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Qinghai–Tibet War

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Qinghai–Tibet War
Part of the Sino-Tibetan War
Date1932
LocationQinghai, Xikang
Result Chinese victory
Belligerents
 China Tibetan Army
Commanders and leaders
Ma Bufang
Ma Zhanhai 
Ma Biao
Ngapo Shapé
(Governor of Kham)
Units involved

 National Revolutionary Army

Tibetan Army
Casualties and losses
Unknown Unknown
Qinghai–Tibet War
Traditional Chinese青藏戰爭
Simplified Chinese青藏战争

The Qinghai–Tibet War was a conflict that took place during the Sino-Tibetan War. A rebellion led by the Dalai Lama with British support wanted to expand the original conflict taking place between the Tibetan Army and Liu Wenhui (Sichuan clique) in Xikang, to attack Qinghai, a region northeast of Tibet. Using a dispute over a monastery in Yushu in Qinghai as an excuse in 1932, the Tibetan army attacked. Qinghai Muslim Gen. Ma Bufang overran the Tibetan armies and recaptured several counties in Xikang province. Shiqu, Dege and other counties were seized from the Tibetans.[1][2][3] The war against the Tibetan army was led by the Muslim General Ma Biao.[4][5] The Tibetans were pushed back to the other side of the Jinsha river.[6][7] The Qinghai army recaptured counties that had been controlled by the Tibetan army since 1919. The victory on the part of the Qinghai army threatened the supply lines to Tibetan forces in Garze and Xinlong. As a result, this part of the Tibetan army was forced to withdraw. Ma and Liu warned Tibetan officials not to dare cross the Jinsha river again.[8] By August the Tibetans lost so much territory to Liu Wenhui and Ma Bufang's forces that the Dalai Lama telegraphed the British government of India for assistance. British pressure led China to declare a cease-fire.[9] Separate truces were signed by Ma and Liu with the Tibetans in 1933, ending the fighting.[10][11][12] The British had backed up the Tibetans during the war. After their war the victory over the Tibetans was celebrated by Xikang and Qinghai soldiers.[13][14]

War summary

In 1931 Ma Biao became leader of the Yushu Defense Brigade.[15] He was the second brigade commander while the first brigade was led by Ma Xun. Wang Jiamei was his secretary during the war against Tibet.[16] Ma Biao fought to defend Lesser Surmang against the attacking Tibetans on 24-26 March 1932. The invading Tibetan forces massively outnumbered Ma Biao's defending Qinghai forces. Cai Zuozhen was fighting on the Qinghai side against the invading Tibetans.[17] The local Qinghai Tibetan Buddhist Buqing tribal chief Cai Zuozhen was on the side of the Qinghai government.[18]

Their forces retreated to the capital of Yushu county, Jiegue, under Ma Biao to defend it against the Tibetans while the Republic of China government under Chiang Kai-shek was petitioned for military air like wireless telegraphs, money, ammunition and rifles.[19]

A wireless telegraph was sent and solved the communication problem. Ma Xun was sent to reinforce the Qinghai forces and accompanied by propagandists while mobile films, and medical treatment provided by doctors to awe the primitive Tibetan locals.[20]

Ma Xun reinforced Jiegu after Ma Biao fought for more than 2 months against the Tibetans. The Tibetan army numbered 3,000. Although the Tibetans outnumbered the Qinghai soldiers the Tibetans suffered more dead in battle than the Qinghai army. Repeated Tibetan attacks were repulsed by Ma Biao even though they outnumbered his army since the Tibetans were poorly prepared for fighting in war.[21] Dud cannon rounds were fired by the Tibetans and their artillery was useless. Ma Lu was sent with more reinforcements to assist Ma Biao and Ma Xun along with La Pingfu.[22] Jiegu's siege was relieved by La Pingfu on 20 August, 1932, which freed Ma Biao and Ma Xun's soldiers to destroy the Tibetan army. Hand to hand combat with swords ensued as the Tibetan army was slaughtered by the "Great Sword" group of the Qinghai army during an attack during midnight by Ma Biao and Ma Xun. The Tibetans suffered massive casualties and fled the battlefield as they were routed. The land occupied in Yushu by the Tibetans was retaken.[23]

Both the Tibetan army and Ma Biao's soldiers committed war crimes according to Cai. Tibetan soldiers had raped nuns and women (local Qinghai Tibetans) after looting monasteries and destroying villages in Yushu while Tibetan soldiers who were surrendering and fleeing were summarily executed by Ma Biao's soldiers and supplies were seized from the local nomad civilians by Ma Biao's army.[24]

Ma Biao ordered the religious books, items, and statues of the Tibetan Gadan monastery which had started the war, to be destroyed since he was furious at their role in the war. He ordered the burning of the monastery by the Yushu Tibetan Buddhist chief Cai. Cai lied that the temple was burned since he could not bring himself to burn it.[25] Ma Biao seized thousands of silver dollars worth of items from local nomads as retribution for them assisting the invading Tibetan army.[26] On 24 and 27 August, massive artillery duels occuered in Surmang between the Tibetans and Qinghai army. 200 Tibetans sodliers were killed in battle by the Qinghai army after the Tibetans came to reinforce their positions. Greater Surmang was abandoned by the Tibetans as they came under attack by La Pingfu on 2 September. In Batang, La Pingfu, Ma Biao, and Ma Xun met Ma Lu's reinforcements on 20 September.[27]

Liu Wenhui, the Xikang warlord, had reached an agreement with Ma Bufang and Ma Lin's Qinghai army to strike the Tibetans in Xikang. A joint Xikang-Qinghai attack against the Tibetan army at Qingke monastery led to a Tibetan retreat from the monastery and the Jinsha river.[28] Xikang army officers were allowed to issue commands to Ma Bufang's Qinghai soldiers by Ma Bufang and telegraphs operated by Liu Wenhui sent messages for Ma Bufang to his soldiers.[29]

The reputation of the Muslim forces of Ma Bufang was boosted by the war and victory against the Tibetan army.[30]

The stature of Ma Biao rose over his role in the war and later in 1937 his battles against the Japanese propelled him to fame nationwide in China. The control of China over the border area of Kham and Yushu with Tibet was guarded by the Qinghai army. Chinese Muslim run schools used their victory in the war against Tibet to show how they defended the integrity of China's territory as it was put in danger since the Japanese invasion.[31]

A play was written and present in 1936 to Qinghai's "Islam Progressive Council schools" by Shao Hongsi on the war against Tibet with the part of Ma Biao appearing in the play where he defeated the Tibetans. The play presented Ma Biao and Ma Bufang as heroes who defended Yushu from being lost to the Tibetans and comparing it to the Japanese invasion of Manchuria, saying the Muslims stopped the same scenario from happening in Yushu.[32] Ma Biao and his fight against the Japanese were hailed at the schools of the Islam Progressive Council of Qinghai. The emphasis on military training in schools and their efforts to defend China were emphasized in Kunlun magazine by Muslims.[33] In 1939 his battles against the Japanese led to recognition across China.[34]

See also

References

  1. ^ Jiawei Wang, Nimajianzan (1997). The Historical Status of China's Tibet. 五洲传播出版社. p. 150. ISBN 7-80113-304-8. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
  2. ^ Hanzhang Ya, Ya Hanzhang (1991). The Biographies of the Dalai Lamas. Foreign Languages Press. pp. 352, 355. ISBN 0-8351-2266-2. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
  3. ^ B. R. Deepak (2005). India & China, 1904–2004: a century of peace and conflict. Manak Publications. p. 82. ISBN 81-7827-112-5. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
  4. ^ Joint Centre for Asia Pacific Studies (1998). Historical themes and current change in Central and Inner Asia: papers presented at the Central and Inner Asian Seminar, University of Toronto, April 25-26, 1997. Joint Centre for Asia Pacific Studies. p. 70. ISBN 978-1-895296-34-1.
  5. ^ http://toutiao.com/i5396962452/
  6. ^ International Association for Tibetan Studies. Seminar, Lawrence Epstein (2002). Khams pa histories: visions of people, place and authority : PIATS 2000, Tibetan studies, proceedings of the 9th Seminar of the International Association for Tibetan Studies, Leiden 2000. BRILL. p. 66. ISBN 90-04-12423-3. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
  7. ^ Gray Tuttle (2005). Tibetan Buddhists in the making of modern China. Columbia University Press. p. 172. ISBN 0-231-13446-0. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
  8. ^ Xiaoyuan Liu (2004). Frontier passages: ethnopolitics and the rise of Chinese communism, 1921–1945. Stanford University Press. p. 89. ISBN 0-8047-4960-4. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
  9. ^ Richardson, Hugh E. (1984). Tibet and its History. 2nd Edition, pp. 134–136. Shambhala Publications, Boston. ISBN 0-87773-376-7 (pbk).
  10. ^ Oriental Society of Australia (2000). The Journal of the Oriental Society of Australia, Volumes 31-34. Oriental Society of Australia. pp. 35, 37. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
  11. ^ Michael Gervers, Wayne Schlepp, Joint Centre for Asia Pacific Studies (1998). Historical themes and current change in Central and Inner Asia: papers presented at the Central and Inner Asian Seminar, University of Toronto, April 25–26, 1997, Volume 1997. Joint Centre for Asia Pacific Studies. pp. 73, 74, 76. ISBN 1-895296-34-X. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
  12. ^ Wars and Conflicts Between Tibet and China
  13. ^ Hsaio-ting Lin (1 January 2011). Tibet and Nationalist China's Frontier: Intrigues and Ethnopolitics, 1928-49. UBC Press. pp. 65–. ISBN 978-0-7748-5988-2.
  14. ^ Tibet and Nationalist China’s Frontier Archived 2011-05-13 at the Wayback Machine.
  15. ^ Haas, William Brent (2016-03-23). Qinghai Across Frontiers : : State- and Nation-Building under the Ma Family, 1911-1949 (PDF) (PhD thesis). UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, SAN DIEGO. p. 41.
  16. ^ Haas, William Brent (2016-03-23). Qinghai Across Frontiers : : State- and Nation-Building under the Ma Family, 1911-1949 (PDF) (PhD thesis). UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, SAN DIEGO. p. 75.
  17. ^ Haas, William Brent (2016-03-23). Qinghai Across Frontiers : : State- and Nation-Building under the Ma Family, 1911-1949 (PDF) (PhD thesis). UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, SAN DIEGO. p. 76.
  18. ^ Haas, William Brent (2016-03-23). Qinghai Across Frontiers : : State- and Nation-Building under the Ma Family, 1911-1949 (PDF) (PhD thesis). UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, SAN DIEGO. p. 48, 63.
  19. ^ Haas, William Brent (2016-03-23). Qinghai Across Frontiers : : State- and Nation-Building under the Ma Family, 1911-1949 (PDF) (PhD thesis). UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, SAN DIEGO. p. 78.
  20. ^ Haas, William Brent (2016-03-23). Qinghai Across Frontiers : : State- and Nation-Building under the Ma Family, 1911-1949 (PDF) (PhD thesis). UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, SAN DIEGO. p. 79.
  21. ^ Haas, William Brent (2016-03-23). Qinghai Across Frontiers : : State- and Nation-Building under the Ma Family, 1911-1949 (PDF) (PhD thesis). UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, SAN DIEGO. p. 80.
  22. ^ Haas, William Brent (2016-03-23). Qinghai Across Frontiers : : State- and Nation-Building under the Ma Family, 1911-1949 (PDF) (PhD thesis). UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, SAN DIEGO. p. 81.
  23. ^ Haas, William Brent (2016-03-23). Qinghai Across Frontiers : : State- and Nation-Building under the Ma Family, 1911-1949 (PDF) (PhD thesis). UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, SAN DIEGO. p. 82.
  24. ^ Haas, William Brent (2016-03-23). Qinghai Across Frontiers : : State- and Nation-Building under the Ma Family, 1911-1949 (PDF) (PhD thesis). UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, SAN DIEGO. p. 84-85.
  25. ^ Haas, William Brent (2016-03-23). Qinghai Across Frontiers : : State- and Nation-Building under the Ma Family, 1911-1949 (PDF) (PhD thesis). UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, SAN DIEGO. p. 86.
  26. ^ Haas, William Brent (2016-03-23). Qinghai Across Frontiers : : State- and Nation-Building under the Ma Family, 1911-1949 (PDF) (PhD thesis). UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, SAN DIEGO. p. 86-87.
  27. ^ Haas, William Brent (2016-03-23). Qinghai Across Frontiers : : State- and Nation-Building under the Ma Family, 1911-1949 (PDF) (PhD thesis). UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, SAN DIEGO. p. 88.
  28. ^ Haas, William Brent (2016-03-23). Qinghai Across Frontiers : : State- and Nation-Building under the Ma Family, 1911-1949 (PDF) (PhD thesis). UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, SAN DIEGO. p. 89.
  29. ^ Haas, William Brent (2016-03-23). Qinghai Across Frontiers : : State- and Nation-Building under the Ma Family, 1911-1949 (PDF) (PhD thesis). UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, SAN DIEGO. p. 90.
  30. ^ Haas, William Brent (2016-03-23). Qinghai Across Frontiers : : State- and Nation-Building under the Ma Family, 1911-1949 (PDF) (PhD thesis). UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, SAN DIEGO. p. 91.
  31. ^ Haas, William Brent (2016-03-23). Qinghai Across Frontiers : : State- and Nation-Building under the Ma Family, 1911-1949 (PDF) (PhD thesis). UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, SAN DIEGO. p. 92.
  32. ^ Haas, William Brent (2016-03-23). "Chapter Four Schooling at the Frontier: Structuring Education and Practicing Citizenship in Qinghai, 1911-1949". Qinghai Across Frontiers : : State- and Nation-Building under the Ma Family, 1911-1949 (PDF) (PhD thesis). UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, SAN DIEGO. p. 259-261.
  33. ^ Haas, William Brent (2016-03-23). "Chapter Four Schooling at the Frontier: Structuring Education and Practicing Citizenship in Qinghai, 1911-1949". Qinghai Across Frontiers : : State- and Nation-Building under the Ma Family, 1911-1949 (PDF) (PhD thesis). UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, SAN DIEGO. p. 298.
  34. ^ Haas, William Brent (2016-03-23). "Chapter Four Schooling at the Frontier: Structuring Education and Practicing Citizenship in Qinghai, 1911-1949". Qinghai Across Frontiers : : State- and Nation-Building under the Ma Family, 1911-1949 (PDF) (PhD thesis). UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, SAN DIEGO. p. 304.

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This page was last edited on 5 October 2018, at 11:48
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