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Quad (figure skating)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A quad, or quadruple, is a figure skating jump with at least four (but fewer than five) revolutions.[1] All quadruple jumps have four revolutions, except for the quadruple Axel, which has four and a half revolutions. No figure skater to date has landed the quadruple Axel in competition. The quadruple toe loop and quadruple Salchow are the two most commonly performed quads. Quadruple jumps have become increasingly common among World and Olympic level men's single skaters, to the point that not performing a quad in a program has come to be seen as a severe handicap.[2][3] This phenomenon is often referred to as the "quad revolution".[4] Since 2018, quadruple jumps have also become an increasingly common feature of women's skating, although they are not allowed under the ISU rules in the ladies' short program.[4][5] The first person to land a ratified quadruple jump in competition was Canadian Kurt Browning in 1988. Miki Ando became the first female to do so, in 2002, and is now one of six women to have landed a ratified quadruple jump in international competition.

History of first jumps

In singles competition for men:

  • On March 25, 1988, at the World Championships in Budapest, Hungary, Canadian skater Kurt Browning landed the first ratified quadruple jump (a quad toe loop) in competition.
  • On March 7, 1998, at the Junior Grand Prix Final in Lausanne, Switzerland, American skater Timothy Goebel landed the first ratified quadruple Salchow and, in particular, a quad Salchow in combination.
  • On September 16, 2011, in the short program at the Colorado Springs Invitational, American skater Brandon Mroz landed the first ratified quad Lutz in a sanctioned competition.[6][7][8][9][10] On November 12, he landed a ratified quad Lutz at the NHK Trophy, becoming the first skater to land successfully a quad Lutz in international competition.
  • On April 22, 2016, in the short program at the Team Challenge Cup in Spokane, United States, Japanese skater Shoma Uno landed the first ratified quadruple flip in competition.[11]
  • On September 30, 2016, in the short program at the Autumn Classic International in Montreal, Canada, Japanese skater Yuzuru Hanyu landed the first ratified quadruple loop (also known as the "Rittberger" in Europe) in competition.[12]
  • No quadruple Axel has yet been ratified.
  • No quadruple combinations (quadruple jumps followed by quadruple loop or toe loop) or sequences (quadruple jumps followed by any quadruple jumps except for quadruple loop or toe loop) have yet been ratified.

In singles competition for women:

  • On December 14, 2002, in the free skate at the Junior Grand Prix Final in The Hague, Netherlands, Japanese skater Miki Ando landed the first ratified quadruple Salchow in competition.
  • On March 10, 2018, in the long program at the World Junior Figure Skating Championships in Sofia, Bulgaria, Russian skater Alexandra Trusova landed the first ratified quadruple toe loop in competition. She is also the second woman to land a ratified quadruple Salchow, making her the first woman to complete two quads in one program, and two different types of quads in one program.[13]
  • On October 12, 2018, in the long program at the Junior Grand Prix in Yerevan, Armenia, Alexandra Trusova landed the first ratified quadruple Lutz in competition.
  • On December 7, 2019, in the long program at the Grand Prix Final in Torino, Italy, Alexandra Trusova landed the first ratified quadruple flip in competition. She also became the first woman to complete three different types of quads in one program.

In pair skating competition:

Scoring

The quad jump is currently the highest scoring single element in the skater's program short of performing combinations. The current ISU scoring for quad jumps in base values is listed as, in descending order:

Quad axel; 12.5
Quad lutz; 11.5
Quad flip; 11
Quad loop; 10.5
Quad salchow; 9.7
Quad toeloop; 9.5

As of 2021, the quad axel remains to be performed in competition for the first time.[15]

Timeline of major events

Men

1983
  • Mark Cockerell (USA) lands quads in training at the US National Sports Festival, but decides not to try it during his performance.[16]
1984
  • Alexander Fadeyev (USSR) attempts a quad toe at the Olympics, but it is not officially recognized by the ISU because of a flawed landing.[17]
1986
1987
1988
  • Kurt Browning (CAN) lands the first ratified quadruple jump, a toe loop, at the World Championships (with three turns on the landing).[18][20][21] Browning said: "I remember that there were a few people landing the jump (in practice) long before I did, and by watching them I was inspired to try it myself. After landing it, I certainly expected more skaters to start doing it in competition. I was surprised in the next few years when that really did not happen."[18]
  • Brian Boitano (USA) attempts a quad toe later in the same competition but cannot hold the landing and takes an extra step; ruled not valid.[20]
1989
  • Kurt Browning (CAN) lands a quad toe loop at the World Championships but touches down with his free foot.[21]
1990
  • Alexei Urmanov (USSR) becomes the first Soviet skater to land a quad (quad toe loop) in competition, at the Soviet championships in December.
  • Petr Barna (CZE) lands a quad toe loop, but touches down with free foot at the European Championships in January
1991
  • Erik Larson (USA) attempts a slide spiral into a quad toe at NHK Trophy. He lands it, but turns out of the landing.
  • Michael Chack (USA) attempts a one-foot Axel/quad Salchow combination at the U.S. Nationals; quad landing is two-footed.
  • Alexei Urmanov (RUS) lands a quadruple toe loop at the European Championships in January.
  • Elvis Stojko (CAN) lands the first quad in combination, the first quadruple toe loop-double toe loop combination, at the World Championships.[22] He later said that he had studied VHS tapes of Browning, Boitano, Fadeev, and Sabovcik to master the quad.[23]
1992
  • Petr Barna (CZE) lands a quad toe loop, but steps out on landing at the European Championships in January.[24]
  • Alexei Urmanov (CIS) lands a quad toe loop at the European Championships in January
  • Konstantin Kostin (LAT) lands a quad toe loop at the European Championships in January
  • Alexei Urmanov (CIS) lands the first quad (toe loop) in Olympic competition but touches down with his right hand.
  • Petr Barna (CZE) lands a quad toe loop but touches down with his free foot.[25]
1993
1994
  • Zhang Min (CHN) lands a quad toe loop cleanly at the Winter Olympics, Lillehammer.
  • Elvis Stojko (CAN) attempts a quad toe loop-triple toe loop combination at the World Championships, but steps out on the landing.[citation needed]
1995
1996
  • Guo Zhengxin (CHN) lands a quad toe loop-double toe loop at the World Championships.[28]
1997
  • Michael Weiss (USA) two-foots a quad toe loop attempt at U.S. Nationals.[29]
  • Elvis Stojko (CAN) lands the first quad-triple combination (the first quad toe-triple toe) at the Champions Series Final.[23] Three different skaters each land a quad jump at this competition: Elvis Stojko, Ilia Kulik (RUS), and Alexei Urmanov (RUS).
  • Guo Zhengxin (CHN) is the first to land two quads in a single performance at the World Championships: a quad toe, plus a quad toe-double toe combination, thus also making him the first to land a single quad and a quad in combination together in one performance.
  • Elvis Stojko repeats his quad toe-triple toe at the World Championships.
  • Anthony Liu (AUS) becomes the first Australian to land a quad at his country's national championships in July (quad toe loop).
  • 17-year-old Tim Goebel (USA) attempts quads throughout the fall season at the Junior Champions series and attempts a quad Salchow at the Ukrainian Souvenir competition (where five other men planned quads). The attempt was ruled a two-footed landing.
1998
  • Michael Weiss (USA) attempts a quad Lutz in both his U.S. Nationals free skate (two-footed) and in his Olympic free skate (fall).
  • Todd Eldredge (USA) falls on a quad toe attempt at the U.S. Nationals.
  • Timothy Goebel (USA) becomes the first American to land a quadruple jump (a quad Salchow in combination with a double toe loop) in competition at the Junior Champions Series Final. In so doing he also lands the first quadruple Salchow and the first quad Salchow in combination (as well as the first quad combination by an American). The jump is ratified by the ISU a month later.[30]
  • Ilia Kulik (RUS) becomes the first Olympic champion to land a quad in a winning program.
  • The ISU votes to permit solo quadruple jumps in the men's short program at their biennial congress in June.
  • Timothy Goebel (USA) lands a clean (solo) quad Salchow at the Goodwill Games in July.
  • Derek Schmidt (CAN) attempts quad toe loops in his short programs during two minor regional Canadian summer competitions but fails to complete the jumps cleanly.
  • Elvis Stojko (CAN) is the first to attempt a quad (toe loop) in a short program at a major international competition at Skate America, but falls on the attempt.
1999
  • Zhang Min (CHN) becomes the first man to land a quadruple jump (a toe loop) in a short program at the Four Continents Championship in February.[31]
  • Michael Weiss (USA) is the first American to land a quadruple toe at the World Championships.[32]
  • Ilia Klimkin (RUS) becomes the first man to land two different quadruple jumps (salchow and toe loop) in a program at the 1999 Nebelhorn Trophy.[33]
  • Timothy Goebel (USA) becomes the first man to land three quadruple jumps in a program (long program) at 1999 Skate America in October: a quad salchow, a quad toe loop in combination, and a quad toe as a solo jump.[18]
  • Evgeni Plushenko (RUS) performs the world's first quad-triple-double (quadruple toe-triple toe-double loop) combination at the NHK Trophy.
2000
2001
  • Evgeni Plushenko (RUS) lands a quad-triple-double (quadruple toe-triple toe-double loop) at the World Championships.
  • Evgeni Plushenko (RUS) falls on a quad Lutz attempt at the Cup of Russia.
2002
  • Alexei Yagudin (RUS) lands a quad-triple combination jump in his short program at the 2002 Olympics.[35]
  • Alexei Yagudin (RUS) lands two quads in his Olympic-winning long program: 1) a quad-triple-double (quadruple toe, toe-triple toe, double loop) combination and 2) a quadruple toe loop.[36]
  • Evgeni Plushenko (RUS) lands two quads in his Olympics long program: a quadruple toe-triple toe-triple loop attempt (step out on the last jump) and a solo quad toe.[37]
  • Zhang Min (CHN) is the first to land three quadruple jumps in the long program at the Olympic Games.[38]
  • Timothy Goebel (USA) lands a quad salchow-triple toe loop combination in his Olympic short program.
  • Timothy Goebel (USA) lands two quad salchow (one in combination with a triple toe loop) and one quad toe loop during his Olympic free program.
  • Evgeni Plushenko (RUS) lands the first quad-triple-triple (quadruple toe-triple toe-triple loop) combination in competition at the Cup of Russia.
2003
2006
  • Evgeni Plushenko (RUS) performs a quadruple toe-triple toe-double loop combination in his Olympic-winning free skate.[citation needed]
  • Stephane Lambiel (SUI) performs a quadruple toe-triple toe-double loop combination during his free skate at the Olympics. He attempts a second quad past the halfway point, but steps out and touches down with his hand.[40]
  • Brian Joubert (FRA) lands three quads (a quad toe in combination with double toe, a quad Salchow and a second quad toe) in competition at the Cup of Russia. He became the first European to perform it, and the first skater to land three quads in a free program under the ISU Judging System.[41]
2008
2010
2011
2012
  • Kevin Reynolds (CAN) attempts quad loop at 2012 World Team Trophy. The jump was underrotated, then he fell.[51]
  • Javier Fernández (ESP) becomes the second European skater to land three quads (two salchows and a toe-loop) in a free program and the first one to do it with a quad-triple combination (4S+3T) at the 2012 Grand Prix Final in Sochi, Russia.
2013
  • Brian Joubert (FRA) becomes the first skater to land more than 100 quadruple jumps in his career at international competitions.[52]
  • Vladislav Sesganov (RUS) becomes the first European skater to land a quadruple Lutz in a competition at the 2013 International Cup of Nice.[53]
  • Javier Fernández (ESP) becomes the first skater to land three quads twice in the same season after the 2012-13 Grand Prix Final and the 2013 European Championships. In both programs he did two quad Salchows and a quad toe loop, the first Salchow in combination with a triple toe loop.
  • Kevin Reynolds (CAN) becomes the first figure skater to land five quads in one competition
2014
2015
  • Alexei Krasnozhon (USA) at a JGP in Latvia attempts the quad loop. The jump is downgraded and receives a fall deduction.[55] He also attempts quad loop at a JGP in Poland but the jump is underrotated.[56]
  • Boyang Jin (CHN) at a domestic competition (2015 National Grand Prix) lands six quad jumps in two programs: 4Lz-3T combination and 4T in a short program, and 4Lz, 4S, 4T-2T, 4T in a free skate, although he steps out on the quad Lutz.[57]
  • Boyang Jin (CHN) lands a successful quad Lutz - triple toe-loop (4Lz-3T) combination during his senior debut, the short program at the 2015 ISU Grand Prix event, Cup of China. The jump combination earned +1.29 GOE and Jin became the first man to land a positively graded 4Lz in an official ISU competition and the first man to jump a 4Lz in combination. Jin landed two successful quads in his short program. During the free skate Jin attempted four quads, landing a 4Lz, 4T-2T, 4T, but falling on his 4S attempt. He earned +2.14 GOE on his 4Lz, landing it for the second time in one competition.
  • Boyang Jin (CHN) at the 2015-16 Grand Prix Final lands six quad jumps in two programs: 4Lz-3T combination and 4T in a short program, and 4Lz, 4S, 4T-2T, 4T in a free skate, although he steps out on the quad Salchow.[58]
2016
2017
  • Nathan Chen (USA) at the 2017 U.S. Figure Skating Championships becomes the first skater to land 1) four different types of quads in a free skating program (Lutz, flip, toeloop, Salchow), 2) five quads in total in a free skating program, and 3) seven quads in total in both his short program and free skating.[65]
  • Shoma Uno (JPN) successfully lands a quad loop in his free skate at the 2017 Four Continents Championships. He also lands a quad flip and two quad toe loops in the same programs.[66]
  • Yuzuru Hanyu (JPN) becomes the first competitor to land three quads in the second half of a free skating program.[67]
  • Nathan Chen (USA) becomes the first figure skater to have landed five different types of quads across various competitions: toe loop, Salchow, loop, flip and Lutz, following his successful quadruple loop at the 2017 US International Figure Skating Classic.
  • Yaroslav Paniot (UKR) successfully lands a quad flip in his free skate at the 2017 US International Figure Skating Classic.
  • Mikhail Kolyada (RUS) successfully lands a quad Lutz in his free skate at the 2017 Ondrej Nepela Memorial.
  • Yuzuru Hanyu (JPN) successfully lands a quad Lutz at the 2017 Rostelecom Cup (Cup of Russia).
  • Alexander Samarin (RUS) becomes the first European skater to land a quad Lutz in combination with a triple toe in international competitions at the 2017 Skate Canada.
  • Nathan Chen (USA) becomes the first figure skater to land two quad Lutz jumps in a free skating and three quad Lutz jumps in a single competition at the 2017 Skate America.
  • Daniel Grassl (ITA) becomes the youngest person to land a quad Lutz jump in international competition, at the age of 15. He did so in his free skate at the 2017 CS Golden Spin of Zagreb.
2018
  • Nathan Chen (USA) at the 2018 Winter Olympics Team event (men's short) becomes the first skater to land a quad flip at the Olympics.[68]
  • Vincent Zhou (USA) becomes the first skater to land a quad Lutz at the Olympics.[69]
  • Nathan Chen (USA) was the first to land six quads in a free skate (five of them cleanly), also at the 2018 Winter Olympics.[68]
  • Vincent Zhou (USA) successfully lands a quad flip in competition at the World Championships.
  • Stephen Gogolev (CAN) becomes the youngest person to land quad Lutz, quad Salchow and quad toe in international competition, at the age of 13, landing three quad jumps in his free skate at the 2018 Junior Grand Prix Slovakia.
  • Dmitri Aliev (RUS) becomes the first European skater to have completed three quadruple jumps (toe loop, Lutz and Salchow) in international competitions. He added the quad Lutz during the 2018 Winter Olympics and the quad Salchow during the 2018 Lombardia Trophy.
  • Daniel Grassl (ITA) becomes the first European skater to have completed quad loop in international competition. He did so in his free skate at the 2018 Golden Bear in Zagreb.
  • Artur Dmitriev Jr. (RUS) becomes the first skater to have attempted quad Axel in international competition. He did so in his free skate at the 2018 Rostelecom Cup. His jump was recognized as quad Axel in the protocols, though it was downgraded.[70]
2021
  • Nathan Chen (USA) completes five quads at the World Championships in Stockholm including three quads done in combination. The program included 4Lutz, then a 4flip+3toeloop, followed by a quad Sal. The program ended with two further quad jumps in combination, a 4toeloop+Euler+3flip and then a 4toeloop+3toeloop combination.

Women

1990
  • Surya Bonaly (FRA) attempts a quad toe loop at the European Championships, the first quad attempt by a woman in a major competition. She also falls on a quad Salchow attempt.
1991
  • Surya Bonaly (FRA) lands an underrotated quad attempt at the World Championships.
1992
  • Surya Bonaly (FRA) lands an underrotated quad toe loop at the Olympics and later repeats this at the World Championships.[71]
1996
  • Surya Bonaly (FRA) attempts a quad Salchow at the World Championships, but lands forward and falls.[72]
2001
  • Sasha Cohen (USA) lands a quad Salchow in warmup and practice at Skate America, but her attempt in the long program ends up aborted.[73]
2002
  • Miki Ando (JPN) becomes the first woman to land a rotated quadruple (a Salchow) at the Junior Grand Prix Final.[74]
2017
2018
2019
2020
  • Sofia Akatieva (RUS) lands two quad jumps (both quad Toes) and one triple Axel at the fourth stage of the Cup of Russia (domestic competition) on a junior level, all with positive GOE, becoming the first ever lady to land a 3A and more than one quad jump in one program.
  • Rika Kihira (JPN) successfully lands a quad Salchow during 2020–21 Japan Figure Skating Championships.
2021
  • Maiia Khromykh (RUS) successfully lands a quad Salchow and a quad Toe at the 2021 Russian Cup Final.

Pairs

1977
1987
2000
  • Dan Zhang and Hao Zhang (CHN) perform the first quadruple twist in a Junior competition at the Junior World Championships.[77]
2002
  • Shen Xue and Zhao Hongbo (CHN) attempt a quadruple-throw Salchow at the Olympics. She lands, then falls, and the jump is not ratified.
2004
  • Ding Yang and Ren Zhongfei (CHN) attempt a quadruple-throw toe loop at the Four Continents Championships; the landing is two-footed.
2006
2007
2008
2011
2012
2014
2015
2017
2018

Execution

A jump harness is often employed in training quads.[87] Quads require an average rotational frequency of around 340 rpm, with the peak rotational frequency usually exceeding 400 rpm.[88] The optimum height is estimated to be around 20 inches;[89] however, most skaters rarely go above 18 inches. This is partly because of the heaviness of the skates and partly because skaters have to maintain the balance between the energy put into the jump versus the energy put into the rotation.[88] Skaters begin rotating the jump as soon as they leave the ice,[4] but generally have less than two-thirds of a second to complete their rotation.[88] Efficient body contraction is also important due to conservation of angular momentum.[89] According to Deborah King, a professor of exercise and sports sciences at Ithaca College, quads have a slightly higher angular momentum than lower difficulty jumps, but the major difference is in how skaters control the moment of inertia.[90]

Greater understanding of successful jump technique has developed over time. Kurt Browning, the first skater to land a ratified quad in competition, has said that when training the jump, "we really just jumped as high as we could and pulled in as hard as we could and hoped for the best."[91] The smallest error may make the difference in the success of a quad attempt. Max Aaron has stated that "The minute your left arm is behind you, or your three-turn is too fast, if your hips don't turn in time, if your foot isn't in the right place, anything will throw you off."[87] Research indicates that changes in arm position of even three or four degrees can significantly affect the rotational speed.[90] According to Ross Miner, the quality of the ice can also affect the success of the jump, especially for the quad Salchow.[87]

Controversy

Practicing quads increases the risk of injury as well as wear and tear on a skater's body.[87] According to Aaron, "the force of a quadruple is huge," and practicing them means "you're going to fall a lot and take a beating."[87] There is a lack of research into the impact of quads on the joints, but the repetitive nature of jump training and the fact that skaters always land on the same foot means that skaters are at risk of developing microfractures that can become more serious with time. Because of this, some coaches try to limit the number of jump repetitions skaters do in practice.[89]

Concerns have been raised about the long-term impact of quads on the bodies of young skaters, especially girls. So far, only teenage girls have been able to land quads. The figure skating community remains divided about the sustainability of such jumps for women past puberty. Rafael Arutanian, coach of skaters such as Nathan Chen and Ashley Wagner, has questioned, "Will they still land these jumps at age 18 or 19? They are doing these jumps with bodies that have not developed yet, with bones that are still growing. What will they be at age 40? Will they all need new hips?"[4] His concern has been echoed by fellow coach Linda Leaver, who predicts that "it will be extremely rare for a female skater to be able to do multiple quadruple jumps past puberty." She added, "I also think careers for men will be shorter because of the stress on backs, knees, and ankles, and the body type will be more of a determinate in who can dominate the sport."[5] Quads are thought to favor those with lighter, slimmer bodies as they have a smaller moment of inertia.[91] The tight body contraction necessary for landing quads is harder for adult women due to their wider hips.[89]

See also

References

  1. ^ "GLOSSARY". International Olympic Committee. Archived from the original on June 9, 2006.
  2. ^ Borzilleri, Meri-Jo (March 25, 2003). "Not taking same path as others". The Gazette (Colorado Springs).
  3. ^ Brennan, Christine (February 16, 2018). "Adam Rippon solid again, but can't keep up technically in men's figure skating competition". USA Today.
  4. ^ a b c d Hersh, Philip (September 19, 2019). "Quad revolution comes in force to women's figure skating". NBC Sports. Retrieved January 4, 2021.
  5. ^ a b Radnofsky, Louise (October 27, 2019). "The Year Teenage Girls Blew Up Figure Skating". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved January 4, 2021.
  6. ^ a b Brandon Mroz - Quad Lutz (2011 Colorado Springs invitational) at Official U.S. Figure Skating Youtube
  7. ^ a b c Hersh, Philip (September 21, 2011). "Top skating official says Mroz could jump into record books". The Chicago Tribune. Retrieved September 21, 2011.
  8. ^ a b "The first reportedly recognized quadruple Lutz jump". International Skating Union. October 26, 2011. Archived from the original on October 29, 2011.
  9. ^ a b Rosewater, Amy (October 26, 2011). "ISU confirms Mroz's historic accomplishment". Icenetwork. Retrieved October 26, 2011.
  10. ^ "Brandon Mroz's quad Lutz validated". ESPN. Associated Press. October 26, 2011.
  11. ^ Hoang, Mai (April 23, 2016). "Uno lands historic quad flip at Team Challenge". Golden Skate.
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  13. ^ a b "13-year-old is first female figure skater to land two quads (video)". OlympicTalk. March 10, 2018. Retrieved March 10, 2018.
  14. ^ Hines, James R. (2011). Historical Dictionary of Figure Skating. Scarecrow Press. p. 57. ISBN 978-0810868595.
  15. ^ "Nathan Chen catches Yuzuru Hanyu for third straight world figure skating title," The Guardian, March 28, 2021. [1].
  16. ^ "Cockerell Captures Skating". The New York Times. Associated Press. June 27, 2003.
  17. ^ Smith. "Figure Skating: A Celebration"
  18. ^ a b c d Wilner, Barry (December 2, 1999). "The quad: Skating's evolution is for more revolution". CBS Sports. Archived from the original on October 31, 2000.
  19. ^ "Boitano Isn't Upset By Loss Of His Title". The New York Times. March 14, 1987.
  20. ^ a b "A Quadruple Jump on Ice". The New York Times. Associated Press. March 26, 1988. Retrieved October 14, 2007.
  21. ^ a b "Kurt Browning FAQ".
  22. ^ Dodd, Mike (February 15, 2002). "Men leaps and bounds ahead in skating". USA Today. Archived from the original on November 3, 2012.
  23. ^ a b Kwong, PJ (October 29, 2010). "The Quad and The Canadians". CBC Sports. Retrieved October 31, 2011.
  24. ^ "European Championships – Men's". kiraivanova.nm.ru (in Russian). Archived from the original on April 26, 2012.
  25. ^ Janofsky, Michael (February 16, 1992). "Petrenko Gets a Gold, Wylie a Silver Surprise". The New York Times.
  26. ^ L'Equipe. 12/1994
  27. ^ Patinage Magazine #46, page 56
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  30. ^ Atlanta Journal-Constitution, January 4, 1998
  31. ^ "Zhang". International Skating Union. Retrieved November 12, 2011.
  32. ^ "Michael Weiss: Online Interview". Goldenskate.com. May 16, 2004. Retrieved November 12, 2011.
  33. ^ Mittan, Barry (May 6, 2003). "Klimkin Recovers From Injuries to Record Best Season". GoldenSkate. Archived from the original on November 29, 2009. Retrieved April 12, 2011.
  34. ^ "Quad jumps bring Yagudin third title". The Independent, London. March 21, 2000.
  35. ^ "Yagudin short program at the 2002 Olympics".
  36. ^ "Yagudin 2002 Olympic Long Program".
  37. ^ "Plushenko 2002 Olympic Free Program, Carmen".
  38. ^ "Yagudin skates to glory". BBC News. February 15, 2002. Retrieved May 22, 2010.
  39. ^ "2003 Four Continents Figure Skating Championships: Highlights". Golden Skate. February 20, 2003.
  40. ^ "Stephane Lambiel FS Olympic Winter Games 2006 (Torino)". Youtube. Retrieved April 13, 2014.
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