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Reconciliation Movement in 1990

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Reconciliation Movement in 1990
Lëvizja për pajtimin e gjaqeve
LocationVerrat e Lukes, Lumbardh, Deçan, Kosovo
Also known asVerrat e Lukes, Pajtimi gjaqeve,
CauseBlood Feud
Organised byStudents

Reconciliation Movement in 1990 a.k.a. (Verrat e Lukes, allegiance, To you I forgave thee blood, Kosovo), was an Albanian all-national movement for blood pardon in Albania and Kosovo. It was organized in 1990 by students, professors and workers' unions in Kosovo. It is part of similar movements throughout Albanian regions since the 1960s.


Gjakmarrja (literally "blood-taking", i.e. "blood feud") or Hakmarrja ("revenge") refers to the social obligation to commit murder in order to salvage honour questioned by an earlier murder or moral humiliation. This practice is generally seen as in line with the Albanian social code known as Kanuni i Lekë Dukagjinit, or simply the Kanun (English: The Code of Lekë Dukagjini).[2]

After 80', many Albanians were locked in their home because of the feud, this was followed by more murders, where even today there is such killings especially in Albania and North Macedonia. In Kosovo, where many families had sold many organizations were established for reconciliation for the reason that: "should stop the killings, because Serbia is killing us". [3]

In the course of the reconciliation campaign that ended blood feuds among Kosovo Albanians, the largest restorative justice conference took place at Verrat e Llukës on 1 May 1990, which was attended by between 100,000 and 500,000 participants.[4] The reconciliation campaign was led by Anton Çetta. Over a period of three years (1990-1992) approximately one third of the entire population of Kosovo were documented to be actively involved in restorative justice conferences to end the blood feuds.[4] By 1992 the reconciliation campaign ended at least 1,200 deadly blood feuds, and in 1993 not a single homicide occurred in Kosovo.[4]


  1. ^ "Pajtimi i gjaqeve, ngjarje historike e lavdisë - Dosier - Zeri".
  2. ^ "The Kanun of Leke Dukagjini, "blood washed with blood"" (PDF).
  3. ^ "Lëvizja Shqiptare për Faljen e Gjaqeve në Kosovë 1990 – 1992 në 25 vjetorin e Themelimit".
  4. ^ a b c Marsavelski, Aleksandar; Sheremeti, Furtuna; Braithwaite, John (2018). "Did Nonviolent Resistance Fail in Kosovo?". The British Journal of Criminology. 58: 218–236. doi:10.1093/bjc/azx002.
This page was last edited on 7 September 2020, at 13:38
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