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Rape of Belgium

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The ruins of the library of the Catholic University of Leuven after it was burned in 1914
The ruins of the library of the Catholic University of Leuven after it was burned in 1914
The destroyed city of Leuven in 1915
The destroyed city of Leuven in 1915

The Rape of Belgium was the German mistreatment of civilians during the invasion and subsequent occupation of Belgium during World War I.

The neutrality of Belgium had been guaranteed by the Treaty of London (1839), which had been signed by Prussia. However, the German Schlieffen Plan required that German armed forces pass through Belgium (thus violating Belgium’s neutrality) in order to outflank the French Army, concentrated in eastern France. The German Chancellor Theobald von Bethmann Hollweg dismissed the treaty of 1839 as a "scrap of paper".[1] Throughout the beginning of the war, the German army engaged in numerous atrocities against the civilian population of Belgium, including the destruction of civilian property; 6,000 Belgians were killed, and 17,700 died during expulsion, deportation, imprisonment, or death sentence by court.[2] Another 3,000 Belgian civilians died due to electric fences the German Army put up to prevent civilians from fleeing the country, and 120,000 became forced laborers, with half of that number deported to Germany.[3] 25,000 homes and other buildings in 837 communities were destroyed in 1914 alone, and 1.5 million Belgians (20% of the entire population) fled from the invading German army.[4]:13

YouTube Encyclopedic

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  • ✪ The Rape of Belgium And The Battle of Tannenberg I THE GREAT WAR - Week 5
  • ✪ Why Weren't The Germans Allowed to Pass Through Belgium in 1914? I Out Of The Trenches
  • ✪ World War I: Schlieffen Plan 1/4
  • ✪ Marc Dutroux - the beast from Belgium (Crime / serial killer documentary)
  • ✪ The Rape of Belgium


August 28th 1914. Throughout August, 1914, as the war progressed in Belgium, France, and Serbia, the Austrian and German high command either sanctioned or ignored the widespread execution and rape of civilians and the sacking and burning of occupied towns. A shocked and revolted world looked on. My name is Indy Neidell. Welcome to the Great War. Here’s where we stood on the battlefields of Europe at the beginning of the week: In the west, there were three German armies- 750,000 men. The left flank was in Lorraine, and the rest were marching through Belgium at 30 km per day, an amazing speed, and pretty much slaughtering the French armies they encountered, and the British Expeditionary Force under John French was approaching from the west. Okay? In the East, the Germans were on the retreat out of East Prussia and the Russians were advancing. Now, in the west, after all the victories of the past few weeks, things were looking good for the Germans but their reputation was doing anything but that, and the atrocities the German troops committed against civilians in the west grew and grew. In Dinant, German soldiers repairing a bridge were fired on by a few Belgian civilians, and as a reprisal over 600 Belgian men, women, and children were shot. On August 20th, it happened in Andenne. There was even a printed announcement from German General von Bulow, posted in Liege that read the following “The population on Andenne, after manifesting peaceful intentions towards our troops, attacked them in the most treacherous manner. With my authorization the general who commanded these troops has reduced the town to ashes and shot 110 persons.” In Tamines, 384 men were rounded up near the church and shot. In Rossignol 122 people were executed for supposedly supporting the French army, who had just themselves been crushed there in battle. There were dozens more such incidents, known collectively as “the Rape of Belgium”, but in Leuven, though, it was completely out of control. The Germans had occupied Leuven on August 19th, right? On the 25th, the Belgian army, coming from Antwerp, harassed the Germans, but once this was over, the German command decided the people of Leuven were to blame, so for the next five days the German troops executed hundreds of citizens of both sexes, including many clergy, and burned the city and many of its famous medieval buildings. In the international press there were horrible eyewitness accounts and even a headline in the New York Tribune “Germans sack Louvain, women and clergy shot.”10,000 civilians were driven from the city. In total over 6,000 civilians are known to have been killed in cold blood in Belgium and France by Germans in the first weeks of the war. Now, I have to point out that some people today believe that the charges of war crimes against Germany in occupied Belgium and France are greatly exaggerated or even fabricated, but this is completely at odds with contemporary evidence. And it’s important to note that these crimes were not only tolerated by military command, but in many cases even sanctioned by them. Even some of the German newspapers, instead of denying or downplaying what happened, tried to explain and justify civilian executions and town burnings. The results of this were as you’d expect- French and Belgian hearts hardened against the Germans and anti-German sentiment grew all over the world. The stories of German atrocities were particularly abundant in the British papers, where propagandists wanted to move away from the killing of an aristocrat in a far away country to atrocities closer at hand in Belgium as a moral impera tive for fighting the war. This would motivate the British troops enormously when, on August 23, the Germans ran into the British for the first time in the war at the Battle of Mons. Now, the German high command had been mocking the British army for weeks and joking that they should just send the police to arrest them, but the British regulars, the only fully professional army in Europe before the war, held off the numerically superior Germans for many hours, inflicting three times the losses they took themselves. German howitzers arrived in the afternoon, though, with which the British artillery could not compete, and the British began to retreat, parallel to the French retreat as the Germans quickly pushed through Belgium and slaughtered the unprepared French army. There was heavy fighting for the British along the retreat over the next few days, especially when they turned and held their ground on August 26th at Le Cateau, long enough for thousands of men to withdraw in good order, A British General, Sir Horace Smith-Dorrien, had decided to stop and fight as the Germans were so close and the rearguard divisions were becoming so scattered that a catastrophic battle was otherwise inevitable. Smith-Dorrien was a general who had seen a lot of action, for over 30 years all over the world with the British Colonial Army, and he knew what he was doing. Although the action that day would prove deadlier for the British army than the D-Day invasion 30 years later, Smith-Dorrien would give his army a 12 hour start on the Germans, but the troops were exhausted, and there was now even talk in the air that the war would indeed be over by Christmas, but with Germany the victor. Although on the Eastern front, things to that point hadn’t been going well at all for the Germans, especially after their recent defeat at Gumbinnen, which caused the German retreat. After this, German army chief of staff von Moltke dismissed his paranoid General von Prittwitz and brought General von Hindenburg out of retirement to replace him. Hindenburg had retired in 1911, but unlike many of the European generals so far this war, Hindenburg had seen action going as far back as the 1860s. Now, on the surface, things looked good for the Russians, but they had colossal logistical and communications problems. They didn’t even encode their telegrams so all wire communications could be monitored by anyone, and one tiny event occurred that had huge later repercussions: After the battle of Gumbinnen, a note was found on a dead Russian officer that outlined most of the Russian plans for their offensive. Armed with this knowledge, Hindenburg and his second in command Ludendorff broke off the German retreat and decided to go on the attack. It’s the little things, you know? On August 24th, the Russians collided with the Germans and the Russian center made great progress, but it was a complete illusion. On the 26th, the German western flank cut through the Russian left and cut off communications, and on the 27th the German Eastern flank did the same to the Russian right flank. The Russian army was trapped in the middle, running out of basically everything, and on August 28th they began surrendering in droves, nearly 100,000 men with 50,000 more killed or wounded over the course of several days. This was the most spectacular defeat of the war and made Hindenburg a German national hero, even if much of the credit rightly belonged to the ironically named German General Francois. There was a village nearby named Tannenberg, where in a medieval battle the Slavs had defeated the Teutonic Knights[ad], and this village gave its name to the battle, which would become a big symbol of German pride. This was a big moment, because it put East Prussia now totally under German control. But further south, Germany’s ally Austria-Hungary was having huge difficulties with control, which the Austrian army used as an excuse for wartime atrocities of their own. The Austro-Hungarian Empire had launched this war in the first place to teach Serbia a lesson or even end her existence, and there was no love lost between the two, so when Austria-Hungary invaded it provoked widespread Serbian civilian resistance to the invading army- guerilla warfare- and this really upset the Austrians, particularly their stuck-in-the-past aristocratic military leaders, who wanted the war conducted on their terms, and they decreed that they would deal with civilian resistance ruthlessly. And they did, shooting, hanging, and bayonetting Serbian civilians, most of whom were innocent- men, women, and even children. But the Serbian guerillas were good at creating chaos in the Austrian lines, often waiting for them to pass before sniping them with rifles from behind. This was effective but it had its cost- an estimated 3,500 Serbian civilians were executed during just the first two weeks of the August campaign. And we have a lot of evidence of this because executing Serbian civilians was not something the Austrians tried to hide. In fact, Austrian army chief of staff Conrad von Hotzendorf wanted people to see these punishments, so many of the executions of civilians were photographed and the photos were published. Mass executions and mass graves. And here we are at the end of the week, with Germany ascendant in both the east and the west, and a terrified citizenry- including over a million Belgians- fleeing from the invaders. Many formerly anti-war people decided this week that the war was, after all, justified, and that Germany must be stopped at all costs to preserve civilization in Europe, and we see years later that the massacres of civilians by the Germans in August 1914 were a direct factor in the harsh conditions imposed on Germany after the war which indirectly, or maybe even directly led to Nazism and the Second World War. That’s all for this week. Click subscribe to get each and every episode. If you want more Background Information on our programm or more history info about WORLD WAR 1 than follow us on Facebook or Twitter. And share us on those plattform if you like.


War crimes

Depiction of the execution of civilians in Blégny by Évariste Carpentier
Depiction of the execution of civilians in Blégny by Évariste Carpentier

In some places, particularly Liège, Andenne and Leuven, but firstly Dinant, there is evidence that the violence against civilians was premeditated.[4]:573–4 However, in Dinant, the German army believed the inhabitants were as dangerous as the French soldiers themselves.[5][6] German troops, afraid of Belgian guerrilla fighters, or francs-tireurs (literally: "free shooters"), burned homes and executed civilians throughout eastern and central Belgium, including Aarschot (156 dead), Andenne (211 dead), Seilles [fr], Tamines (383 dead), and Dinant (674 dead).[7] The victims included men, women, and children.[8] In the Province of Brabant, nuns were ordered to strip under the pretext that they were spies or men in disguise. However, there is no evidence that nuns were violated.[4]:164 In and around Aarschot, between August 19 and the recapture of the town by September 9, women were repeatedly victimised. Rape was nearly as ubiquitous as murder, arson and looting, if never as visible.[4]:164–165

On August 25, 1914, the German army ravaged the city of Leuven, deliberately burning the university's library of 300,000 medieval books and manuscripts with gasoline, killing 248 residents,[9] and expelling the entire population of 10,000. However, contrary to what many believe and write, it was not the books of the Old University of Leuven which disappeared in smoke; indeed, in 1797, the manuscripts and most valuable works of this university were transported[10] to the National Library in Paris and much of the old library was transferred to the Central School of Brussels [fr], the official and legal successor of the Old University of Leuven. The library of the Central School of Brussels had about 80,000 volumes, which then came to enrich the library of Brussels, and then the future Royal Library of Belgium where they are still. Civilian homes were set on fire and citizens often shot where they stood.[11] Over 2000 buildings were destroyed and large quantities of strategic materials, foodstuffs, and modern industrial equipment were looted and transferred to Germany in 1914 alone. These actions brought worldwide condemnation.[12] (There were also several friendly fire incidents between groups of German soldiers during the confusion.)[6]

Overall, the Germans were responsible for the deaths of 23,700 Belgian civilians, (6,000 Belgians killed, 17,700 died during expulsion, deportation, in prison or sentenced to death by court) and caused further non-fatalities of 10,400 permanent and 22,700 temporary invalids, with 18,296 children becoming war orphans. Military losses were 26,338 killed, died from injuries or accidents, 14,029 died from disease, or went missing.[2]

Industrial dismantlement

An industrial bakery near the Ypres Salient used to feed the German Army
An industrial bakery near the Ypres Salient used to feed the German Army

As raw material usually imported from abroad dried up, more firms laid off workers.[13] Unemployment became a major problem and increased reliance on charity distributed by civil institutions and organisations. As many as 650,000 people were unemployed between 1915 and 1918.[14][15]

The German authorities used the unemployment crisis to loot industrial machinery from Belgian factories, which was either sent to Germany intact or melted down. The German policies enacted by the Imperial German General Government of Belgium would later create major problems for Belgian economic recovery after the end of the war, the Germans destroyed the Belgian economy so thoroughly by dismantling industries and transporting the equipment and machinery to Germany that it never regained its pre-war level.[16]

Wartime propaganda

The slogan "The Rape of Belgium" was used in the United States as a propaganda device to build popular support for American intervention in the European war.
The slogan "The Rape of Belgium" was used in the United States as a propaganda device to build popular support for American intervention in the European war.

Agreeing with the analysis of historian Susan Kingsley Kent, historian Nicoletta Gullace writes that "the invasion of Belgium, with its very real suffering, was nevertheless represented in a highly stylized way that dwelt on perverse sexual acts, lurid mutilations, and graphic accounts of child abuse of often dubious veracity."[17]:19 In Britain, many patriotic publicists propagated these stories on their own. For example, popular writer William Le Queux described the German army as "one vast gang of Jack-the-Rippers", and described in graphic detail events such as a governess hanged naked and mutilated, the bayoneting of a small baby, or the "screams of dying women", raped and "horribly mutilated" by German soldiers, accusing them of cutting off the hands, feet, or breasts of their victims.[17]:18–19

Gullace argues that "British propagandists were eager to move as quickly as possible from an explanation of the war that focused on the murder of an Austrian archduke and his wife by Serbian nationalists to the morally unambiguous question of the invasion of neutral Belgium". In support of her thesis, she quotes from two letters of Lord Bryce. In the first letter Bryce writes "There must be something fatally wrong with our so-called civilization for this Ser[b]ian cause so frightful a calamity has descended on all Europe". In a subsequent letter Bryce writes "The one thing we have to comfort us in this war is that we are all absolutely convinced of the justice of the cause, and of our duty, once Belgium had been invaded, to take up the sword".[17]:20

Although the infamous German phrase "scrap of paper" (referring to the 1839 Treaty of London) galvanized a large segment of British intellectuals in support of the war,[17]:21–22 in more proletarian circles this imagery had less impact. For example, Labour politician Ramsay MacDonald upon hearing about it, declared that "Never did we arm our people and ask them to give up their lives for a less good cause than this". British army recruiters reported problems in explaining the origins of the war in legalistic terms.[17]:23

As the German advance in Belgium progressed, British newspapers started to publish stories on German atrocities. The British press, "quality" and tabloid alike, showed less interest in the "endless inventory of stolen property and requisitioned goods" that constituted the bulk of the official Belgian Reports. Instead, accounts of rape and bizarre mutilations flooded the British press. The intellectual discourse on the "scrap of paper" was then mixed with the more graphic imagery depicting Belgium as a brutalized woman, exemplified by the cartoons of Louis Raemaekers,[17]:24 whose works were widely syndicated in the US.[18]

Part of the press, such as the editor of The Times and Edward Tyas Cook, expressed concerns that haphazard stories, a few of which were proven as outright fabrications, would weaken the powerful imagery, and asked for a more structured approach. The German and American press questioned the veracity of many stories, and the fact that the British Press Bureau did not censor the stories put the British government in a delicate position. The Bryce Committee was eventually appointed in December 1914 to investigate.[17]:26–28 Bryce was considered highly suitable to lead the effort because of his prewar pro-German attitudes and his good reputation in the United States, where he had served as Britain's ambassador, as well as his legal expertise.[17]:30

World War I, US propaganda poster[19]
World War I, US propaganda poster[19]

The commission's investigative efforts were, however, limited to previously recorded testimonies. Gullace argues that "the commission was in essence called upon to conduct a mock inquiry that would substitute the good name of Lord Bryce for the thousands of missing names of the anonymous victims whose stories appeared in the pages of the report". The commission published its report in May 1915. Charles Masterman, the director of the British War Propaganda Bureau, wrote to Bryce: "Your report has swept America. As you probably know even the most skeptical declare themselves converted, just because it is signed by you!"[17]:30 Translated in ten languages by June, the report was the basis for much subsequent wartime propaganda and was used as a sourcebook for many other publications, ensuring that the atrocities became a leitmotif of the war's propaganda up to the final "Hang the Kaiser" campaign.[17]:31–23

For example, in 1917 Arnold J. Toynbee published The German Terror in Belgium, which emphasized the most graphic accounts of "authentic" German sexual depravity, such as: "In the market-place of Gembloux a Belgian despatch-rider saw the body of a woman pinned to the door of a house by a sword driven through her chest. The body was naked and the breasts had been cut off."[20]

Much of the wartime publishing in Britain was in fact aimed at attracting American support.[21] A 1929 article in The Nation asserted: "In 1916 the Allies were putting forth every possible atrocity story to win neutral sympathy and American support. We were fed every day [...] stories of Belgian children whose hands were cut off, the Canadian soldier who was crucified to a barn door, the nurses whose breasts were cut off, the German habit of distilling glycerine and fat from their dead in order to obtain lubricants; and all the rest."[21]

The fourth Liberty bond drive of 1918 employed a "Remember Belgium" poster depicting the silhouette of a young Belgian girl being dragged by a German soldier on the background of a burning village; historian Kimberly Jensen interprets this imagery as "They are alone in the night, and rape seems imminent. The poster demonstrates that leaders drew on the American public's knowledge of and assumptions about the use of rape in the German invasion of Belgium."[22]

In his book Roosevelt and Hitler, Robert E. Herzstein stated that "The Germans could not seem to find a way to counteract powerful British propaganda about the 'Rape of Belgium' and other alleged atrocities".[23] About the legacy of the propaganda, Gullace commented that "one of the tragedies of the British effort to manufacture truth is the way authentic suffering was rendered suspect by fabricated tales".[17]:32


Later analysis

A relic of the Great War in Bonnington, Edinburgh. It depicts women being assaulted by soldiers
A relic of the Great War in Bonnington, Edinburgh. It depicts women being assaulted by soldiers

In the 1920s, the war crimes of August 1914 were often dismissed as British propaganda. In recent years numerous scholars have examined the original documents and concluded that large-scale atrocities did occur, while acknowledging that other stories were fabrications.[24][4]:162[25] There is a debate between those who believe the German army acted primarily out of paranoia, in retaliation for real or believed incidents involving resistance actions by Belgian civilians, and those (including Lipkes) who emphasize additional causes, suggesting an association with German actions in the Nazi era.

According to Larry Zuckerman, the German occupation far exceeded the constraints international law imposed on an occupying power. A heavy-handed German military administration sought to regulate every detail of daily life, both on a personal level with travel restraints and collective punishment, and on the economic level by harnessing the Belgian industry to German advantage and by levying repeated massive indemnities on the Belgian provinces.[26] Before the war Belgium produced 4.4 percent of world commerce,[26]:44 but the Germans destroyed the Belgian economy so thoroughly, by dismantling industries and transporting the equipment and machinery to Germany, that it never regained its pre-war level. More than 100,000 Belgian workers were forcibly deported to Germany to work in the war economy, and to Northern France to build roads and other military infrastructure for the German army.[26]

Historical studies

Recent in-depth historical studies of German acts in Belgium include:

  • The Rape of Belgium: The Untold Story of World War I by Larry Zuckerman
  • Rehearsals: The German Army in Belgium, August 1914 by Jeff Lipkes
  • German Atrocities 1914: A History of Denial by John Horne and Alan Kramer.[27]

Horne and Kramer describe some of the motivations for German tactics, chiefly (but not only), the collective fear of a "People's War":

The source of the collective fantasy of the People's War and of the harsh reprisals with which the German army (up to its highest level) responded are to be found in the memory of the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–1, when the German armies faced irregular Republican soldiers (or francs-tireurs), and in the way in which the spectre of civilian involvement in warfare conjured up the worst fears of democratic and revolutionary disorder for a conservative officer corps.[28]

The same authors identify a number of contributory factors:

  • inexperience leading to lack of discipline amongst German soldiers
  • drunkenness
  • 'friendly fire' incidents arising from panic
  • frequent collisions with Belgian and French rearguards leading to confusion
  • rage at the stubborn and at first successful defence of Liège during the Battle of Liège
  • rage at Belgian resistance at all, not seen as a people entitled to defend themselves
  • prevailing almost hatred of the Roman Catholic clergy in Belgium and France
  • ambiguous or inadequate German field service regulations regarding civilians
  • failure of German logistics later leading to uncontrolled looting[29]


At a commemoration ceremony on 6 May 2001 in the Belgian town of Dinant, attended by Belgium’s defense minister Andre Flahaut, World War II veterans, and the ambassadors of Germany, France and Britain, state secretary of the German Ministry of Defence, Walter Kolbow, officially apologised for a massacre of 674 civilians that took place on 23 August 1914 in the aftermath of the Battle of Dinant:

We have to recognize the injustices that were committed, and ask forgiveness. That is what I am doing with a deep conviction today. I apologise to you all for the injustice the Germans committed in this town.[30]

Mr Kolbow placed a wreath and bowed before a monument to the victims bearing the inscription: To the 674 Dinantais martyrs, innocent victims of German barbarism.[31][32]

See also


  1. ^ Memoirs of Prince Von Bulow: The World War and Germany's Collapse 1909–1919, translated by Geoffrey Dunlop and F. A. Voight, Little, Brown and Company, Boston, 1932:

    There is no doubt that our invasion of Belgium, with violation it entailed of that country's sovereign neutrality, and of treaties we ourselves had signed, and the world had respected for a century, was an act of the gravest political significance. Bad was made worse when than ever by Bethmans Hollweg's speech in the Reichstag (August 4, 1914). Never perhaps, has any other statesman at the head of a great and civilized people (...) pronounced (...) a more terrible speech. Before the whole world—before his country, this spokesman of the German Government—not of the Belgian!—not of the French!—declared that, in invading Belgium we did wrong, but that necessity knows no law (...) I was aware, with this one categorical statement, we had forfeited, at a blow, the imponderabilia; that this unbelievably stupid oration would set the whole world against Germany. And on the very evening after he made it this Chancellor of the German Empire, in a talk with Sir Edward Goschen, the British Ambassador, referred to the international obligations on which Belgium relied for her neutrality as "un chiffon de papier", "a scrap of paper"...

  2. ^ a b Annuaire statistique de la Belgique et du Congo Belge 1915–1919. Bruxelles. 1922 p.100
  3. ^ Milne, Nick. "The 'Rape of Belgium' Revisited." Oxford University. World War I Centenary. Accessed October 09, 2018.
  4. ^ a b c d e Lipkes J. (2007) Rehearsals: The German Army in Belgium, August 1914, Leuven University Press
  5. ^ Horne & Kramer, German atrocities, Chapter I, Third Army and Dinant
  6. ^ a b Beckett, I.F.W. (ed., 1988) The Roots of Counter-Insurgency, Blandford Press, London. ISBN 0-7137-1922-2
  7. ^ John N. Horne & Alan Kramer (2001) German Atrocities, 1914: A History of Denial, Yale University Press, New Haven, Appendix I, German Atrocities in 1914 (from 5 August to 21 October and from Berneau (Province of Liège) to Esen (Province of West Flanders)), ISBN 978-0-300-08975-2
  8. ^ Alan Kramer (2007) Dynamic of Destruction: Culture and Mass Killing in the First World War Oxford University Press, pp. 1–24. ISBN 978-0-19-280342-9
  9. ^ Spencer Tucker, P. M. R. (2005) World War I: Encyclopedia, Volume 1, ABC-CLIO/Greenwood, p.714
  10. ^ Leuven University, p. 31: "The university colleges were closed on 9 November 1797, and all items of use, with all the books, were requisitioned for the new École Centrale, in Brussels"
  11. ^ B.Tuchman, The Guns of August, pp.340-356
  12. ^ Commission d'Enquete (1922) Rapports et Documents d'Enquête, vol. 1, book 1. pp. 679–704, vol. 1, book 2, pp. 605–615.
  13. ^ Kossmann 1978, p. 528.
  14. ^ Dumoulin 2010, p. 131.
  15. ^ Kossmann 1978, p. 529.
  16. ^ Kossmann 1978, pp. 533–4.
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Nicoletta Gullace (2002). The Blood of Our Sons: Men, Women, and the Renegotiation of British Citizenship during the Great War. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-312-29446-5.
  18. ^ Cynthia Wachtell (2007). "Representations of German Soldiers in American World War I Literature". In Thomas F. Schneider. "Huns" vs. "Corned Beef": Representations of the Other in American and German Literature and Film on World War I. V&R unipress GmbH. p. 68. ISBN 978-3-89971-385-5.
  19. ^, Slater, Tom, Dixey, Marsh and Halperin, James L, Political and Americana Memorabilia Auction, Heritage Auctions, Inc, 2005. p. 317. ISBN 978-1-59967-012-6, Poster is by Ellsworth Young
  20. ^ Cynthia Wachtell (2007). "Representations of German Soldiers in American World War I Literature". In Thomas F. Schneider. "Huns" vs. "Corned Beef": Representations of the Other in American and German Literature and Film on World War I. V&R unipress GmbH. p. 65. ISBN 978-3-89971-385-5.
  21. ^ a b Cynthia Wachtell (2007). "Representations of German Soldiers in American World War I Literature". In Thomas F. Schneider. "Huns" vs. "Corned Beef": Representations of the Other in American and German Literature and Film on World War I. V&R unipress GmbH. p. 64. ISBN 978-3-89971-385-5.
  22. ^ Kimberly Jensen (2008). Mobilizing Minerva: American Women in the First World War. University of Illinois Press. p. 30. ISBN 978-0-252-07496-7.
  23. ^ "Herzstein, Robert E., Roosevelt & Hitler, p. 8
  24. ^ Horne and Kramer, (1994).
  25. ^ Isabel V. Hull (2014). A Scrap of Paper: Breaking and Making International Law during the Great War. Cornell UP. p. 157.
  26. ^ a b c Zuckerman, Larry (February 2004). The Rape of Belgium: The Untold Story of World War I. NYU Press. ISBN 978-0-8147-9704-4.
  27. ^ See Summary of book
  28. ^ John Horne, German war crimes Archived 2008-12-12 at the Wayback Machine
  29. ^ Horne, John; Kramer, Alan (2001). "Notes on German Atrocities, 1914: A History of Denial". Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-08975-9. Retrieved 1 January 2016.
  30. ^ "Germany Apologizes for WWI Massacre". Associated Press. 6 May 2001. Retrieved 7 December 2018.
  31. ^ Clive Emsley, War, Culture and Memory, The Open University, Milton Keynes, 2003, p. 28. ISBN 0-7492-9611-9
  32. ^ Osborn, Andrew (11 May 2001). "Belgians want money after German war apology". The Guardian. London.

Further reading



  • Green, Leanne (2014). "Advertising war: Picturing Belgium in First World War publicity". Media, War & Conflict. 7#3: pp: 309–325.
  • Horne, J.; Kramer, A. (1994). "German 'Atrocities' and Franco-German Opinion, 1914: The Evidence of German Soldiers' Diaries". Journal of Modern History. 66 (1): 1–33. ISSN 0022-2801. JSTOR 2124390.
  • Jones, Heather (2014). "The Great War: How 1914–18 Changed the Relationship between War and Civilians". The RUSI Journal. 159#4: pp: 84–91.
  • Nelson, Robert L. (2004). "Ordinary Men in the First World War? German Soldiers as Victims and Participants". Journal of Contemporary History. 39#3: pp.&nbsp, 425–435. ISSN 0022-0094. JSTOR 3180736.
  • Wilson, Trevor (1979). "Lord Bryce's Investigation into Alleged German Atrocities in Belgium, 1914–1915". Journal of Contemporary History. 14#3: pp.&nbsp, 369–383. ISSN 0022-0094. JSTOR 10.2307/260012. sees the Bryce report as exaggerated propaganda

External links

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