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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Rønne
Town
Rønne in late-July 2006
Rønne in late-July 2006
Coat of arms of Rønne

Coat of arms
Rønne is located in Bornholm
Rønne
Rønne
Location on Bornholm
Rønne is located in Denmark
Rønne
Rønne
Rønne (Denmark)
Coordinates: 55°05′55″N 14°42′05″E / 55.09861°N 14.70139°E / 55.09861; 14.70139
Country Denmark
Region Capital (Hovedstaden)
Municipality Bornholm
Founded 1327
Area
 • Town 29.11 km2 (11.24 sq mi)
Elevation 15 m (49 ft)
Population (2015)
 • Town 13,579
 • Density 470/km2 (1,200/sq mi)
 • Metro 39,632
Time zone UTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST) UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code 3700
Area code(s) (+45) 56
Website www.roenne.ws

Rønne is the largest town on the Danish island of Bornholm in the Baltic Sea. It has a population of 13,579 (1 January 2015).[1] Once a municipality in its own right from 1970 until 2002, when Bornholm was a county (Danish: Bornholms Amt) with an area of 29.11 square kilometres (11.24 square miles), it is now the administrative centre of the Bornholm municipality. As of 2018 11,539 inhabitants live in Rønne Parish, which is a narrow piece of land (number 16 on the map of parishes just below the infobox;mouse-click on maps to enlarge for better view) on the westernmost of the island and stretching north and southward comprising around a third of the area of the former municipality. Knudsker Parish made up the rest of the former municipality. Not all inhabitants of either Rønne (statistikbanken.dk/(table) KM1:number 400-7552) or Knudsker (400-7553) parishes live in the city (contiguous built-up area) of Rønne.

Parishes in Church of Denmark numbered.
Parishes in Church of Denmark numbered.
Municipalities 1970-2002 in green shaded colors, and 22 municipalities before 1 April 1970
Municipalities 1970-2002 in green shaded colors, and 22 municipalities before 1 April 1970

Owing to its natural harbour and its strategic position in the Baltic Sea, Rønne has an interesting history coming under German and Swedish influence during its development as a herring fishing port. Today, with its cobbled streets, half-timbered houses and interesting museums, it attracts visitors mainly from Denmark, Germany, Sweden and Poland.

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Transcription

Good morning! Dad, can I go out there, a little further? - Where? - There Who is faster ... Without legs, Agata Hello I got tickets for two children and me Drive to terminal one, to my colleague Hello, to the Bornholm? Go there Here we have to stop How are you? We'll enter the ferry in few minutes your back looks like the back of a motorcycle We go after them as they go No no no No, (the sea) is like a lake calm no storms I asked him whether to pin our bikes and he said that we don't need to, because there is no storm. Weather is fine So, there will be no ship floating Helmets we leave here Come we go on board Now is? Sixth level Here are the restaurants, let's go above that I want to see here Strong blows here. Indeed, blowing And we are probably sail already Where we sail now? to Bornholm To Bornholm. Borhnolm what is it? This is a city, whether it is the island? Island And what is the country? - Denmark. - Sure, Denmark. On the first day going here and here we will sleep On the second day we go to visit the ruins here and we will sleep here On the third day we drive ourselves here and we will sleep here This will be the longest journey On the fourth day we go out of here and we come here There are such beautiful beaches On the fifth day we go here and here and either will sleep here, or here And on the sixth day we go from here, here and here That's the plan I smell chips How I did that I took Norwegian kroner mixed with Danish? This is interesting, because it's not the same money I need to see now This is Norway It is ten crowns This is a Danish one This is Norway This is Danish How I did it? Write to mummy that you took the Norwegian money Pretty neat how you can mix money Here are the crowns and there are crowns, But here are Danish, and there Norwegian The phone is turned on, but we do not have coverage We can sit and wait until we reach the shore of Bornholm which will last three hours - Here is where we are, where blue dot is - And we're going down or up? Here on this island - This island is Bornholm - How small - Kris! - What did you find? This is not a trash can a flag? How? Who ate breakfast today? - I opened - I was eating Okay, we enter We are entering Rønne Go Kris first Agatha, go further go straight Well, go go, Agatha It is rhubarb How large leaves it has Take a picture to show mom Where he has entrance? We walked around - You can not see that - Where were the turrets? They had to be, isn't it? It's easy to open it, or not? Super, Agatha nice, nice, here we go Potatoes sell You've seen how they sell things here? It's a shed in the middle of the shed are potatoes, onions, pumpkins and you could take it away and leave the coins in the box nobody watches that why? because everyone here are honest would it work in Poland? Immediately they will stole everything You can see if there's place down there Maybe you want to stay up here instead This is just normal 5 crowns so you can use in them in the shop and in the shower We have a place here, 153 And we are here? Yes, we are here, nearby this building less than 15km, and I counted according to the map 17 and finally this is what kids were waiting so long Danish playground on camping What a fun, huh? Kris went to the male? What is this? The division into male and female?

Contents

History

Rønne probably originated around the year 1000 when a small fishing community grew up around the natural harbour. Around 1275,[2] a small chapel dedicated to St Nicolas was built on the site where Rønne's church now stands. The community was soon granted the status of a market town with its own mayor and council and its own law court. However, by the beginning of the 14th century, the King of Denmark, the Archbishop of Lund and even various north German princes were all competing for control of the town. The Germans took a special interest in Bornholm because of its strategic position in the Baltic Sea between the German coast and Visby in Gotland, off the coast of southern Sweden, at times establishing their own interests in the town. After the church's expansion in 1360, the parish of Rønne was established.

As its trade prospered, by the beginning of the 15th century Rønne was repeatedly plundered and burnt by the Lübeckers from northern Germany.[3]

Old low houses in Rønne
Old low houses in Rønne

In 1525, they took control of Bornholm as compensation for the large debts that Denmark was unable to repay. They even allowed their own merchants to establish businesses in Rønne. Though the Lübeckers contributed to the success of the fishing trade, they demanded ever-higher taxes from the local population. The citizens took revenge, chasing the Lübeckers off while allowing other German communities to remain. The result was that in 1576, control of Rønne returned to the Danish Crown. However the Baltic Sea had by this time lost much of its strategic importance. The fishing industry declined and after the town was twice struck by the plague in 1619 and 1655, it took decades for it to recover.[4]

A further setback occurred in April 1658 when, in the midst of the Dano-Swedish war, Denmark ceded Bornholm to Sweden under the Treaty of Roskilde. The occupation was however short-lived as the Swedes were overcome by the local population in December of the same year.[5]

In 1834, Rønne Town Hall was built on the Store Torv, the town's main square. This important building was the centre of administration in Rønne and Bornholm for many years, and the island's courthouse and jail were there.[6]

Soviet bomb damage in May 1945
Soviet bomb damage in May 1945

At the end of World War II, on 7 and 8 May 1945, the town was bombed by Soviet aircraft when the commandant of the German occupying forces refused to surrender.[2][7] The air raid destroyed 212 houses,[8] but only ten civilians were killed, the population having been alerted in advance.[9] Although the rest of Denmark had been liberated on 4 May, the Soviets occupied Bornholm on 9 May, sending the Germans back to Germany. The Soviet Union did not leave until 5 April 1946 when an agreement was reached with the Danish authorities and the island finally came under Danish rule once more.[10]

Most of the houses in Rønne were destroyed or damaged by the bombs and it took several years to rebuild the town, retaining its traditional architecture, quaint streets and half-timbered houses.[2] The Swedes contributed 300 timber houses to the town while the rest of Denmark including Greenland and the Faroes raised the considerable sum of 8 million Danish kroner to help rebuild the town.

Map of Rønne in 1900
Map of Rønne in 1900

Geography

Climate

Climate is temperate Oceanic climate (Cfb) with balanced temperatures year round. Island's climate allows local variety of common fig trees, Bornholm's Diamond, to thrive in locality lying far out of its normal habitats.

Climate data for Rønne
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 2
(36)
1.9
(35.4)
4.0
(39.2)
8.0
(46.4)
13.5
(56.3)
17.8
(64)
19.5
(67.1)
19.8
(67.6)
16.2
(61.2)
12.0
(53.6)
7.4
(45.3)
3.9
(39)
10.49
(50.88)
Daily mean °C (°F) 0.3
(32.5)
0.0
(32)
1.8
(35.2)
5.0
(41)
9.9
(49.8)
14.3
(57.7)
16.3
(61.3)
16.6
(61.9)
13.5
(56.3)
9.7
(49.5)
5.4
(41.7)
2.0
(35.6)
7.9
(46.2)
Average low °C (°F) −1.3
(29.7)
−1.8
(28.8)
−0.3
(31.5)
2.1
(35.8)
6.4
(43.5)
10.9
(51.6)
13.2
(55.8)
13.4
(56.1)
10.8
(51.4)
7.4
(45.3)
3.5
(38.3)
0.2
(32.4)
5.38
(41.68)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 43
(1.69)
28
(1.1)
31
(1.22)
32
(1.26)
39
(1.54)
46
(1.81)
56
(2.2)
49
(1.93)
61
(2.4)
49
(1.93)
53
(2.09)
46
(1.81)
533
(20.98)
Average precipitation days 11 7 9 7 7 6 8 8 9 10 12 12 103
Mean monthly sunshine hours 36 58 106 168 238 240 222 208 137 88 46 34 1,580
Source: DMI (Danmarks Meteorologiske Institut)[11]

Economy and infrastructure

The economic status of Rønne grew dramatically during the Middle Ages with the development of the herring industry.[12] However, by the late 16th century, the fishing industry had begun to decline and for the next 300 years there was practically no further growth. The ceramic industry in the town surpassed that of the fishing industry and has continued into modern times, with as many as 50 ceramics shops in Rønne today.[2] However tourism is now the most important contributor to the local economy:[2] there are several notable sandy beaches in the area used by tourists.[12]

Grandfather clocks

Bornholm longcase clock
Bornholm longcase clock

Rønne also became famous for its longcase clocks or Bornholmerure which were manufactured from the middle of the 18th century until around 1900. Interest in clock-making started when a Dutch ship sailing from England ran aground off Rønne in 1744 carrying five grandfather clocks which were damaged in the accident. In view of the clocks' value, the sailors called on Poul Ottesen Arboe, a local turner, who was able to repair them. As a result of the experience he gained in the repair work, he was able to manufacture clocks himself, giving birth to a new local industry.

Several workshops soon began to produce Bornholm clocks which became popular as they were cheaper than the more authentic models produced elsewhere. There were probably about 30 different clockmakers in the town at the beginning of the 19th century. By the 1840s, some 2,000 clocks were made each year. Over the years, they were produced in various styles with both wooden and metal casings. The smaller pendulum clocks which were also produced became popular too. Around the end of the 19th century, production came to a halt as industrially produced clocks became far cheaper than Bornholm's handcrafted artefacts.[13][14]

Demographics

Historical population
YearPop.±%
196515,957—    
197515,440−3.2%
198515,343−0.6%
199015,187−1.0%
199515,220+0.2%
199915,148−0.5%
200214,837−2.1%
YearPop.±%
201013,924−6.2%
201113,904−0.1%
201213,887−0.1%
201313,730−1.1%
201413,568−1.2%
201513,579+0.1%
201613,639+0.4%

Landmarks

Rønne architecture and Methodist Church
Rønne architecture and Methodist Church

The town has some quaint cobbled streets and low-timbered houses. Two streets of particular interest are the Laksegade and the Storegade, which contain many historic houses which were once the homes and trade buildings of merchants and noblemen.[15][16] Notable landmarks include the Bornholm Museum,[17] the Defence Museum (Forsvarsmuseet), St Nicolas' Church, the Smedegårds riding school in the southern part of town, and the lighthouse.[2]

The Bornholm Museum offers an insight into the history of Rønne and the island of Bornholm, from the Paleolithic era to the modern age, including the occupation during World War II. The museum houses a number of Nordic Bronze Age and Iron Age artefacts relating to the island and has a Mjolnir, discovered in Bornholm but now housed in the National Museum of Denmark, as its logo.[citation needed] It also has a notable collection of Roman coins, pottery and paintings.[15]

The Rønne Lighthouse, a slender white-painted octagonal tower in cast iron, stands on the waterfront not far from the church. Constructed in 1880, it was decommissioned in 1989.[18]

Skt. Nicolaj Kirke
Skt. Nicolaj Kirke

St Nicolas's Church, with its distinctive tower, is part of the Diocese of Copenhagen and in its present form was enlarged and fully refurbished in 1918. It stands on the site of an earlier church or chapel from the 13th century of which some sections can still be seen.[19] Forsvarsmuseet, or the Rønne Defence Museum, is housed in a round tower with walls 3.5 m (11 feet) thick known as Kastellet or the citadel. Built in 1744 for the town's defence, there was never any occasion for it to be used. The museum has numerous artefacts relating to military history such as guns, blades, bombs and uniforms.[15] Store Torv, the central square, was formerly used for military parades. Several notable buildings lie in the heart of the town, including the Rønne Public Library, the Nordeabank and old merchant/noble warehouses and residences.[15] Buildings of note include Erichsens Gård, built in 1806 and now a museum, the neo-classical Kommandantgården, built in 1846 and now a ceramics museum, and the Amtmandsgården, located at Storegade 36.[16] The Toldboden is a merchant warehouse, built in 1624, and is one of Rønne's oldest half-timbered buildings.[16] The Torhus building, at the side of the square, was built in 1834 and is the former town hall, courthouse and jail.[6] Rønne Theatre built in 1823 is Denmark's oldest provincial theatre still in active use.[16] Hovedvagten at Søndergade 12 was built as a guard house in 1744 with bricks from Hammershus which was being demolished at the time. It is the oldest brick house in the town.[20] The Methodist Church with another distinctive tower was built 1917-1918 and consecrated 6 January 1918.[21] Another sightworthy building in the centre of Rønne is the Baptist Church which was built in 1888.

Rønne harbor

Transportation

Ferry routes connecting Bornholm
Ferry routes connecting Bornholm
Rønne Havn with HSC Villum Clausen
Rønne Havn with HSC Villum Clausen
Rønne Railway Station model in Bornholm Museum
Rønne Railway Station model in Bornholm Museum

Rønne is connected to the rest of Denmark and to the outside world by ferry lines. BornholmerFærgen operates the lines to Køge, Ystad and Sassnitz, while Polferries operates the line to Świnoujście.[22]

There is a high speed catamaran link to Ystad which connects with a direct train link between Ystad and Copenhagen.

Outside Rønne, Bornholm Airport offers flights to Copenhagen and to some summer destinations.

Twin towns – sister cities

References

  1. ^ "BEF44: Population 1st January, by urban areas" database from Statistics Denmark
  2. ^ a b c d e f "Rønne, Bornholm". Bornholm in Pictures. Retrieved May 28, 2010. 
  3. ^ "Rønne i Middelalderen" (in Danish) Retrieved 28 May 2010.
  4. ^ "Lübeckertiden 1525–1576." (in Danish) Retrieved 28 May 2010.
  5. ^ Bornholms besættelse 1658. (in Danish) Retrieved 28 May 2010.
  6. ^ a b Bender & O'Brien (2005), p.169
  7. ^ Bender & O'Brien (2005), p.171
  8. ^ Andreas Haller: Bornholm, p. 82. Erlangen 2013
  9. ^ "Outlook on Bornholm". Russia Today Newsletter. 1948. 
  10. ^ Knudsen, Ann Vibeke (2001), Bornholm i Krig 1940-1946 (2 ed.), Bornholm: Bornholms Museum & Museumsrådet for Bornholms Amt, ISBN 87-88179-49-4 
  11. ^ "Weather Information for Bornholm" (in Danish). Danmarks Meteorologiske Institut. Retrieved 12 May 2009. 
  12. ^ a b Berezin, Henrik (2006). Adventure Guide to Scandinavia. Hunter Publishing,Inc,. p. 454. ISBN 1-58843-579-2. 
  13. ^ "Bornholmerure - et rigtigt eventyr" Archived 2 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine., Bornholmsmuseum.dk. (in Danish) Retrieved 1 June 2020.
  14. ^ Karl Blemsted, "En oversigt over udviklingen af Rønnes industri", Geografisk Tidsskrift, Bind 52 (1952 - 1953). (in Danish) Retrieved 1 June 2010.
  15. ^ a b c d Bender & O'Brien (2005), p.168
  16. ^ a b c d Bender & O'Brien (2005), p.170
  17. ^ "About the museum". Bornholm Museum. Archived from the original on 5 June 2009. Retrieved 28 May 2010. 
  18. ^ "Rønne Havn Bagfyr", Danske fyrtårne. (in Danish) Retrieved 30 October 2012.
  19. ^ O. Norn, C.G. Schultz, Erik Skov, "Danmarks Kirke udgivet af Nationalmuseet: Bornholm", Copenhagen, G.E.C. Gads Forlag, 1954.
  20. ^ "Hovedvagten" Archived 19 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine., Bornholmsmuseum.dk. Retrieved 31 May 2010.
  21. ^ Søren Olsen: Oplev Bornholm og Christiansø, p. 23. Gjern 2015
  22. ^ "Ferries". bornholm.info. Archived from the original on 1 July 2010. Retrieved 31 January 2009. 

Bibliography

External links

Media related to Rønne at Wikimedia Commons

This page was last edited on 17 July 2018, at 18:29
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