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Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Provence

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Ramon Berenguer IV (French: Raimond-Bérenger; 1198 – 19 August 1245) was a member of the House of Barcelona who ruled as count of Provence and Forcalquier. He was the first count of Provence to live in the county in more than one hundred years.

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NOW ON SALE MY BOOK OF HISTORY The following story takes place between the year 1085 and the 1300 BUT THAT IS ANOTHER STORY HISTORY OF SPAIN 5 - MIDDLE AGES IV - The Crowns of Castilla y Aragón vs. the Almorávides and Almohades THE ALMORÁVIDE INVASION The capture of Toledo by Alfonso VI in 1085 was cheered throughout Europe. It was like when Independence Day managed to hit the first missile against the ship. But everything was going to get complicated with the arrival of the Almorávides. These uncles emerged seventy years earlier in a fortress, or ribat, somewhere in the Sahara. They were marabouts, that is, ascetic hermits, and one of them, Abd Allah ibn Yasin, wanted to reform Berber Islamism and created a group of Saharawi fanatics who destroyed everything they went through. They arrived until the present Morocco their nephew Yusuf ibn Tasufin founded Marrakech like capital, and finally they gave the jump to Spain and gave a beating to Alfonsito in Sagrajas, near Badajoz. These guys, to blow drum, began to conquer everything: Malaga, Granada, Almeria, Cordoba, Seville, Badajoz ... Alfonso VI was acojonao with this wave of new rock, so he reconciled with the Cid and together they went to load almorávides south. The surviving Taifa kings (Zaragoza, Albarracín, Alpuente and Mallorca) more of the same. The Almoravids were taking control of their institutions and they were throwing them out, so they allied with the Leonese. On the other hand, the Barcelona count Berenguer Ramón II the Fraticida helped Muslim kings to take the taifa of Valencia, but the Cid arrived and forced them to stop. Now the Valencian pariahs would go to your savings account. His friend Alfonso VI still controlled the Aledo Fortress in Murcia. However, the Almoravid Emir Yusuf ibn Tasufin began to besiege it. Alfonso asked the Cid for help, but he entertained himself by setting up his beach bars in Valencia and did not arrive on time. The King of Leon gave him a quarrel about the host and not only returned to banish him, he also seized his possessions. El Cid told him "I'll peel it, uncle," and he returned to Valencia where he had his own Mother Base mounted. In this levantino protectorate that was mounted gave him tributes Valencia, Lérida, Tortosa, Denia, Albarracín, Alpuente, Sagunto, Jérica, Segorbe and Almenara. Almost nothing. Now his goal was to take the city of Valencia, the capital, and managed to conquer it in 1094 after the Battle of Cuarte, and thus Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar became a powerful feudal lord in the Levant. To help him against the Almoravides, who were annoying of balls, the Cid married his daughters with Navarrese infantryman Ramiro Sanchez and Count Ramon Berenguer III, and together they faced the threat. The Catalan devoted most of his life to colonize Urgel and Tarragona, restoring the diocese of place. The death of the Cid in 1099 made his wife Jimena, his son-in-law the Count of Barcelona, ​​and even Alfonso VI have to defend Valencia. However, nothing could be done against the Almoravids, who in 1102 managed to conquer it and drive out everyone. "Fucking bitch Fucking bitch, Montgomery fucking bitch" The myth tells that the king of Navarre-Aragonese Pedro I defeated the Muslims of Zaragoza with the help of Saint George mounted on the back of a white horse at the Battle of Alcoraz, in Huesca. It is seen that they also wanted a legend like that of Santiago Matamoros. ALFONSOS FIGHT A great displeasure for the King of León was the Battle of Uclés, where the son of the recently deceased Almoravid Emir, Ali ibn Yusuf, decided to attack Castile. During the hostilities, the son and heir of King Alfonso, Sancho Alfónsez, was born, fruit of his relationship with the Zaida Muslim concubine. Between losing the son and the pariahs, Alfonso gave a chungazo and palmed it the following year. He was married to the Frenchwoman Constanza de Borgoña, and their daughter, Urraca I, inherited the throne. His father had married Raimundo de Borgoña, with whom he had a son, Alfonso Raimúndez, but still will not be important. It turns out that Raimundo the same palmed and ended up buried in the still under construction cathedral of Santiago de Compostela. Yes, here people are dying all the time, it's the Middle Ages ... it was coughing and ... buf, acojone. It was then when Urraca was married to the King of Aragon Alfonso I the Battler. León, Castilla, Navarra and Aragón united! No, it's going to be no. The marriage was not too good to say. It is told Magpie put the horns to the Aragonese, and of course, the other had an anger of the host. It seems that he killed an earl suspected of sleeping with his wife in horns. Contrary to the agreement, Alfonso was setting up garrisons in more places than the Castilians anticipated. Magpie began to conspire against him and ended up imprisoned, although they managed to free her quickly. Angered with the Aragonese, the Galician nobles, led by Count Pedro Froilaz and the bishop of Santiago Diego Gelmírez, raised King Alfonso VII Raimúndez, the son who already had the Magpie. The sister of Urraca, Teresa, and her husband, Enrique de Borgoña, the Counts of Portugal, allied themselves with the King of Aragon, and in the Battle of Candespina managed to defeat the Galician rebels. Just that same year, in 1110, the Almoravids managed to conquer the last Taifa kingdom that remained in the peninsula, that of Zaragoza. But tranquis because 8 years later Alfonso I the Battler would start to fight a sack. Recovered Zaragoza, Tudela, Soria and Calatayud. While all this was going on, the subject was complicated for Urraca, as rebellions of bourgeoisie began to appear on its territory. The first revolt of Sahagún is famous, in which the bourgeois wanted to throw to the abbot of the monastery to govern the territory to the noble style cluny roll. Basically it was a confrontation between authorities: the council against the local nobility. Alfonso the battler took advantage of this and replaced the abbot with his brother Ramiro II the monk, and that provoked the rejection of the farmers. In short, a move that had to solve Magpie as he could. "I'm really sick of this guy already, huh?" His son Alfonso VII the Emperor was the first king of León member of the House of Burgundy. He was crowned in the Cathedral of Leon in 1135 as Imperator Totius Hispaniae, like his grandfather, being recognized even by his brother-in-law the new Count of Barcelona Ramón Berenguer IV the Saint, since he married his sister Berenguela. This Ramón raised the Monastery of Santa María de Poblet, in Tarragona, which would be the royal pantheon of the Aragonese crown. Alfonso would also build monasteries, like the one in Meira, very close to Lugo. The thing was fucked up in the county of Portugal. His aunt Teresa, now widow of Enrique de Borgoña, was loyal to him, but his son, his cousin Alfonso Enríquez, drove his mother out of the county after the Battle of San Mamede. However, it was not until the victory against the Almoravids at the Battle of Ourique in 1139 that Alfonso Enríquez was proclaimed king of Portugal, and this was born as an independent kingdom. In addition it conquered Lisbon in 1147, and it turned it into capital, and still it is it. There were so many kings called Alfonso at this time ... that the Muslims began to call the Christians of the peninsula as "the alfonsos". Fortunately they were dying and putting other names. THE CROWN OF ARAGON Alfonso I the Battler died battling in Huesca in 1134, and having no children bequeathed everything to military orders that had entered the peninsula on account of the fight against the Almoravids: templars, hospitable, knights of the Holy Sepulcher ... This was unacceptable and Pamplona and Aragon ended up separating in the middle of the confusion. García Ramírez IV, who was a grandson of the Cid, stayed with Pamplona, ​​recovering Tudela; and Ramiro II the Monk with Aragón, but none would last long. But be careful, because the Almoravids were not as threatening as they were at the beginning. It turns out that they discovered that the Andalusian way of life was the dick. People took everything in stride, walking through beautiful gardens, comfortable beds, pleasant perfumes, nap ... for those nomads of the desert that refinement and luxury flipped them. "We have drunk a couple of drinks ... four or five ..." Their fanaticism was disappearing, they were left to the good life, without stress, and come on, in 1145 the Christians petar the eye. Disunity returned in the second Taifa kingdoms. The most important were Seville, Badajoz, Cordoba, Granada, Valencia and the Balearic Islands. This Almoravid refinement was very bad seen in Marrakech, the capital. A certain Muhammad ibn Tumart gathered a few poor warriors from the Atlas Mountains, he ate the coconut with fundamentalism ... and all rebelled against the Almoravid passives. These were known as the Almohades, the "unitarians". In the year 1147 they managed to take Marrakech after cutting off the heads of the Almoravid emir's fans, and from there they jumped to Al-Ándalus led by Al-Mumín. The taifas kings became caquitas and surrendered. All but one: the so-called King Wolf of the Kingdom of Murcia, who mounted a resistance even with the help of Christian mercenaries. This Wolf King came to control a huge territory, and we owe him works like the Palace of Castillejo de Monteagudo, which he used as a summer residence. Ramiro II the Monk wanted to be that, a fucking monk, but they forced him to be king and to marry Inés de Poitiers, with whom he fathered Petronila by compromise and then he went back to the monastery. The girl, only two years old, was married to the count of Barcelona Ramón Berenguer IV the Saint, although more than holy he would have nicknamed him asaltacunas. The counts now became princeps, and the Catalan counties became the Principality of Catalonia. In fact, the word "Catalonia" appears for the first time at this time, as an entity that united the counties of the area. In short, this marriage asaltacunesco united Aragon and Catalonia in the Crown of Aragon, which would become effective with the rise of the son of the couple, Alfonso II the Chaste, in 1164. And what is a crown? Then several kingdoms and territories governed by the same monarch but with enough autonomy among themselves. They would stay together throughout this Middle Ages, but relationships were not always easy. The Aragonese were agricultural landowners, lovers of cereals and vegetables and feudal knights. The Catalans were also very feudal, but they were also lovers of free trade with their navigating merchants. What they traded most with was their coarse fabrics, with metals taken from the area of ​​Ripollés, and even with slaves. Of course, until the middle of the thirteenth century the thing was fucked by the attacks of the Balearic pirates or the Levantine Saracens, among other moves. Ramón had a desire to conquer crazy, and began to the south, managing to take in 1149 Lérida, or Lleida and also Tortosa, at the mouth of the Ebro. In addition Alfonso II inherited the French areas of Languedoc and Provence. Alfonso VII de León signed the Treaty of Tudilén with Ramón Berenguer IV, where they agreed to occupy Navarre with swords, something that never happened. The cast of Al-Ándalus was also discussed once they had conquered everything. Then there would be another treaty, that of Cazola, in which Castilla y León stayed with Murcia. Alfonso VII de León died in the year 1157 in Sierra Morena, I suppose that of the displeasure when seeing the Almohads. The project of Hispanic empire that I wished went to the rack and everything was in a Spain of 5 Kingdoms. In his testament he left everything to the Templars and Hospitallers, and in the end the kingdom was divided again. Fernando II inherited León and Sancho III the Deseado inherited Castile. This would be very desired, but the following year he was already dead. He was succeeded in 1158 by his son Alfonso VIII el Noble, who unlike his father reigned for more than 50 years. I fucking love. Although the truth is that he was still a kid and two noble families gave of milks to control him: the Castro and the Lara. "Every day PIM PAM PIM PAM with affection" It was a time when the cities were developing, especially the Cantabrian cornice, partly linked to the craft and commercial boom that the route of Santiago joined with the rest of Europe. In Toledo they began to coin the first maravedis of gold. Fleeces jaqués de fleece, an alloy of silver and copper, were also used. With so many coins, some trades that were becoming important were the moneychanger and lender, especially among Jews. New monastic orders also arrived. These preached absolute poverty and simplicity, manual labor and the cultivation of their gardens. In Catalonia, the Cartujos, founded by San Bruno, were installed. Others were the Benedictines, founded in Italy by Benito de Nursia. Others were mendicant orders like the Dominicans, founded by Domingo de Guzman in Toulouse during the crusade against the Cathars. And another was the Franciscans, founded by the Italian Francisco de Asís in 1209. In the monasteries where they lived, books were treasured, much knowledge, and with time the cathedral schools gained importance, especially in Santiago, Toledo, Palencia and Segovia. It would be the germ of the first Spanish universities. The first was that of Palencia, founded in 1208 in the kingdom of Castile, and a decade later that of Salamanca was founded in the kingdom of León. New military orders were also born that followed the model of the Templars and Hospitallers. The first was the Order of Calatrava in 1158, and then came the Order of Alcantara, both under the rules of Cistercian. The Order of Santiago, born in 1171, followed the order of St. Augustine. Well, yes they were the Brotherhood of Belchite or the Order of Monreal, created by Alfonso I, but did not have much travel. In 1150 he began to send in the Kingdom of Pamplona Sancho VI el Sabio. That would be very wise but with him the kingdom began to lose much ground. In 1179 he was left without his Riojan possessions on the other side of the Ebro. Of course, founded the town of San Sebastian by 1180, a good port and site for the summer. A few years before, in 1162 the name of the kingdom changed. Now it would no longer be called the Kingdom of Pamplona but the Kingdom of Navarre. THE PILLOWS With the Almohads not everything was Islam in vein, swords and chaos. They loved art, and they built minarets like the tower of the Koutoubia mosque in Marrakech, and the Hassan tower in Rabat. To one of these Almohad caliphs, to Abu Yusuf, we owe the minaret of the mosque of Seville, better known as La Giralda. And they also built the Golden Tower as a defense tower in the port. In Toledo they raised the Synagogue of Santa María la Blanca, perhaps to please the Jewish sector. But in general, for Mozarabs and Jews the climate of intolerance was so unbearable that many migrated northward. Some personalities stand out, such as the doctor and philosopher, as well as the cadí, Averroes, who, among other things, dedicated himself to comment on the works of Aristotle from the Islamic point of view; and also the Jew Maimonides, who in his "Guide of the Perplexed" sought to reconcile faith and reason. Both ended up banished by the Almohad caliphs. I will talk about the work and life of these people in the Philosophy section. It was in the year 1188 when the king of León Alfonso IX came to power. One of the first things he did was to convene a Royal Curia attended by nobility, clergy, and also delegates from the councils of various cities and towns of the kingdom, representatives of the third state, the common people. This is how the Cortes de León was born. These Cortes de León were the first of its kind and the cradle of European parliamentarism according to UNESCO. It is around this time that there is already evidence that the vulgar Latin that was spoken until then in the peninsula, evolved into the so-called Romance languages. Gradually, in each region, that Latin was mixed, changing, and varieties such as Galician-Portuguese, Asturian-Leonese, Castilian, Navarrese-Aragonese, Catalan and Mozarabic appeared. Then there was Basque, or Euskera, the only one that did not come from Latin. The first medieval Iberian romance text would date from sX, the Emilianenses Glosses, where we also find phrases in ancient Basque. And is that romances, such as Castilian and Aragonese were influenced and also influenced the Basque language for centuries. Alfonso VIII the Noble, in 1195, tried to contain the Almohads in Alarcos, in Ciudad Real, but it was impossible and these guys began to gain ground. In the year 1200 Alfonso incorporated into the Kingdom of Castile a part of Álava and the Señorío de Guipúzcoa, respecting his Fueros, which pissed off the Navarrese Sancho VII el Fuerte, as it ran out of the sea. Goodbye, Playa de la Concha. "From the shell of your mother!" In the Kingdom of Aragon began to reign Pedro II, called the Catholic because it was Pope Innocent III himself who crowned him in 1204. This supreme pontiff began to gratify the Hispanic kingdoms with which they had to unite, that this was a crusader whore, that the Celestial Kingdom and all that shit was at stake. And then all the kings made pineapple for once in their life. The fighters of the northern part of the ring were Alfonso VIII of Castile, Sancho VII of Navarre and Pedro II of Aragon. The battle that followed was one of the most epic in the History of Spain, the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa, which took place on July 16, 1212 in Jaén. It had the air of a crusade, and whoever died bravely in it would go directly to heaven. These things are what work: the Christian victory was total. They counted on hired crusaders sent directly by the Pope, although many deserted when they were told not to plunder Jews or Muslims. Of course, if they took everything away, then they would be left without pariahs, it was obvious. But hey, the Christians won and the Almohads came out in disarray. The Muslim territories ended up forming a third period of Taifa Kingdoms. Taking advantage of this, from the year 1228 began in Murcia the anti-Almohad uprising of ibn Hud, who managed to conquer most of Al-Andalus. He established the capital of his new taifa kingdom in Murcia, and built things like the Alcazar to follow, right where the Monastery of Santa Clara now stands. THE CROWN OF CASTILLA Shortly after the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa Alfonso VIII died and his son Enrique I began to govern, but a tile fell and the boy died, so his sister reigned: Berenguela, who was married to Alfonso IX de León. The son of both, Ferdinand III the Saint, already unified for ever Castile with Leon in 1230. Thus was born the Crown of Castile. Pedro II the Catholic and Maria de Montpellier had a son: Jaime I. It is said that the couple could not see each other and for them to fuck they were locked in a dark room saying that each one was a different lover. Pedro died in a battle in Muret against French crusaders a year after the Navas de Tolosa, and Jaime had to reign. But he was a kid, so he was in the Monzon Castle being trained by the Templarios of Simón de Monfort while the regency was supplied by the Count of Roussillon, Sancho. The truth is that Jaime I The Conqueror was a great king, and as his nickname says ... he conquered an egg of sites, the best for the summer. It was made with the island of Mallorca in 1229 thanks to the powerful fleet it had built. Years later Ibiza and Formentera fell, the Muslims were driven out and the islands were divided between Catalan and Templars. The next goal of Jaime I was the Kingdom of Valencia, so Aragonese and Catalans went down there to give each other milks against the Almohads. It was in 1238 when the Valencian capital fell after a long siege. At the same time, Sancho II Capelo, king of Portugal, advanced towards the south, and the same the king of Castile Fernando III, who conquered Cáceres, Badajoz and Mérida. It came very high and managed to take Córdoba towards 1236. This was very good, because by controlling the Guadalquivir, the kingdom of Castile could open by sea a simpler route through the Mediterranean. Thanks to the maritime trade came the merino sheep, who joined the sheep churras, and with them the Kingdom of Castile became the No. 1 wool producer in Europe. Fernando III reigned some 30 years, a good time for Castilla y León. He was a very intelligent monarch, and always acted with prudence and demonstrating humanity. Its biggest milestone, as I say, was to conquer Andalusia. He had little left, the area of ​​Jaén, Granada, Seville, the center of the Almohad power, Almeria and Murcia. They went for it but the operation was ruined. It was the year 1238, and it is then, taking advantage of the Christian failure, when the Arjonese Muhammad ibn Alhamar founded the Nasrid Dynasty of Granada. This would be the last great Muslim kingdom of the Iberian Peninsula, which would last until 1492. Until that date and the borders are practically not going to move. In the Kingdom of Navarre, Sancho VII had died without children, so his nephew Teobaldo I, son of the French Count of Champagne, seized power. He participated in a crusade and is also attributed the General Jurisdiction of Navarre, to regulate the rights between the king and the nobility. Under his rule, Navarra began to be more in the French orbit, especially after Queen Joan I married the future French king Philip IV. In Navarre the base of the population were the villains or pechers, and above was the nobility: infanzones and hidalgos and then the rich men, the most powerful, who crowned the king by raising him on a shield. Nobles, prelates and monarch met in meetings, since there were still no Cortes. The successor of Fernando III was Alfonso X the Wise, a super important king. He finished conquering Andalusia and Murcia less Granada, setting the borders between Christians and Nasrids. These will be the last areas repopulated. First, donadíos, or large estates, were ceded to military orders; and then the repartimientos took place, whose maximum beneficiaries would be the great aristocratic families of the moment. During his reign there was an extraordinary apogee in everything related to arts and sciences. In this time it was written very much, like General History, General Chronicle, the Cantigas de Santa María and even directed the writing of The Seven Parties, a legal code influenced by Roman law. He also put many grants in the School of Translators of Toledo, where Christians, Jews and Muslims worked together in the task of gathering information from other countries and cultures, study them and pass them to clean, translating many of them into Latin. From works by Avicena and Algazel to Euclides and Aristotle. There was also a lot of trade with Europe, and they ended up exporting merino wool at fairs such as Flanders, England or France. This king would create the Council of the Mesta would be a powerful organization of Castilian farmers and shepherds, a lobby, come on. Another product that relaunched the Castilian economy was the iron trade of the Señorío de Vizcaya, governed by the López and Díaz de Haro family. What did they do with all this pasta? Save money? Do not. They spent everything as they entered, for example in cathedrals. But not any cathedral, but Gothic, as the French fashion dictated. The Cathedral of Burgos is very famous, although it had its later modifications. Also it emphasizes the Cathedral of the Asunción of the Burgo de Osma, in Soria; the Cathedral of León, where large stained-glass windows stood out; and the Cathedral of Santa María de Toledo. However, to this king in politics let's say he did not do too well. Instead of focusing on conquering Granada, the last Muslim stronghold, he began to leave a lot of money in Europe to promote himself and be named king of Romans of the Holy Roman Empire, since he was the son of Beatriz de Suabia. That was like going to Eurovision, a move of the host that I will explain when I talk about Germania. The so-called "date of the empire" was the dispute between Alfonso and the other aspirants to the German throne. In the end Alfonso X the Wise did not see the throne. But hey, he stayed and invented tapas, what we won. "Our culture is what it is: the bar ..." END OF THE REPUBLICATION AND BEGINNING OF MEDITERRANEAN EXPANSION The Christian repopulation had its complications, since the whole field of Andalusia was full of Mudejars, who were revolting against the Christians, and ended up fleeing to Africa. The great properties were, as it could not be otherwise, for nobility, clergy and military orders. But many properties were also distributed, mostly, to small and medium producers. The Mudéjar revolt plus cucumber took place in the Kingdom of Murcia, and Alfonso X had so much trouble suffocating it that he was forced to ask for sopitas to his father-in-law Jaime I the conqueror, since he had married his daughter Violante. The territory was pacified in 1266. Of course, many Mudejars emigrated to the kingdom of Granada and that increased its numbers an atrocity. Jaime I the Conqueror was a good strategist in the military, but in politics he had some downturns. He tried to organize a crusade, but he did not get the pasta. In addition, it seems that the French King Louis IX persuaded him to sign the Treaty of Corbeil with which Aragon gave the Gabachos their possessions north of the Pyrenees (Languedoc and Provence), and in return the French renounced the right of vassalage of the Catalan counties, which nominally remained his. But bah, fuck the French south !, from 1280 the Kingdom of Aragon began to expand in the Mediterranean. It was all a bit chiripa, because around 1282 the Sicilians revolted against their king, Carlos de Anjou, brother of the king of France, and threw him into the so-called Sicilian Vespers. They asked for help to Pedro III the Great, king of Aragon, and the Sicilians appointed him king, and married Constance of Sicily. Those yes, French, the papacy, Genoa and Venice got a piss of noses, and also his brother Jaime II of Mallorca. They declared a crusade against Aragon, and went for the kingdom, but another chiripa. A plague appeared and the French failed the invasion. "What bad luck, hahaha" By this time the Aragonese Courts were also born, influenced by those of León and by the Catalans, which existed since 1213. Valencia also had its own courts years later. Sometimes they joined the three, the Aragonese, the Catalan and the Valencian, forming the Cortes Generales. And it is that the monarchy of Aragon is going to be quite pactista, having to negotiate many times with its vasalla nobility. Very few families ended up being part of the Aragonese nobility. The low nobility, the cavallers, as the Catalans called them, almost all came from military orders. Among the peasants there were several types. The villains were those who cultivated their own lands, and the collazos cultivated the land of lords. The exaricos were the Mudejar peasants, the most plagued. In Catalonia there was a distinction between Old Catalonia, the founding nucleus, and New Catalonia, the colonized one. In the old there were less freedoms, and the peasants, the peasants, had to pay for a thing called remensa in order to be freed and go elsewhere. The territory of Aragon was divided into merindades, each commanded by a merino. These are those of Navarre and these are those of Castilla. In Catalonia they were called veguerías, commanded by a veguer. Each was subdivided into small municipalities governed locally by councils, the leader being the mayor, zalmedina or jurat. The last years of the reign of Alfonso X the Wise were fucking shit. The throne went to his firstborn, Fernando de la Cerda, the normal thing, but he died and his children fought with the other son of Alfonso: Sancho IV el Bravo, who started a civil war with the help of the nobility that eventually sat on the throne. Why this craving for power? He could almost have been quiet, because he had a fucking time. It turns out that new Islamic fundamentalists arrived, the Benimerines, or Marinids, and of course, more hosts. From this era is the legend of Guzmán el Bueno, who defended Tarifa from the invaders, but they ended up slaughtering their son with the dagger that he himself threw from the castle. "See you soon, Lucas" And I finish the video in the year 1300, year in which took place a very important event in the whole world. That year Fernando IV the Emplazado signed a decree authorizing a great-grandson of Alfonso IX called Don Diego López V de Haro, the highest authority in the Señorío de Vizcaya, to found a town next to the Nervión estuary. That's where Bilbao was born.

Contents

Family

Ramon Berenguer was the son of Alfonso II, Count of Provence, and Garsenda, Countess of Forcalquier.[1] After his father's death (1209), Ramon's mother sent him to the Templar castle of Monzón in Aragon. He was accompanied by his cousin King James I of Aragon whose life was also under threat. He left Monzon around 1217 to claim his inheritance, which included the county of Forcalquier--inherited from his mother.

On 5 June 1219, Ramon Berenguer married Beatrice of Savoy, daughter of Thomas, Count of Savoy. She was a shrewd and politically astute woman, whose beauty was likened by Matthew Paris to that of a second Niobe. The wedding also provided the 21-year-old Ramon with a powerful father-in-law to aid him in establishing his authority and protecting his interests.[2] They had four daughters who reached adulthood, all of whom were well educated and married kings.

  1. stillborn son (1220)
  2. Margaret of Provence (1221–1295), wife of Louis IX, King of France[3]
  3. Eleanor of Provence (1223–1291), wife of Henry III, King of England[3]
  4. Sanchia of Provence (1225–1261), wife of Richard, King of the Romans, brother of the king of England[3]
  5. Beatrice of Provence (1229–1267), wife of Charles I, King of Sicily[4]

Rule

Ramon Berenguer and his wife were known for their support of troubadors, always having some around the court. He was known for his generosity, though his income did not always keep up. He wrote laws prohibiting nobles from performing menial work, such as farming or heavy labor.

Ramon Berenguer had many border disputes with his neighbors, the counts of Toulouse. In 1226, Ramon began to reassert his right to rule in Marseille. The citizens there initially sought the help of Ramon's father-in-law Thomas, Count of Savoy in his role as imperial vicar. However, they later sought the help of Raymond VII, Count of Toulouse.[5]

In 1228, Ramon Berenguer supported his father-in-law in a double-sided conflict against Turin and Guigues VI of Viennois. This small war was one of many rounds intended to more firmly establish control over trade from Italy into France, and Provence included several key routes.[6]

While the Albigensian Crusade worked in his favor against Toulouse, Ramon Berenguer was concerned that its resolution in the Treaty of Paris left him in a precarious position. Raymond turned his troops from fighting France to attempting to claim lands from Provence.[7] When Blanche of Castile sent her knight to both Toulouse and Provence in 1233, Ramon Berenguer entertained him lavishly, and the knight left well impressed by both the count and his eldest daughter, Margaret. Soon after, Blanche negotiated the marriage between Margaret and her son, Louis, with a dowry of ten thousand silver marks. Ramon Berenguer had to get contributions from allies for a portion, and had to pledge several of his castles to cover the rest. Ramon Berenguer and Beatrice travelled with their daughter to Lyon in 1234 to sign the marriage treaty, and then Margaret was escorted to her wedding in Sens by her uncles William and Thomas of Savoy.

Shortly after, William began negotiating on Ramon Berenguer's behalf with Henry III of England to marry his daughter Eleanor. Henry sent his own knight to Provence early in 1235, and again Ramon Berenguer and his family entertained him lavishly. Henry wrote to William on June 22 that he was very interested, and sent a delegation to negotiate the marriage in October. Henry was seeking a dowry of up to twenty thousand silver marks to help offset the dowry he had just paid for his sister, Isabella. However, he had drafted seven different versions of the marriage contract, with different amounts for the dowry, the lowest being zero. Ramon Berenguer shrewdly negotiated for that option, offering as consolation a promise to leave her ten thousand marks in his last will.

In 1238, Ramon Berenguer joined his brother-in-law Amadeus IV at the court of Emperor Frederick II in Turin. Frederick was gathering forces to assert more control in Italy. Raymond VII of Toulouse was also summoned, and all expected to work together in the war.[8]

In January 1244, Pope Innocent IV decreed that no one but the pope could excommunicate Ramon Berenguer.[9] In 1245, Ramon Berenguer sent representatives to the First Council of Lyon, to discuss crusades and the excommunication of Frederick.[10]

Ramon Berenguer died in August 1245 in Aix-en-Provence, leaving the county to his youngest daughter, Beatrice.[11]

Death and legacy

Ramon Berenguer IV died in Aix-en-Provence. At least two planhs (Occitan funeral laments) of uncertain authorship (one possibly by Aimeric de Peguilhan and one falsely attributed to Rigaut de Berbezilh) were written in his honour.

Giovanni Villani in his Nuova Cronica said:

Count Raymond was a lord of gentle lineage, and kin to them of the house of Aragon, and to the family of the count of Toulouse, By inheritance Provence, this side of the Rhone, was his; a wise and courteous lord was he, and of noble state and virtuous, and in his time did honourable deeds, and to his court came all gentle persons of Provence and of France and of Catalonia, by reason of his courtesy and noble estate, and he made many Provençal coblas and canzoni of great worth.[12]

Notes

  1. ^ Aurell 1995, p. 403.
  2. ^ Cox 1974, p. 21.
  3. ^ a b c Cox 1974, p. 463.
  4. ^ Davin 1963, p. 182.
  5. ^ Cox 1974, p. 28.
  6. ^ Cox 1974, p. 12,29.
  7. ^ Cox 1974, p. 44-45.
  8. ^ Cox 1974, p. 65-66.
  9. ^ Cox 1974, p. 130.
  10. ^ Cox 1974, p. 142-143.
  11. ^ Cox 1974, p. 146.
  12. ^ Giovanni Villani, Rose E. Selfe, ed. (1906), "§90—Incident relating to the good Count Raymond of Provence.", Villani's Chronicle, Being Selections from the First Nine Books of the Croniche Fiorentine of Giovanni Villani (London: Archibald Constable & Co.), 196. The Provençal coblas and cansos referred to do not survive and Ramon Berenguer is not listed among the troubadours, though he was their patron.

Sources

  • Aurell, Martin (1995). Les noces du comte: mariage et pouvoir en Catalogne (785-1213) (in French). Publications de la Sorbonne.
  • Cox, Eugene L. (1974). The Eagles of Savoy. Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0691052166.
  • Häuptli, Bruno W. (2005). "Raimund Berengar V". In Bautz, Traugott (ed.). Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon (BBKL) (in German). 25. Nordhausen: Bautz. cols. 1118–1122. ISBN 3-88309-332-7.
  • Howell, Margaret (2001). Eleanor of Provence: Queenship in Thirteenth-Century England. Wiley-Blackwell.
  • Davin, Emmanuel (1963). "Béatrice de Savoie, Comtesse de Provence, mère de quatre reines (1198-1267)". Bulletin de l'Association Guillaume Budé (in French). n°2 juin.

External links

Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Provence
Cadet branch of the Bellonids
Born: 1198 Died: 19 August 1245
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Alfonso II
Count of Provence
1 December 1209 – 19 August 1245
Succeeded by
Beatrice
Preceded by
Garsenda
Count of Forcalquier
1217 or 1220 – 19 August 1245
This page was last edited on 11 October 2019, at 13:27
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