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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Radiotelevisión Española
TypeSociedad Anónima
IndustryMass media
GenrePublic broadcasting service
HeadquartersPrado del Rey, ,
Spain
Area served
Spain
Key people
José Manuel Pérez Tornero (Chair)
ServicesTelevision, radio, online
RevenueIncrease 980 million[1]
Increase 25 million
OwnerSEPI (100%)
Number of employees
6,500
Divisions
Websitertve.es

The Corporación de Radio y Televisión Española, S.A.[2] (Spanish: [koɾpoɾaˈθjon de ˈraðjo j teleβiˈsjon espaˈɲola]; transl. 'Spanish Radio and Television Corporation'), known as Radiotelevisión Española or the initialism RTVE (stylized as rtve), is the state-owned public corporation that assumed in 2007 the indirect management of the Spanish public radio and television service, formerly called Ente Público Radiotelevisión Española.

Since the entry into force of the Ley de Financiación de RTVE in 2009, RTVE is primarily funded by a combination of subsidies from the General State Budget and a fee levied on the private agents' gross revenue (3.0 % for private free-to-air channels, a 1.5 % for private subscription channels and a 0.9 % for telecom companies).

RTVE is a full member of the European Broadcasting Union.

History

The Telediario is produced in the facilities located at the feet of Torrespaña. The tower was inaugurated in 1982 and belonged to RTVE until 1989.
The Telediario is produced in the facilities located at the feet of Torrespaña. The tower was inaugurated in 1982 and belonged to RTVE until 1989.

RTVE throughout its history has undergone numerous restructurings and reorganisations, and has assumed numerous identities. The history of RTVE begins in 1937 with the first broadcasts by Radio Nacional de España (RNE—Spanish National Radio) from the city of Salamanca. In these early years, RNE served as a propaganda tool for the Nationalist forces during the Spanish Civil War; it would later be used by Francisco Franco to inform the Spanish public.[citation needed]

The national radio service depended successively on the FET y de las JONS's Vice-Secretariat of Popular Education [es], on the Ministry of National Education [es] (since 1945) and on the Ministry of Information and Tourism, since the creation of the latter in 1951.[3] It was in July 1945, as competencies over Press and Propaganda were transferred to the Ministry of National Education when radio broadcasting became a standalone directorate general: the Dirección General de Radiodifusión ("Directorate General for Radio Broadcasting").[4]

Television was officially introduced in Spain in October 1956, and in October 1973 the two broadcasting networks, RNE and Televisión Española (TVE—Spanish Television) were consolidated into the Servicio Público Centralizado RadioTelevisión Española (RTVE Centralised Public Service).

Further consolidations followed in 1977, at which time RTVE became an <i>organismo autónomo</i> [es]. In 1979, TVE and RNE were joined by Radiocadena Española (RCE), an old radio service that, unlike RNE, could broadcast commercials. In 1980, RTVE was configured, by statute, as a legal public entity with its own jurisdiction.[5] According to RTVE's annual report (2003): "This law arose from the Spanish Constitution and the political pluralism which the constitution asserts as a fundamental value of the rule of law; and in this spirit granted RTVE the right to function as a democratic organisation."[6] The former cinema newsreels service NO-DO was merged into RTVE to be dismantled in 1981. Since then, the NO-DO archives are property of RTVE and its conservation is on their hands and Filmoteca Nacional's. In 1989, RCE was dismantled and its radio service was merged into RNE.

Set of Los Desayunos de TVE, which ceased broadcasting in 2020.
Set of Los Desayunos de TVE, which ceased broadcasting in 2020.

In accordance with the Law of State Radio and Television of 5 June 2006,[7] and in the face of an enormous deficit, the RTVE Public Body and the companies TVE, S.A. and RNE, S.A were dissolved, and on 1 January 2007, Corporación RTVE came into existence.[8] RTVE was thus constituted as a fully autonomous sociedad mercantil estatal, assuming the corporate form of a sociedad anónima fully participated by the State.[9]

As part of the 2007 restructuring, a controversial plan was put into action to reduce the workforce by 4,855 through attrition and retirement incentives.

In 2012 political tensions associated with the austerity program of the conservative ruling party, Partido Popular (PP) resulted in personnel changes which displaced journalists interviewed by the centre-left The Guardian, interpreted as an effort to remove critical political comment from RTVE's content. In 2012 the PP began staffing RTVE with party veterans.[10] Considerable controversy was caused when Ana Pastor was fired.[10]

On 11 June 2013, RTVE was one of the few known European broadcasters to condemn and criticise the closure of Greece's state broadcaster ERT.

In December 2018, RTVE launched a web with Filmoteca Española, which is available via Internet with more than 4000 videos of Spanish films and documentaries.[11]

Amid the inability to reach a parliamentary agreement for the renovation of the administration board of RTVE, Rosa María Mateo was appointed as Provisional Sole Administrator in July 2018.[12] In February 2021, the renovation was unblocked and José Manuel Pérez Tornero was shortlisted as the future chairman of the corporation.[13] Thus, the new board was constituted on 26 March 2021.[14]

Services

Television

RTVE's own television service comes under the Televisión Española (TVE) division of RTVE. All of TVE's channels broadcast in Spanish, with the exception of the broadcast of Catalan-language segments in La 1 and La 2 in the territory of Catalonia produced by TVE Catalunya [es].

The domestic offer provided by TVE comprises two generalist channels (La 1 and La 2) and three thematic channels: Teledeporte (sports programming), 24 Horas (news) and Clan (children's programming). Together with the broadcast of the standard definition signal, they are also available in High-definition.

Regarding international broadcasting, TVE commercializes the following channels: TVE Internacional, 24 Horas Internacional, Star HD [es],[15] and Clan Internacional.[16]

Radio

RTVE's radio stations come under the Radio Nacional de España (RNE) division of RTVE.

The domestic offer provided by RNE includes the following radio stations: Radio Nacional (generalist radio station), Radio Clásica (classical music), Radio 3 (cultural and alternative programming aimed at young people), Ràdio 4 (Catalan-language station broadcast in Catalonia and Andorra) and Radio 5 (24-hour radio news station).

Radio Exterior is the RNE's international broadcasting service on short wave, with an audience of 80 million listeners (surpassed only by the BBC and Vatican Radio).[citation needed] This station is also transmitted via DAB for Spain and by satellite. Transmissions are in Spanish, French, Arabic, Ladino, Portuguese, Russian and English.

Internet

RTVE's online portal is located at 'rtve.es'. The website is managed by RTVE's Interactive Media department (Interactivos RTVE [es]). It hosts the corporation's over-the-top media service, RTVE Play, which replaced the old 'RTVE a la carta' in June 2021, adding additional features.[17][18] Besides the catalogue from the RTVE Archive,[19] it allows users to listen and watch live feeds of the network's radio and television stations, as well as original programming from Playz, a brand of streaming content aimed towards a young audience. The RTVE.es portal also features blogs and news stories.

Other

RTVE is also responsible for the Instituto Oficial de Radio y Televisión (IORTV, Official Institute of Radio and TV) and the Orquesta Sinfónica y Coro de RTVE (RTVE Symphony Orchestra and Choir). RTVE (as RNE) was admitted to full active membership of the European Broadcasting Union in 1955. TVE joined the Eurovision Network in 1960. The corporation has contributed to the production of more than 300 films, many of which have received awards at international film festivals around the world. From 1979 to 1987, a second radio network known as Radiocadena Española was also a part of RTVE.[20] RCE stations, unlike RNE, showed advertising. RCE was merged into RNE between 1987 and 1989.[21] NO-DO was also merged into RTVE in 1980. Since NO-DO's closure in 1982, RTVE and Filmoteca Española are responsible for maintaining NO-DO's archives.[22]

Management

Pursuant to the 2006 Law of State Radio and Television,[7] management of the national public service is entrusted to Corporación RTVE.[23] The Board (Consejo de Administración) of the RTVE is the main body of RTVE, and appoints the executive officers of RTVE and its companies, approves its organisation, and approves most major activities.[24][25] The Board is composed of 12 members; 8 members are chosen by Congress and 4 by the Senate, each by two-thirds majority and each for a non-renewable mandate of 6 years, and 2 members appointed by Congress must be proposed by the 2 main trade unions at RTVE.[24]

The Chair has operational control of day-to-day operations, in order to execute the decisions and guidance of the Board.[25][23] The Chair is appointed by, and may be dismissed by, Congress.[23] Before the 2006 Act, this position was filled by the role of the Director General, which had a de facto total control of RTVE.[26] In practice, the Director General had been chosen by the Government for their political profile.[27]

Corporación RTVE is described as a "state mercantile society" (sociedad mercantil estatal) with special autonomy and independence from the government and the general state administration, and it performs its functions through TVE and RNE.

Most staff are civil servants.[23] The News Council is an internal supervisory body composed of RTVE journalists with the aim of safeguarding RTVE's independence.[23]

The current RTVE board constituted on 26 March 2021 is chaired by José Manuel Pérez Tornero, also featuring Elena Sánchez Caballero, José Manuel Martín Medem [es], Carmen Sastre, Jenaro Castro [es], Juan José Baños [es], Roberto Lakidain, Ramón Colom [es], Consuelo Aparicio and Concepción Cascajosa as board members.[28]

Funding

Since the entry into force of the Ley de Financiación de RTVE in 2009, RTVE is primarily funded by a combination of subsidies from the General State Budget and a fee levied on the private agents' gross revenue (3.0 % for private free-to-air channels, a 1.5 % for private subscription channels and a 0.9 % for telecom companies).[29]

As of 2021, a preliminary draft for the Ley General de Comunicación Audiovisual reportedly foresees the extension of the 1.5% fee on gross revenues to international streaming platforms offering services in Spain (such as Netflix, HBO, Disney+, Amazon Prime Video or YouTube) and the drop of the 0.9% fee for telecom companies, although the latter will continue contributing in terms of the fee levied for the occupation of the spectrum.[30] RTVE will also be able to monetize limited forms of advertising, such as sponsorships and advertising in its international channels.[30]

References

  1. ^ "Reunión del Consejo de Administración de RTVE de 28 de febrero de 2018. RTVE cierra sus cuentas de 2017 con un resultado positivo de 25 millones de euros". RTVE.es (in Spanish). 28 February 2018. Retrieved 29 April 2018.
  2. ^ "Corporación RTVE". Rtve.es (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 8 September 2013. Retrieved 16 August 2013.
  3. ^ Gómez García, Salvador; Martín Quevedo, Juan (2012). "Del Yugo a la Cruz. Radio Nacional de España: una radio en transición (1945-1951)". Área Abierta. Madrid: Ediciones Complutense. 12 (3): 3. doi:10.5209/rev_ARAB.2012.v33.40556.
  4. ^ Cal, Rosa (1999). "Apuntes sobre la actividad de la Dirección General de Propaganda del Franquismo (1945-1951)". Historia y Comunicación Social. Madrid: Ediciones Complutense (4): 22. ISSN 1137-0734.
  5. ^ "Ley 4/1980, de 10 de enero, de Estatuto de la Radio y la Televisión". Boletín Oficial del Estado (in Spanish). Radio and Television Statute. 10 January 1980. Retrieved 13 June 2019 – via Noticias Jurídicas.
  6. ^ Informe Anual sobre el Cumplimiento de la Función de Servicio Público del Grupo Radiotelevisión Española en 2003 (PDF). Ente Público RadioTelevisión Española (in Spanish). Madrid: Dirección Gerencia Internacional y Corporativa de RTVE Subdirección de Estudios Corporativos de RTVE. 2004. p. 14. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 May 2008. Retrieved 15 April 2007.
  7. ^ a b R., Juan Carlos (6 June 2006). Rodríguez Zapatero, José Luis (ed.). "Ley 17/2006, de 5 de junio, de la radio y la televisión de titularidad estatal" (PDF). Boletín Oficial del Estado (in Spanish) (134): 20. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 December 2015. Retrieved 13 June 2019 – via RTVE.
  8. ^ "El mayor grupo audiovisual español". RTVE (in Spanish). 1 January 2007. Archived from the original on 24 July 2014. Retrieved 13 June 2019.
  9. ^ Ruiz de Apodaca Espinosa 2009, p. 12.
  10. ^ a b Burgen, Stephen (5 August 2012). "Spanish government accused of purging critics from national radio and TV: Journalists who have questioned the party's austerity policy have lost jobs at RTVE". The Guardian. Barcelona: Guardian News & Media Limited. Retrieved 6 August 2012.
  11. ^ "RTVE y Filmoteca Española lanzan en internet el mayor fondo histórico audiovisual de España". Corporación de Radio y Televisión Española (in Spanish). 20 December 2018. Retrieved 3 January 2019.
  12. ^ "Rosa María Mateo toma posesión como administradora única temporal de RTVE". 20minutos.es. 30 July 2018.
  13. ^ Escudero, Belén (25 February 2021). "José Manuel Pérez Tornero, el creador de la televisión educativa en España". El Periódico de Catalunya.
  14. ^ "Tornero entra fuerte en RTVE". El Comercio. 26 March 2021.
  15. ^ Jabonero, Daniel (4 September 2015). "TVE, dispuesta a colonizar América con el nuevo canal Star HD". Bluper. El Español.
  16. ^ "RTVE lanza su nuevo canal infantil Clan Internacional para llevar los "valores" de los dibujos españoles a América". Europa Press. 4 July 2017.
  17. ^ "RTVE lanza en pruebas RTVE Play, su nueva plataforma con nuevas funcionalidades". Bluper. El Español. 23 June 2021.
  18. ^ "RTVE lanza en pruebas 'RTVE Play', su nueva plataforma que sustituye y mejorará la 'A la carta'". Vertele!. eldiario.es. 22 June 2021.
  19. ^ "RTVE comienza la revolución de su servicio A La Carta con la app RTVE Play". Panorama Audiovisual. 23 June 2021.
  20. ^ "Radiocadena Española y No-Do se integran en RTVE". Elpais.com (in Spanish). Prisa. 5 December 1978. Retrieved 16 August 2013.
  21. ^ Contreras, José Miguel (21 July 1988). "Aprobada la fusión de Radio Nacional de España y Radiocadena Española". Elpais.com (in Spanish). Madrid: Prisa. Retrieved 16 August 2013.
  22. ^ "Ley 4/1980, de 10 de enero, de Estatuto de la Radio y la Televisión". Boletín Oficial del Estado (in Spanish). 12 January 1980. Retrieved 16 August 2013 – via Noticias Jurídicas.
  23. ^ a b c d e Perez 2009, p. 67.
  24. ^ a b Perez 2009, p. 66.
  25. ^ a b "Statement on RTVE website about the creation of Corporación TVE". Corporación RTVE (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 9 September 2012. Retrieved 13 June 2019.
  26. ^ Perez 2009, pp. 67–68.
  27. ^ Perez 2009, p. 68.
  28. ^ "Tornero entra fuerte en RTVE". El Comercio. 26 March 2021.
  29. ^ "Subvenciones, cadenas privadas o Netflix: Así se financia realmente RTVE, euro a euro". Cadena COPE. 3 July 2021.
  30. ^ a b "El Gobierno obligará a Netflix, HBO y Amazon a contribuir a la financiación de RTVE con el 1,5% de sus ingresos". Cinco Días. 29 June 2021.

Bibliography

External links

This page was last edited on 17 August 2021, at 19:14
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