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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The refresh rate (most commonly the "vertical refresh rate", "vertical scan rate" for cathode ray tubes) is the number of times in a second that a display hardware updates its buffer. This is distinct from the measure of frame rate. The refresh rate includes the repeated drawing of identical frames, while frame rate measures how often a video source can feed an entire frame of new data to a display.

For example, most movie projectors advance from one frame to the next one 24 times each second. But each frame is illuminated two or three times before the next frame is projected using a shutter in front of its lamp. As a result, the movie projector runs at 24 frames per second, but has a 48 or 72 Hz refresh rate.

On cathode ray tube (CRT) displays, increasing the refresh rate decreases flickering, thereby reducing eye strain. However, if a refresh rate is specified that is beyond what is recommended for the display, damage to the display can occur.[1]

For computer programs or telemetry, the term is also applied to how frequently a datum is updated with a new external value from another source (for example; a shared public spreadsheet or hardware feed).

YouTube Encyclopedic

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  • How to Overclock Your Monitor! How to Increase Monitor Hz/Refresh Rate! More FPS!!!


Hey guys my name is Scoby today, I'm going to be showing you how to overclock your monitor in Windows This is gonna be a nice quick and easy tutorial Let's jump right into this so the first thing you want to do is come to your desktop And we're gonna be right-clicking and looking for our Nvidia or AMD control panel you also want to make sure you have your latest graphic drivers installed, but once this is done Simply open up your control panel and you'll be brought to this window so first you wanna do when you get to this page is come to the change resolution option on the left hand side underneath display and from here We're gonna be selecting the monitor we would like to use or in this case overclock so the monitor I want to overclock it in this case is my AOC monitor and underneath here You can see we have a couple different resolution options now our goal here is to make another resolution option a customized one That's gonna allow us to experiment with different Hertz and different frame rates to see what actually works for our monitor without giving issues flickers tearing and whatnot so how we're going to be doing. This is by coming down to the bottom we're gonna be clicking on the customize tab down here from here what you want to do is check this box on the bottom to enable resolutions not exposed by this display and then we're gonna be creating a new custom resolution so you want to do is enter the height and width pixels of your actual monitor so in my case mine is a 2560 by 1440 and then your default refresh rate should stay in your monitor when you first open this up So in my case my default refresh rate for my monitor is 60 but in this case were gonna be Overclocking the monitor to see what we can get out of it without going too crazy on the monitor So it doesn't get any weird effects flickers or like screen shaking So what I'd recommend doing is whatever your base hertz rate is Increase it by 10 so in this case that would be 70 I would leave the scan type unprogressive I would leave the standard on automatic You don't really need to touch anything else Leave everything else as default all you want to do is increase your hertz by 10 and come down here to the bottom and click test so if you put your hurts to 70 click test and your screen doesn't freak out doesn't go black and doesn't start shaking and tearing I'd recommend adding 5 to that so in that case if your screen goes fine at 70 Hertz Put it to 75 and then test it again So your goal with this step is to get as high as you can in the Hertz rate without your monitor freaking out So you want to continually increase your hertz keep testing until your monitor starts freaking out it starts tearing Or whatever issues come up on your monitor it really depends on the monitor and the luckiness as if your panel so can vary from monitor to monitor Even the exact same model of monitor might get a different one say if you and your friend both Have a monitor you might end up getting 75 where as your friend might only get 66 It's just kind of a luck of the draw So in this case if you get to 75 and you start to see blackness you start to see screen tearing and stuff I'd recommend Taking it down by one and you want to keep repeating the process until you get to the highest refresh rate you can Without any issues on your screen so sadly for me I could only manage about 63hz on my actual panel I was hoping to get around 70 But you can't always win them all But in this case it really depends on your panel and a little bit of luck so all you need to do is keep trying and testing until you get your actual desired result in this case I'm gonna be closing mine down as I already have mine made But once you have a custom resolution made it should show up in this box What I want to do is check to enable this and then click OK From here we're gonna be coming down to our resolution tab down here And we're gonna be scrolling up to the very top and looking for our custom tab want you wanna do is check this custom tab And then you'll notice your refresh on the right-hand side will update as you can see it shows 60 tree Hertz from here all you want to do is come down to the bottom right click apply, and then your monitor will refresh And it will update to your actual desired frame rate it'll say your desktop is being configured. Would you like to keep these changes? You'll click yes, and then your monitor would be refreshed that current refresh rate so right now I'm running my monitor and 63hz because that's the most stable I could get out of it Now I should mention increasing the refresh rate of your monitor can deteriorate the life of it not by much, but it can make it last a little bit less longer in the long run But it's like I said can depend on your monitor, but it really does not make that much issue long term It's maybe takes a fraction of your life off your monitor, but it's just something to keep in mind But it's really gonna do not that much harm but anyway guys It's as easy as that to have to overclock your monitor Let me know her fresh rate you got down in the comments down below Let me know if you got more than 63 Hertz I read someone online that someone got 66 with this monitor So it's pretty sad to see I got exactly three less than that but whatever you win some you lose some anyway guys if you enjoyed this tutorial be sure to drop a like, subscribe if you're new, check out the other videos on the channel if you want to donate to me and support the channel I'm gonna leave a link down in the description below to my paypal of course there's no pressure if you can't anyway guys Thank you so much for watching until next time as always Keep it saucy peace


Cathode ray tubes

Electron beam in the process of scanning an image
Electron beam in the process of scanning an image

In a CRT, the scan rate is controlled by the vertical blanking signal generated by the video controller, ordering the monitor to position the beam at the upper left corner of the raster, ready to paint another frame. It is limited by the monitor's maximum horizontal scan rate and the resolution, since higher resolution means more scan lines.

The refresh rate can be calculated from the horizontal scan rate by dividing the scanning frequency by the number of horizontal lines multiplied by 1.05 (since about 5% of the time it takes to scan the screen is spent moving the electron beam back to the top[citation needed]). For instance, a monitor with a horizontal scanning frequency of 96 kHz at a resolution of 1280 × 1024 results in a refresh rate of 96,000 ÷ (1024 × 1.05) ≈ 89 Hz (rounded down).

CRT refresh rates have historically been an important factor in electronic game programming. Traditionally, one of the principles of video/computer game programming is to avoid altering the computer's video buffer except during the vertical retrace. This is necessary to prevent flickering graphics (caused by altering the picture in mid-frame) or screen tearing (caused by altering the graphics faster than the electron beam can render the picture). Some video game consoles such as the Famicom/Nintendo Entertainment System did not allow any graphics changes except during the retrace (the period when the electron guns shut off and return to the upper left corner of the screen[citation needed]).

Liquid-crystal displays

Contrary to popular belief, liquid-crystal displays (LCDs) do suffer from flickering problems. It is still necessary to avoid modifying graphics data except during the retrace phase to prevent tearing from an image that is rendered faster than the display operates (LCDs normally refresh at 60 Hz).

Refresh rate or the temporal resolution of an LCD is the number of times per second in which the display draws the data it is being given. Since activated LCD pixels do not flash on/off between frames, LCD monitors exhibit no refresh-induced flicker, no matter how low the refresh rate. However, high refresh rates may result in visual artifacts that distort the image in unpleasant ways. High-end LCD televisions now feature up to 600 Hz[citation needed] refresh rate, which requires advanced digital processing to insert additional interpolated frames between the real images to smooth the image motion. Such high refresh rates may not be supported by pixel response times, resulting in distorted images.

For a refresh rate of 600 Hz to be displayed correctly, an LCD would require a response time of approximately 1.667 (​53) milliseconds GtG (grey-to-grey). In addition to the technical aspects of achieving such a high refresh rate, there are limits to the capability of the human eye. However, improving the response time of LCD pixels would improve the image quality for refresh rates that are on the fringe of what the human eye is capable of processing.

Computer displays

On smaller CRT monitors (up to about 15 in or 38 cm), few people notice any discomfort between 60–72 Hz. On larger CRT monitors (17 in or 43 cm or larger), most people experience mild discomfort unless the refresh is set to 72 Hz or higher. A rate of 100 Hz is comfortable at almost any size. However, this does not apply to LCD monitors. The closest equivalent to a refresh rate on an LCD monitor is its frame rate, which is often locked at 60 fps. But this is rarely a problem, because the only part of an LCD monitor that could produce CRT-like flicker—its backlight — typically operates at around a minimum of 200 Hz.

Different operating systems set the default refresh rate differently. Microsoft Windows 95 and Windows 98 (First and Second Editions) set the refresh rate to the highest rate that they believe the display supports. Windows NT-based operating systems, such as Windows 2000 and its descendants Windows XP, Windows Vista and Windows 7, set the default refresh rate to a conservative rate, usually 60 Hz. The many variations of Linux usually set a refresh rate chosen by the user during setup of the display manager (although a default option is usually included with xfree86). Some fullscreen applications, including many games, now allow the user to reconfigure the refresh rate before entering fullscreen mode, but most default to a conservative resolution and refresh rate and let you increase the settings in the options.[citation needed]

Old monitors could be damaged if a user set the video card to a refresh rate higher than the highest rate supported by the monitor. Some models of monitors display a notice that the video signal uses an unsupported refresh rate.

Dynamic refresh rate

Some LCDs support adapting their refresh rate to the current frame rate delivered by the graphics card. Two technologies that allow this are FreeSync and G-Sync.

Stereo displays

When LCD shutter glasses are used for stereo 3D displays, the effective refresh rate is halved, because each eye needs a separate picture. For this reason, it is usually recommended to use a display capable of at least 120 Hz, because divided in half this rate is again 60 Hz. Higher refresh rates result in greater image stability, for example 72 Hz non-stereo is 144 Hz stereo, and 90 Hz non-stereo is 180 Hz stereo. Most computer graphics cards and monitors cannot handle these high refresh rates, especially at higher resolutions.

For LCD monitors the pixel brightness changes are much slower than CRT or plasma phosphors. Typically LCD pixel brightness changes are faster when voltage is applied than when voltage is removed, resulting in an asymmetric pixel response time. With 3D shutter glasses this can result in a blurry smearing of the display and poor depth perception, due to the previous image frame not fading to black fast enough as the next frame is drawn.[citation needed]


The development of televisions in the 1930s was determined by a number of technical limitations. The AC power line frequency was used for the vertical refresh rate for two reasons. The first reason was that the television's vacuum tube was susceptible to interference from the unit's power supply, including residual ripple. This could cause drifting horizontal bars (hum bars). Using the same frequency reduced this, and made interference static on the screen and therefore less obtrusive. The second reason was that television studios would use AC lamps, filming at a different frequency would cause strobing.[2][3][4] Thus producers had little choice but to run sets at 60 Hz in America, and 50 Hz in Europe. These rates formed the basis for the sets used today: 60 Hz System M (almost always used with NTSC color coding) and 50 Hz System B/G (almost always used with PAL or SECAM color coding). This accident of chance gave European sets higher resolution, in exchange for lower frame-rates. Compare System M (704 × 480 at 30i) and System B/G (704 × 576 at 25i). However, the lower refresh rate of 50 Hz introduces more flicker, so sets that use digital technology to double the refresh rate to 100 Hz are now very popular. (see Broadcast television systems)

Another difference between 50 Hz and 60 Hz standards is the way motion pictures (film sources as opposed to video camera sources) are transferred or presented. 35 mm film is typically shot at 24 frames per second (fps). For PAL 50 Hz this allows film sources to be easily transferred by accelerating the film by 4%. The resulting picture is therefore smooth, however, there is a small shift in the pitch of the audio. NTSC sets display both 24 fps and 25 fps material without any speed shifting by using a technique called 3:2 pulldown, but at the expense of introducing unsmooth playback in the form of telecine judder.

Similar to some computer monitors and some DVDs, analog television systems use interlace, which decreases the apparent flicker by painting first the odd lines and then the even lines (these are known as fields). This doubles the refresh rate, compared to a progressive scan image at the same frame rate. This works perfectly for video cameras, where each field results from a separate exposure - the effective frame rate doubles, there are now 50 rather than 25 exposures per second. The dynamics of a CRT are ideally suited to this approach, fast scenes will benefit from the 50 Hz refresh, the earlier field will have largely decayed away when the new field is written, and static images will benefit from improved resolution as both fields will be integrated by the eye. Modern CRT-based televisions may be made flicker-free in the form of 100 Hz technology.

Many high-end LCD televisions now have a 120 or 240 Hz (current and former NTSC countries) or 100 or 200 Hz (PAL/SECAM countries) refresh rate. The rate of 120 was chosen as the least common multiple of 24 fps (cinema) and 30 fps (NTSC TV), and allows for less distortion when movies are viewed due to the elimination of telecine (3:2 pulldown). For PAL at 25 fps, 100 or 200 Hz is used as a fractional compromise of the least common multiple of 600 (24 × 25). These higher refresh rates are most effective from a 24p-source video output (e.g. Blu-ray Disc), and/or scenes of fast motion.[5]

Displaying movie content on a TV

As movies are usually filmed at a rate of 24 frames per second, while television sets operate at different rates, some conversion is necessary. Different techniques exist to give the viewer an optimal experience.

The combination of content production, playback device, and display device processing may also give artifacts that are unnecessary. A display device producing a fixed 60 fps rate cannot display a 24 fps movie at an even, judder-free rate. Usually, a 3:2 pulldown is used, giving a slight uneven movement.

While common multisync CRT computer monitors have been capable of running at even multiples of 24 Hz since the early 1990s, recent "120 Hz" LCDs have been produced for the purpose of having smoother, more fluid motion, depending upon the source material, and any subsequent processing done to the signal. In the case of material shot on video, improvements in smoothness just from having a higher refresh rate may be barely noticeable.[6]

In the case of filmed material, as 120 is an even multiple of 24, it is possible to present a 24 fps sequence without judder on a well-designed 120 Hz display (i.e., so-called 5-5 pulldown). If the 120 Hz rate is produced by frame-doubling a 60 fps 3:2 pulldown signal, the uneven motion could still be visible (i.e., so-called 6-4 pulldown).

Additionally, material may be displayed with synthetically created smoothness with the addition of motion interpolation abilities to the display, which has an even larger effect on filmed material.

"50 Hz" TV sets (when fed with "50 Hz" content) usually get a movie that is slightly faster than normal, avoiding any problems with uneven pulldown.

See also


  1. ^ How To Change the Screen Refresh Rate of Your Monitor in Windows XP
  2. ^ Dorf, Richard C. "The Electrical Engineering Handbook,Second Edition". p. 1538. Retrieved 25 June 2015.
  3. ^ Emmerson, Andrew. "Lines, frames and frequencies". Retrieved 25 June 2015.
  4. ^ "Television broadcasting - video standards". Retrieved 25 June 2015.
  5. ^ What is refresh rate?
  6. ^ Six things you need to know about 120Hz LCD TVs

This article is based on material taken from the Free On-line Dictionary of Computing prior to 1 November 2008 and incorporated under the "relicensing" terms of the GFDL, version 1.3 or later.

This page was last edited on 1 September 2018, at 14:45
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.