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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Rai
TypeSocietà per azioni (S.p.A.), state-owned
IndustryMass media
Founded
  • 1924; 98 years ago (1924) (as URI)
  • 1944; 78 years ago (1944) (as RAI)
  • 1954; 68 years ago (1954) (as RAI S.p.A.)
FounderGovernment of Italy
HeadquartersRome, Italy
Area served
Italy and other neighbouring countries in the European Union, Tunisia, Switzerland, Albania, Bosnia, Monaco, Montenegro, San Marino and Vatican City
Key people
  • Carlo Fuortes (CEO)
  • Marinella Soldi (Chairman)
Products
Services
RevenueIncrease €2.493 billion (2019)[1]
Decrease €191.6 million (2019)[1]
Decrease €-54.6 million (2019)[1]
OwnerMinistry of Economy and Finance
Number of employees
12,901 (2019)[1]
Subsidiaries
  • Rai Way
  • Rai Pubblicità S.p.A.
  • Rai Com S.p.A.
  • Rai Cinema S.p.A.
  • 01 Distribution S.r.l.
Website

RAI – Radiotelevisione italiana[2] (Italian pronunciation: [ˈrai ˌradjoteleviˈzjoːne itaˈljaːna]; commercially styled as Rai since 2000; known until 1954 as Radio Audizioni Italiane)[3] is the national public broadcasting company of Italy, owned by the Ministry of Economy and Finance. RAI operates many terrestrial and subscription television channels and radio stations. It is one of the biggest broadcasters in Italy competing with Mediaset,[4] and other minor radio and television networks. RAI has a relatively high television audience share of 35.9%.[5]

RAI broadcasts are also received in surrounding countries, including Albania, Bosnia, Croatia, France, Malta, Monaco, Montenegro, San Marino, Slovenia, Switzerland, Tunisia and the Vatican City, and elsewhere on pay television and some channels FTA across Europe including UK on the Hotbird satellite. Half of RAI's revenues come from broadcast receiving licence fees, the remainder from the sale of advertising time.[6][7] In 1950, RAI became one of the 23 founding members of the European Broadcasting Union.

Structure

RAI is 99% owned by the Italian Government Ministry of Economy and Finance and is the sole licensee (Concessionaria in esclusiva) of the Radio, Television, and Multimedia broadcasting public service. For this reason, the agreement with the Government prescribes a series of rules and guarantees that Rai must follow to ensure a fair public service to the citizens.[8]

Management and Board of Directors are elected by the ruling Parliament through the Commissione parlamentare per l'indirizzo generale e la vigilanza dei servizi radiotelevisivi (Parliamentary Commission for General address and Supervision of Radio and Television Services) every three years, in agreement with almost all Parliamentary exponents, usually following the political side of the majority and leaving some space for minor roles to minority parties exponents.[9][10] Rai is formally a private joint-stock company (società per azioni) (although all stocks are state-owned) its company statute precisely describes how the strict relationship with the Republic is, also ruled by different national laws (the most recent one is the 2015 "Riforma della Rai", i.e. the 2015 law n.220.), including the "Testo Unico della Radiotelevisione" (roughly Consolidated Law on Radio and Television).

Rai and broadcasting are supervised by the commission, which rules also economics budgets and main regulations (including public service's electoral segments during electoral campaigns).

History

1924

Unione Radiofonica Italiana (URI) was formed in 1924 with the backing of the Marconi Company following a model adopted in other European countries. URI made its inaugural broadcast — a speech by Benito Mussolini (1883–1945) at Teatro Costanzi — on 5 October. Regular programming began the following evening, with a quartet performing Haydn's Quartet No. 7 in A major from the Palazzo Corradi. At 21.00 CET, Ines Donarelli Viviani announced for the first time: "URI—Unione Radiofonica Italiana Rome station 1RO 425 metres wavelength. To all those who are listening our greetings, good evening".[11] Guglielmo Marconi's S.A. Radiofono—Società Italiana per le Radiocomunicazioni Circolari (Radiofono) held 85% of URI shares and Western Electric's Società Italiana Radio Audizioni Circolari (SIRAC) held the remaining 15%.

Under the provisions of Royal Decree No. 1067 of 8 February 1923, wireless broadcasting became a state monopoly under the control of the Ministry of Posts and Telegraphs; URI was commissioned to provide services for a minimum of six years pursuant to Royal Decree No. 2191 of 14 October 1924 "Concessione dei servizi radioauditivi circolari alla Società Anonima Unione Radiofonica Italiana".[12] However, when URI's contract expired in 1927, it was succeeded under Royal Decree Law No. 2207 of 17 November 1927 by the partially nationalised Ente Italiano per le Audizioni Radiofoniche (EIAR), which became Radio Audizioni Italiane S.p.A. (RAI) with investment from Società Idroelettrica Piemontese (SIP) in 1944.

1940s

During the reconstruction following World War II, much of RAI's early programming was influenced by the "Reithian" style of the BBC. The emphasis was on educational content. Programs like Non è mai troppo tardi and Un Viaggio al Po introduced people to what life was like in other parts of the country, at a time when most people could not afford to travel.

Over the following years, the RAI made various changes to its services. It reorganized its radio stations in November 1946 into two national networks, Rete Rossa and Rete Azzurra ("Red Network" and "Blue Network"). It added the culture-based Terzo Programma in October 1950. On 1 January 1952 the Rete Rossa became the Programma Nazionale (focusing on informational content) and the Rete Azzurra became the Secondo Programma (with a greater emphasis on entertainment). The three radio channels eventually became today's Rai Radio 1, Rai Radio 2, and Rai Radio 3.

1950s

In 1954 the state-owned holding company Istituto per la Ricostruzione Industriale (IRI) became the sole shareholder and URI – now renamed RAI—Radiotelevisione italiana to reflect its extended responsibilities – finally began a regular television service. On 3 January at 11.00 CET, the first RAI television announcer presented the day's schedule, which was broadcast from the service's Milan headquarters and relay stations in Turin and Rome. At 14.30, the first regular programme in Italian television history was broadcast: Arrivi e partenze, hosted by Armando Pizzo and Mike Bongiorno. The evening's entertainment was a theatre performance, L'osteria della posta, written by Carlo Goldoni. 23.15 saw the start of the day's concluding programme, La Domenica Sportiva – the first edition of a weekly series which continues to this day.[13]

2000s

RAI was originally the subsidiary of RAI Holding S.p.A. RAI Holding was absorbed into RAI as of 1 December 2004, per Article 21 of Law 112/04.

The RAI is governed by a nine-member Administrative Council. Seven of the members are elected by a committee of the Italian Parliament. The other two (one of which is the President) are nominated by the largest shareholder: the Ministry of Economic Development. The Council appoints the Director-General. The Director-General and the members of the Administrative Council are appointed for a renewable three-year term. In 2005, the government of Silvio Berlusconi proposed partial privatisation of RAI by selling 20% ownership. This proposal was very controversial, in part because Berlusconi was the head of the leading private broadcaster Mediaset. Some critics claimed that Mediaset could become the buyer and thus increase its dominant position. However, after the revelation that RAI would lose €80m ($96m, £54m) in 2006, the privatisation plan was suspended in October 2005.[14][15]

2010s

On 18 May 2010, Raisat received a major upgrade and re-branded with a new logo and a new name. It and all of the sister channels dropped the sat part from the name and became Rai YoYo, Rai 5 (formerly known as Rai Extra), Rai Premium, and Rai Movie (formerly known as Raisat Cinema).

On 11 June 2013, RAI was one of the few known European broadcasters to condemn and criticize the closure of Greece's state broadcaster ERT.

RAI is 99% owned by the Italian Government Ministry of Economy and Finance, so it is said that it broadcasts content that may politically influence people.[16][17]

Corporate identity

The Alberto Ribera logo was introduced in 1967, however, this did not have significant application except on studios and portable cameras. A second variation of the Carboni logo was introduced in 1977, which was not officially adopted but appeared in some graphics, including that of the time signal.[18]

Controversy

Political fairness and balance between public service and commercial TV market

Rai's broadcasts content and nominees are frequently accused of political influences,[16][17] depending both on the nominated management for every channel or news programme, and on the lack of meritocracy in contracts with television personalities, hosts and also technicians, also concerting cachets and salaries.[19] However, many people trying to underline that Rai need to balance political equity and public services with the market rules and competitors.[20] All these issues are still pending and unsolved.

Rai's main channels are culturally considered slightly politically oriented: Rai 1 is liberal or right-centred, Rai 2 is usually more right-oriented, while Rai 3 is typically considered leftist, having the majority of left oriented programmes and hosts Fabio Fazio, Bianca Berlinguer, or the journalistic deep investigation programme Report, famous for its investigations over far-right scandals.[21] This issue in Italy is referred as "lottizzazione" and is yet to be solved.

Political censorship and civil rights advocacy controversies

Rai is frequently subjected to controversies and censorship accusations regarding political matters, especially civil rights and LGBT issues.

The broadcaster was strongly accused in 2008 of cutting the gay love scene of the Oscar-winning movie Brokeback Mountain. Rai initially apologized for the cut, explaining that the cut was due to a pre-cut edition originally planned for the prime-time slot, and wasn't corrected when airing was shifted to the late-night slot. Critics noticed that similar scenes of heterosexual lovers were never cut out before in prime-time and reinforcing the accusation of homophobic censorship.[22] The company rescheduled a new uncut version of the movie, but this was aired again in an even later time slot, a choice seen as a confirmation of the accusation. Only two years later, the movie aired again with all homosexual sex and kisses cut off. Rai was forced again to apologise, accusing a problem" with the pre-cut edition by the distribution company and a lack of fact-checking by the Rai employee.[23][24]

In 2011, episode 125 of the German TV Soap Um Himmels Willen (literally "For Heaven's Sake"), shown in Italy since 2004, was entitled Romeo and Romeo and due to screen on Rai 1 but was left out in order to "avoid controversy", according to the broadcaster.[25]

In 2016, during the first clear broadcast of the show How to Get Away with Murder, on Rai 2, the gay kisses for one of the main characters (portrayed by Jack Falahee) were completely cut off. Rai apologized again, stating that the incident was "merely the mistake of an overzealous editor".[26] Criticism on the social media platforms was so strong that Falahee and showrunner Shonda Rhimes both tweeted against the network "inexcusable" censorship.[27][28][29]

Fedez controversy

In 2021, another accusation was made against Rai by famous Italian rapper and Chiara Ferragni's husband Fedez. During the "Concertone del 1 Maggio", a traditional Italian TV broadcast concert in celebration of the International Workers' Day, the rapper was invited to perform and have a speech on the stage. The rapper honored the entertainment workers affected by the COVID-19 pandemic and spent half of his speech in support of legislation that would punish violence against women and LGBT people as hate crimes in Italy. During his speech he recalled all the political exponents' hate speech (confirmed by videos or sentenced by court) during the late years and accused Rai 3's executive of trying censoring his speech by order of "superiors" as "this is how it works." Rai immediately denied all accusations and Fedez leaked a recorded audio of the conversation between him and the executives, where managers and hosts (declaring their names and roles to him) tried to censor his speech, by "asking you to adapt to a system that you probably don't get".[30][31][32]

After the video was reposted by all national media and web news sites, Rai sued the rapper, while a parliamentary investigation was opened. Fedez replied he was proud and ready to face the court, and he said he was available as a testimony for the Rai's Superior Commission.[33] Fedez's accusation was one of the biggest media scandals of Rai, as not only all political parties took sides in the cause (centre and left in favor of the Rapper, including ex-prime ministers Giuseppe Conte and Enrico Letta, while right and far-right parties in favor of Rai, including Matteo Salvini and Giorgia Meloni's colleagues),[30] but also because Fedez and his wife, fashion blogger Chiara Ferragni are the most followed Italians on social media and are very active in social causes and civil rights advocating.

The scandal increased when the parliamentary commission denied a hearing with Fedez, only speaking with Rai's executives. In the very much criticized email answer (which screenshot was published by Fedez on Instagram) the Office of the Commission stated that even if not prohibited by law, it was not custom to invite external people to the Commission investigation. Fedez replied to the email with only three clown emojis, a fact that further angered the far-right politicians.[34]

In July, the new board of Rai was elected, including the CEO and executives; this led to Rai's CEO Fuortes revealing not only the withdrawal of the action in court for failing all the required accusatory elements but also that no legal action was ever meant by the new management. Far-right exponents opened a parliamentary question over the withdrawal.[35][36] After the CEO's declaration, no other details were said about any apology or agreement with Fedez: nonetheless, the rapper was invited by Fabio Fazio to the first episode of the new season of his late show.[37]

Following the 2021 controversy, Fedez reinforced some controversy against Rai when he announced he wasn't invited to the 2022 Concertone for the first time.[38]

Budget and unjustified expenses

Rai was investigated and fined (with many executives arrested or fired) for unjustified expenses and suspicious gifts.[39] Frequently It was noticed that dinners, expensive watches and jewellery were all paid by Rai for unknown people outside the company.[40]

In 2022, a new scandal was investigated by the Guardia di Finanza surrounding corruption and bribes. At least 5 people in total were arrested, while the investigation is still ongoing.[41]

TV channels

Current channels

Logo Name Channel Type Launched Description
Generalist and semi generalist
Rai 1 501

101

Free-to-air
Satellite
3 January 1954 Generalist and family-oriented
Rai 2 502

102

Free-to-air
Satellite
4 November 1961 Generalist, catering towards urban audiences
Rai 3 3 (regional), 503

103

Free-to-air
Satellite
15 December 1979 Cultural and regional programming
Rai 4 21 Free-to-air 14 July 2008 Youth/urban programming and movies
Rai 5 23 Free-to-air 26 November 2010 Arts and culture programming
Thematic
Rai Movie 24 Free-to-air 1 July 1999 Movies
Rai Premium 25 Free-to-air 31 July 2003 Popular fiction and films
Rai Gulp 42 Free-to-air 1 June 2007 Shows aimed at young children ages 8–14
Rai Yoyo 43 Free-to-air 1 November 2006 Shows aimed at young children ages 4–7
Rai News 24 48 Free-to-air 26 April 1999 Non-stop rolling news
Rai Storia 54 Free-to-air 2 February 2009 Documentaries about history and culture
Rai Scuola 57 Free-to-air 19 October 2009 Documentary, cultural and educational
Rai Sport 146 Free-to-air 1 February 1999 Sports coverage and related news

In high definition and ultra definition

Logo Name Channel Type Launched Description
Generalist and semi generalist
Rai 1 HD 1 Free-to-air

Satellite

25 October 2013 HD version of Rai 1
Rai 2 HD 2 Free-to-air

Satellite

25 October 2013 HD version of Rai 2
Rai 3 HD 103, 203

3

Free-to-air

Satellite

25 October 2013 HD version of Rai 3
Rai 4 HD 10 Satellite 22 January 2016 HD version of Rai 4
Rai 5 HD 13 Satellite 19 September 2016 HD version of Rai 5
Rai 4K 101 (HBBTV) Satellite 17 June 2016 Ultra HD (4K) channel
Thematic
Rai Movie HD 14 Satellite 26 May 2016 HD version of Rai Movie
Rai Premium HD 15 Satellite 26 May 2016 HD version of Rai Premium
Rai Gulp HD 42 Satellite 4 January 2017 HD version of Rai Gulp
Rai Yoyo HD 43 Satellite 4 January 2017 HD version of Rai Yoyo
Rai News 24 HD 24 Satellite 4 January 2017 HD version of Rai News 24
Rai Storia HD 23 Satellite 4 January 2017 HD version of Rai Storia
Rai Sport + HD 58

21

Free-to-air

Satellite

14 September 2015 HD version of Rai Sport
Rai Scuola HD 26 Satellite 4 January 2017 HD version of Rai Scuola

Due to the broadcasting rights of the free-to-air satellite channels Rai 1, Rai 2, Rai 3 and Rai Sport in some programs, broadcasts outside Italy are encrypted. In particular, it takes part in copyrighted programs (mostly foreign productions) and international sports competitions. In the past, it was encrypted as Discrete in analog satellite television broadcasts due to broadcasting rights outside Italy. Rai channels will not be broadcast due to broadcasting rights on digital platforms outside Italy.

International

Logo Name Channel Launched Description
Rai Italia 1 January 1992 Catered towards Italian expatriates
Rai World Premium [it] 6 May 2013 Italian culture and national TV shows

Regional

Logo Name Channel Launched Language Region
Rai Alto Adige [it] 1960 Italian Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol
Rai Ladinia 1988 Ladin Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol
Rai Südtirol 103 1966 German Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol
Rai 3 BIS FJK [it] 1995 Italian and Slovene Friuli-Venezia Giulia/Furlanija Julijska Krajina

Discontinued channels

  • Rai Azzurri: UEFA Euro 2004 (2004, broadcast using Rai Utile frequencies)
  • Rai Doc: cultures, styles (1 April 2004 – 1 June 2007)
  • Rai Extra: generalist (31 July 2003 – 26 November 2010)
  • Rai Festival (broadcast using Rai Utile frequencies)
  • Rai Futura: technologies, video games, etc. (30 May 2005 – 1 February 2007, broadcast on the same frequences of Rai Doc at settled times)
  • Rai HD (22 April 2008 – 18 September 2016)
  • Rai Med (26 April 2001 – April 2014)
  • Rai Olimpia: 2004 Summer Olympics (2004, broadcast using Rai Utile frequencies)
  • Rai Sport 2 (18 May 2010 – 5 February 2017)
  • Rai Sport 2 HD (1 August – 19 September 2016, HD version launched for 2016 Olympic and Paralympic Games)
  • Rai UniNettuno Sat Uno (1998 – April 2014)
  • Rai Nettuno Sat Due [it] (2003 – 1 February 2009)
  • Rai Utile (4 January 2004 – 1 January 2008)
  • Rai Widescreen: 1998 FIFA World Cup (1998–1999)
  • Rai On Cultura (IPTV)
  • Rai On Fiction (IPTV)
  • Rai On Fiction Live (IPTV)
  • Rai On News (IPTV)
  • Rai On Ragazzi (IPTV)
  • Rai On Spettacolo (IPTV)
  • Rai On Sport (IPTV)
  • RaiSat 1 [it] (1997–1999)
  • RaiSat 2 [it] (1997–1999)
  • RaiSat 3 [it] or Rai Educational Sat (1997–2000)
  • RaiSat Album [it] (1 June 1999 – 30 July 2003)
  • RaiSat Art [it] (1999 – 30 July 2003)
  • RaiSat Fiction [it] (2000 – 30 July 2003)
  • RaiSat Gambero Rosso Channel (1999 – 31 July 2009)
  • RaiSat Ragazzi [it] (1 July 1999 – 31 October 2006)
  • RaiSat Show [it] (1 June 1999 – 31 July 2003)
  • RaiSat Smash Girls [it] (1 November 2006 – 1 August 2009)
  • Salute! (2009–2010)
  • Yes Italia [it] (2009–2012)

Radio stations

Rai Radio logo (September 2017)
Rai Radio logo (September 2017)

Current stations

On FM, AM, Satellite, DAB/DAB+, DTT, Filodiffusion, Web:

Regional stations:

Only on Satellite, DAB/DAB+, DTT, Filodiffusion and Web:

  • Rai Radio Tutta Italiana: only Italian music
  • Rai Radio Techete' [it]: featuring items from the radio archives
  • Rai Radio Live [it]: live music
  • Rai Radio Kids [it]: station for children from 2 to 10 years old
  • Rai Radio 1 Sport [it]: sports
  • Rai Radio Indie [it]: independent music

Discontinued stations

  • RaiStereoUno [it] (1982—1991)
  • RaiStereoDue [it] (1982—1991)
  • RaiStereoNotte [it] (1982–1995)
  • RadioVerdeRai [it] (1991—1994)
  • StereoRai [it] (1991–1994)
  • Rai Italia Radio (1 July 1930 — 31 December 2011)
  • Notturno Italiano [it] (1952–2011)
  • Radio Rai Sport
  • Rai Radio 8 Opera (6 August 2015 — 11 June 2017)

Divisions and subsidiaries

Strutture Rai [it] (Rai Structures) is a news organization internal to Rai, or rather an internal management and division, created in order to independently manage the programs broadcast on the generalist and, in particular, thematic networks. After 2000, Rai reorganized its corporate structure with the creation of specific structures, listed here:

  • Rai Cultura (previously Rai Educational or Rai Edu): operates event and documentary channels
  • Rai Documentari: documentary productions
  • Rai Expo: supporting and making the public aware of the Expo 2015 event in Milan
  • Rai Fiction: production company for feature films, TV films etc.
  • Rai Giornale Radio [it]: the radio newsroom
  • Rai Gold [it]: management of thematic channels dedicated to cinema and television series
  • Rai Meteo [it]: weather forecasts and reports
  • Rai News [it]: production of news and information services such as Televideo (teletext)
  • Rai Notte [it] (1996–2012): overnight TV programming on Rai 1, 2 and 3
  • Rai Parlamento [it]: operates the Rai Gr ParlamentoSenato della Repubblica and Camera dei deputati channels
  • Rai Quirinale [it]: transmits broadcasts from the President's Quirinale Palace
  • Rai Radio [it]: production of radio programs, generally in Rome, and management for the radio division
  • Rai Ragazzi: children's programming and production company
  • Rai Sport [it]: production of live coverage of sporting events on the three generalist channels (Rai 1, Rai 2, Rai 3) and its own channel of the same name
  • Rai Teche: the broadcast archives
  • Rai Vaticano [it]: transmits broadcasts from the Vatican
  • Struttura Grandi Eventi [it]: production and broadcast of major events
  • TG1: production of news and information services on Rai 1
  • TG2: production of news and information services on Rai 2
  • TG3: production of news and information services on Rai 3
  • TGR: production of local news and information regional services on Rai 3

Related companies

  • Rai Cinema [it] (1998–): film production company
  • Rai Click [it] (2000–2009): television programs on demand, later replaced by Rai On [it]
  • Rai Com [it] (2015–): promotes the marketing rights of the productions
  • Rai Pubblicità [it] (1926–): advertising agency
  • Rai Corporation [it] (1960–2012): production, distribution and marketing in the United States
    • Rai Corporation Canada [it] (1987–2012)
  • RaiNet [it] (1999–2014): managed the web portals from the rai.it and rai.tv domains
  • RaiSat (1997–2010): subsidiary created to produce thematic TV channels for satellite television
  • Rai Trade [it] (1987–2011): promoted the marketing rights of the productions
  • Rai World [it] (2011–14), previously Rai Internazionale [it] (1995–2011): radio and television distribution abroad, operated Rai Italia
  • Rai Way (1999–): broadcasting network for the distribution of the broadcast signal
  • Sacis [it] (1955–1997): television rights management and marketing

Other services

  • Rai Alto Adige [it]: broadcasts television and radio programs throughout the territory of Alto Adige and Trentino
  • Rai Libri: magazine and broadcast publisher
  • Rai Mobilità (TV) and Rai Ondaverde (radio): traffic reports (known as Onda Verde) produced by the Centro di coordinamento informazioni sulla sicurezza stradale [it] (Road safety information coordination center)
  • Rai Orchestra: the broadcaster's radio orchestra
  • RaiPlay: multimedia platform
    • RaiPlay Sound [it]
    • RaiPlay Yoyo [it]
  • Rai Vd'A [it]: produces and broadcasts radio and television programs in Italian and French on the territory of the Aosta Valley. There are also broadcasts in the Valdôtain dialect.

Rai Libri

Rai Libri
Formerly
  • Rai Eri (1996–2018)
  • Nuova Eri (1987–1995)
  • Edizioni Radio Italiana (ERI) (1949–1987)
IndustryPublishing
Genre
  • Magazines
  • Broadcast schedules
  • Media reports
PredecessorURI/RAI
Founded1949; 73 years ago (1949) in Turin, Italy.
Headquarters
Turin
,
Italy
ParentRAI

Rai Libri is the print publishing arm of Rai, headquartered in Turin. They primarily publish magazines and periodicals for news, entertainment, the broadcast industry, and since their beginning, broadcast schedules. They also have published since 1969 the Dictionary of Orthography and Pronunciation [Wikidata], the largest Italian dictionary of its kind.

Publishing history

RAI's history in print with the Unione Radiofonica Italiana (URI)'s weekly magazine Radio Orario which debuted in January 1925 and became Radiocorriere in 1930. Edizioni Radio Italiana (ERI) was founded in 1949 in Turin, formed entirely from RAI capital to build on Radiocorriere's success. In 1954 primary ownership was split between RAI and Istituto per la Ricostruzione Industriale (IRI).[42] That same year Radiocorriere became Radiocorriere TV, which would continue to be published until RAI divested in 1995.[43]

During the 50s and 60s the ERI published Classe Unica, L'Approdo letterario [it] and L'Approdo Musicale [it], and in 1969 the first edition of the DOP. The 80s saw the premiere of the monthlies Moda (1983) and King (1987),[44] along with registering a new company name in 1987: Nuova Eri Edizioni Rai-Radiotelevisione Italiana S.p.A., or "Nuova ERI".[42]

Since the 90s RAI/ERI has increasingly focused on publishing books written by its own broadcast stars, both in news and entertainment. In 1995 Nuova ERI closed and reopened in 1997 as "Rai Eri".[45] On 15 October 2018, they renamed to "Rai Libri".

Rai Libri also edits technical publications: Elettronica e telecomunicazioni since 1946,[46] Nuova rivista musicale italiana since 1967,[47] and Nuova civiltà delle macchine since 1957.[48] It produces its own reports on communications and media, with the second edition of the book-and-documentary RicordeRai released in 2004 in collaboration with Rai Teche.

Radiocorriere TV

RAI (originally URI) had printed its broadcast schedules nearly without interruption starting in 1925 as Radio Orario, then from 1930 as Radiocorriere,[49][50] then continuously from 1954 as Radiocorriere TV, until RAI divested in 1995.

The magazine was restarted under publisher Rcc edizioni [it] with a print edition from 1999 to 2008, closing due to poor sales. It reopened in 2012 as an online-only publication, with a handful of special-occasion independent print runs in the intervening years, including 2005 (its 80th anniversary),[51] 2010 (switchover to DTTV),[52] and 2011 (150th anniversary of the unification of Italy).[53] The "Rai Ufficio Stampa [press office]" website has meanwhile published programming schedules and television blurbs online since 2011 under the magazine's name. On 3 January 2014, Rai Teche published online the complete 1925–1995 archives of URI/RAI's Radio Orario/Radiocorriere/TV.[54]

Headquarters and offices

Seat Centers of television production Auditoriums/theatres Studios
Rome Centro radiotelevisivo "Biagio Agnes", Saxa Rubra 16
Rome CPTV Via Teulada, 66 9
Rome CPTV Studi "Fabrizio Frizzi", Via Ettore Romagnoli, 30 6
Rome Teatro delle Vittorie 1 theatre
Rome Auditorium of Foro Italico 1 auditorium
Milan CP Corso Sempione, 27 3 auditoriums 5
Milan CPTV Via Mecenate, 76 4
Naples CP Viale Marconi, 9 1 auditorium 7
Turin CP Via Verdi, 16 1 auditorium 6

Local offices

Foreign offices

There are RAI offices in foreign countries, which produce news reports that are broadcast live in Italy. These offices are in: Brussels, Paris, Berlin, London, New York City, Beijing, Cairo, Jerusalem, Nairobi, Moscow, Rio de Janeiro, and Bangkok.

Finances

Debt level

As March 2015, the RAI has a debt of €442 million and the Italian Court of Audit was worried about the size of RAI's debt for the impact that this may have on Italian people, as the company is owned by the state.[55]

Mandatory annual fee on all televisions in Italy

Italians must purchase an annual television licence for about €90 every year in order to legally own a TV or HDTV. It is known as Canone Rai, "Rai Tax" because it is used to part-fund the RAI. Since 2016, it is financed through the electricity bill.[56]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d Reports and Financial Statements as of 31 December 2019 (in English) Retrieved on 23-04-2021
  2. ^ "Rai.it - Il gruppo Rai". www.rai.it. Retrieved 25 December 2017.
  3. ^ Originally a distinction was made in Italian between wireless telegraphy (radiofonia) and wireless telephony (radioaudizione circolare). The latter term has now fallen into disuse. La radio in Italia cronologia Archived 18 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine (in Italian) Retrieved on 2007-11-28
  4. ^ Pusterla, Sabrina (27 November 2018). "The Italian Television System Explained". Italics Magazine. Retrieved 3 July 2019.
  5. ^ "RAI - Un 2019 ricco di ascolti tra film, fiction, sport e programmi TV". Cinemaitaliano.info. Retrieved 6 January 2020.
  6. ^ "Basta con il governo padrone, così cambierà la Tv pubblica" Archived 2007-12-27 at archive.today (in Italian) Retrieved on 2007-10-10
  7. ^ " DDL Riforma Rai" Archived 2007-12-13 at archive.today (in Italian) Italian Ministry of Communications, Retrieved on 2007-10-10
  8. ^ "RAI".
  9. ^ RAI under the Center-Right: Wither 50 Years of Public Service Television? by Matthew Hibberd, in Italian Politics: Vol. 19, Italy between Europeanization and Domestic Politics,
  10. ^ "RAI under the Center-Right: Wither 50 Years of Public Service Television? by Matthew Hibberd, in Italian Politics: Vol. 19, Italy between Europeanization and Domestic Politics, 2003, Berghahn Books".
  11. ^ The Origins of radio broadcasting in Italy Archived 7 August 2016 at the Wayback Machine Comitato Guglielmo Marconi International (retrieved 27 November 2011)
  12. ^ Gazzetta Ufficiale No. 11 of 15 January 1925 pp. 164-167
  13. ^ retrieved on 2009-06-21 Archived 7 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine (in Italian)
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  23. ^ "Brokeback Mountain: Il bacio censurato di nuovo dalla Rai - Gay.it".
  24. ^ Anatrone, Sole; Heim, Julia (2020). Queering Italian Media by Sole Anatrone and Julia Hem, 2022, Lexington Books. ISBN 9781793616111.
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  26. ^ "Bacio gay: Rai2 lo censura. Polemic social, la replica: "Eccesso di pudore"". 9 July 2016.
  27. ^ "Shonda Rhimes, Jack Falahee Blast Rai Uno for Censoring HGTAWM Gay Sex Scene".
  28. ^ "La scena gay tagliata e la vera sfida Rai verso la modernità". 11 July 2016.
  29. ^ "Italian Broadcaster Rai Apologizes for Cutting 'How to Get Away with Murder' Gay Sex Scene". The Hollywood Reporter. 10 July 2016.
  30. ^ a b "Italian rapper Fedez accuses state TV of censorship attempt". BBC News. 2 May 2021.
  31. ^ Balmer, Crispian (2 May 2021). "Italian rapper attacks League over LGBT+, accuses RAI of censorship". Reuters.
  32. ^ "State broadcaster in Italy under fire after 'censoring' rapper". TheGuardian.com. 3 May 2021.
  33. ^ "Concertone, Lega: La Rai querela Fedez, atto dovuto. Ma lui: "Io orgogliosissimo, rifarei quel che ho fatto"". 24 May 2021.
  34. ^ "Concertone, Fedez invia alla Commissione di Vigilanza Rai una mail con tre pagliacci". 26 May 2021.
  35. ^ "Fedez, la Rai rinuncia a fargli causa dopo le accuse di censura al Concertone del Primo Maggio". October 2021.
  36. ^ "Sorpresa in commissione Vigilanza: La Rai non ha mai querelato Fedez". 12 October 2021.
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  39. ^ "La Finanza in Rai, indagine dopo esposto sulle spese di viaggio di Monica Maggioni". 25 October 2017.
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  43. ^ "Rai Eri, la Rai da Leggere". Archived from the original on 9 April 2016. Retrieved 17 February 2016 – via www.eri.rai.it.
  44. ^ Websushi.it, ed. (30 July 2009). "Moda e King, l'ironia patinata". Archived from the original on 30 July 2016. Retrieved 17 February 2016 – via Retrovisore– un sito di Luca Pollini.
  45. ^ "ERI". Enciclopedia Treccani. Retrieved 23 October 2018.
  46. ^ Rivista tecnica dal 1946, cfr. il sito.
  47. ^ Nata nel 1967 è oggi diretta da Giovanni Carli Ballola, Paolo Donati, Giorgio Pestelli, Giancarlo Rostirolla e Roman Vlad
  48. ^ Su progetto di Leonardo Sinisgalli che ne diresse la prima serie (1957-1979) è oggi diretta dal comitato scientifico di Dario Antiseri, Edoardo Boncinelli, Umberto Bottazzini, Vittorio Marchis e Silvano Tagliagambe in collaborazione con il Centro D.I.E.A. (Documentazione su Ingegneria ed Etica Ambientale) della Facoltà di Ingegneria dell'Università di Bologna.
  49. ^ Radio Orario – History (1925)
  50. ^ Images of Radiocorriere from the 1930s: "Copertina del Radiocorriere del 24 ottobre 1937" (JPEG). Retrieved 23 October 2018., "Copertina del Radiocorriere del 31 dicembre 1939" (JPEG). Retrieved 23 October 2018., Altre prime pagine dal 1936 al 1977.
  51. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 31 July 2007. Retrieved 24 October 2018.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
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  53. ^ AGI.it - 'NATA PER UNIRE', CD CANZONI 150° UNITA' ITALIA Archived 2011-02-21 at the Wayback Machine
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  56. ^ "RAI - Radiotelevisione italiana - Abbonamenti".

External links

Media related to RAI (broadcaster) at Wikimedia Commons

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