To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
Show all languages
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.

Raymond S. Springer

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Raymond Smiley Springer
Black-and-White image of Raymond Springer wearing a suit.
Born(1882-04-26)April 26, 1882
DiedAugust 28, 1947(1947-08-28) (aged 65)
Alma materIndiana Law School
US Representative from Indiana
Military career
Unit84th Division
Battles/warsWorld War I

Raymond Smiley Springer (April 26, 1882 – August 28, 1947) was a U.S. Representative from Indiana.

Born on a farm in Rush County, near Dunreith, Indiana, Springer attended the public schools, Earlham College, Richmond, Indiana, and Butler University, Indianapolis, Indiana. He was graduated from the Indiana Law School at Indianapolis in 1904. He was admitted to the bar in 1904 and commenced practice in Connersville, Indiana. County attorney of Fayette County, Indiana from 1908 to 1914. He served as judge of the thirty-seventh judicial circuit of Indiana 1916-1922. During the First World War served as a captain of Infantry, Eighty-fourth Division, in 1918. He served as lieutenant colonel of the Officers' Reserve Corps 1918-1946. He was an unsuccessful candidate for Governor of Indiana in 1932 and 1936.

Springer was elected as a Republican to the Seventy-sixth and to the four succeeding Congresses and served from January 3, 1939, until his death in Connersville, Indiana, August 28, 1947. He was interred in Dale Cemetery.

YouTube Encyclopedic

  • 1/2
    1 180
    3 105
  • ✪ Citizen science - in researching biodiversity
  • ✪ Nancy Kulp - Early life


Our world is changing rapidly and one of the new and challenging things is knowledge co-creation in the form of citizen science. So, what is it? It's an approach that's been researched only recently in detail. We usually think it's about ordinary people helping scientists gather data, but it can be much more than this. Its goal is to generate new and legitimate knowledge, and to devise new approaches and methods while empowering citizens. So how can it be used in researching biodiversity? Citizens' involvement in science happens on different levels. At crowdsourcing, citizens act as simple sensors. Higher up, they become distributed intelligence, now interpreting data as well. In participatory science, they also assist in defining the problem. And finally, in extreme citizen science, they collaborate in all the steps of research. There are many advantages to this approach, and professional scientists can learn a great deal. They can improve their knowledge and comprehension by analyzing the large data sets and the unique qualitative data collected by citizens. They can also arrive at new insights into how to mix different methods in resolving conflicts, or understanding perspectives that don't understand theirs. They may learn that citizens are holders of specific, useful knowledge, and this may open up other venues for investigation. And inevitably, scientists will improve their skills for collaboration and participation. All this may result in the better visibility and acceptability of science in the policy field. It can change research into a transparent, open, and socially inspiring endeavor. However, let's see the big picture. Citizen science benefits citizens as well. They can increase their ecological literacy, hone their observation skills, or learn to use instruments. They are also likely to understand the nature of scientific work. But it doesn't stop here: it may also influence society as a whole by contributing to its transformative learning. What is transformative learning? It's a deep, structural shift in awareness that changes how we view our interconnectedness among the natural environment and the human community. However, the precise nature of this is still unexplored. We need to understand it in an interdisciplinary way or the greatest promises of citizen science will stay unlocked; we may never see that it can foster a general democratization of knowledge and learning, thus contributing to better science-society-policy interactions, potentially advancing a wider well-being for all mankind.

See also


  • United States Congress. "Raymond S. Springer (id: S000755)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.

External links

U.S. House of Representatives
Preceded by
Finly H. Gray
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Indiana's 10th congressional district

1939 – 1947
Succeeded by
Ralph Harvey
This page was last edited on 21 May 2019, at 07:42
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.