Murcia has amended Law 1/2001 of 24 April on Land in the Region of Murcia, declassifying a total of 1600 hectares of the land protected by the Regional Park of Cabo Cope and Puntas de Calnegre. Rares species of animals (Bonelli's eagle, Greek tortoise, Martingale) and plants are threatened.
  • Calblanque, Monte de las Cenizas y Peña del Aguila, between La Manga and Cartagena, Calblanque is also one of the top-favourite beaches for the Murcians although it is an undeveloped area.
  • Carrascoy y el Valle is a Special Protection Area (SPA) and Site of Community Importance (SCI).
  • Sierra de la Pila, also a Special Protection Area (SPA).
  • Sierra del Carche, also part of the Baetic Cordillera.
  • Cañón de Almadenes
Almadenes Canyon
Almadenes Canyon
  • Humedal del Ajuaque y Rambla Salada, another wetland and also a Special Protection Area (SPA).
  • Cerro de Cabezo Gordo, in which there is the archaeological site of Sima de las Palomas, a cave where the second oldest human remains in the Iberian Peninsula were found.
  • La Muela y Cabo Tiñoso
  • A group of islands and islets on the Murcian Mediterranean has a high ecological importance.
  • Espacios Abiertos e Islas del Mar Menor, in which the five volcanic islands of the Mar Menor are included.
  • Sierra de las Moreras
  • Cañaverosa
  • Sierra de Salinas
  • Barrancos de Gebas
  • Saladares del Guadalentín
  • Cuatro Calas

Inner lands of the region, near the historical towns of Caravaca de la Cruz and Moratalla, offer a number of rural accommodations and facilities: cottages, farmhouses, country houses and camp sites. Visitors can engage in activities related to excursions, day trips, sports, sightseeing.

Transport

See also

Notes and references

  1. ^ "Municipal Register of Spain 2018". National Statistics Institute. Retrieved 11 April 2019.
  2. ^ "Sub-national HDI - Area Database - Global Data Lab". hdi.globaldatalab.org. Retrieved 2018-09-13.
  3. ^ "Murcia". Collins English Dictionary. HarperCollins. Retrieved 29 May 2019.
  4. ^ "Murcia" (US) and "Murcia". Oxford Dictionaries. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 29 May 2019.
  5. ^ "Murcia". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved 29 May 2019.
  6. ^ New Larousse Encyclopedia. XIV. Barcelona: Editorial Planeta. 1981. p. 6806. ISBN 84-320-4274-9.
  7. ^ La Verdad de Murcia. "El padrón registra la cuarta mayor subida, con 8.000 habitantes más". Retrieved December 17, 2011.
  8. ^ Review Geodesic Vertex, Government of Spain (pdf)
  9. ^ 727 individual codes according to the list of UNESCO
  10. ^ Las Provincias. El Tribunal de las Aguas de Valencia es designado Patrimonio Cultural Inmaterial de la Humanidad. 30 September 2009.
  11. ^ "La tamborada de Mula y Moratalla, Patrimonio Inmaterial de la Humanidad por la Unesco". Region of Murcia official website. 29 November 2018.
  12. ^ "El camino de Santiago. Lugares de Peregrinación de la Cristiandad". 2013.
  13. ^ Nueva Enciclopedia Larousse. XIV. Barcelona: Editorial Planeta. 1981. p. 6806. ISBN 84-320-4274-9.
  14. ^ Elena Conde Guerri; Rafael González Fernández; Alejandro Egea Vivancos (2006). Espacio y tiempo en la percepción de la antigüedad tardía. Murcia. p. 135. ISBN 978-84-8371-667-0.
  15. ^ http://iberiasegunmascaray.es/murcia. Unknown parameter |obra= ignored (|work= suggested) (help); Unknown parameter |nombre1= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |fechaacceso= ignored (|access-date= suggested) (help); Unknown parameter |apellidos1= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |título= ignored (|title= suggested) (help); Missing or empty |title= (help)
  16. ^ Bienvenido Mascaray. "Toponimia Ibérica - Murcia". Ibéria según Mascaray.
  17. ^ Miguel Rodríguez Llopis (2004). Miradas a la historia. University of Murcia. p. 59.
  18. ^ Miguel Artola Gallego (1999). La Monarquía de España (First Edition ed.). p. 145. ISBN 978-84-206-8195-5.CS1 maint: extra text (link)
  19. ^ María Victoria López-Córdon (1976). La Revolución de 1868 y la I República. p. 59. ISBN 978-84-323-0238-1.
  20. ^ Template:Cita book
  21. ^ "La bandera y el escudo de la Región de Murcia. Castillos y coronas". Region of Murcia website.
  22. ^ "La bandera y el escudo de la Región de Murcia. La bandera". Region of Murcia website.
  23. ^ "Posición geográfica de Murcia. Centro Regional de Estadística de Murcia". Archived from the original on |archive-url= requires |archive-date= (help).
  24. ^ a b several authors (2007). "El medio natural: El relieve". Atlas Global de la Región de Murcia. Murcia: La Verdad Grupo Multimedia, Comunidad Autónoma de la Región de Murcia, Cajamurcia.
  25. ^ Interactivo: Creencias y prácticas religiosas en España

Further reading

External links

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