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Pyrus pyrifolia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Pyrus pyrifolia
Nashi pear.jpg
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Rosales
Family: Rosaceae
Genus: Pyrus
Section: <i>Pyrus <span style="font-style:normal;">sect.</span> Pashia</i>
P. pyrifolia
Binomial name
Pyrus pyrifolia
Asian pears
Pyrus pyrifolia.jpg
Nashi pear (Pyrus pyrifolia)
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy176 kJ (42 kcal)
10.65 g
Sugars7.05 g
Dietary fiber3.6 g
0.23 g
0.5 g
VitaminsQuantity %DV
Thiamine (B1)
0.009 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
0.01 mg
Niacin (B3)
0.219 mg
Pantothenic acid (B5)
0.07 mg
Vitamin B6
0.022 mg
Folate (B9)
8 μg
5.1 mg
Vitamin C
3.8 mg
Vitamin E
0.12 mg
Vitamin K
4.5 μg
MineralsQuantity %DV
4 mg
8 mg
0.06 mg
11 mg
121 mg
0 mg

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

Pyrus pyrifolia is a species of pear tree native to East Asia. The tree's edible fruit is known by many names, including: Asian pear,[1] Japanese pear,[1]Chinese pear,[1][2] Korean pear,[3][4][5] Taiwanese pear, apple pear, zodiac pear, and sand pear.[1] Along with cultivars of P. × bretschneideri and P. ussuriensis, the fruit is also called the nashi pear.[6][7] Cultivars derived from Pyrus pyrifolia are grown throughout East Asia, and in other countries such as India, Australia, New Zealand, and the United States (e.g., California). Traditionally in East Asia the tree's flowers are a popular symbol of early spring, and it is a common sight in gardens and the countryside.

The fruits are not generally baked in pies or made into jams because they have a high water content and a crisp, grainy texture, very different from the European varieties. They are commonly served raw and peeled.[8] The fruit tends to be quite large and fragrant, and when carefully wrapped (it has a tendency to bruise because of its juiciness), it can last for several weeks or more in a cold, dry place.


Due to their relatively high price and the large size of the fruit of cultivars, the pears tend to be served to guests, given as gifts, or eaten together in a family setting.

In cooking, ground pears are used in vinegar- or soy sauce-based sauces as a sweetener, instead of sugar. They are also used when marinating meat, especially beef.[citation needed]

In Australia, these pears were first introduced into commercial production beginning in 1980.[9]

In Japan, fruit is harvested in Chiba, Ibaraki, Tottori, Fukushima, Tochigi, Nagano, Niigata, Saitama and other prefectures, except Okinawa. Nashi () may be used as a late Autumn kigo, or "season word", when writing haiku. Nashi no hana (梨の花, pear flower) is also used as a kigo of spring.[10] At least one city (Kamagaya-Shi, Chiba Prefecture) has the flowers of this tree as an official city flower.

In Nepal (Nepali: Naspati नस्पाती) and the Himalayan states of India, they are cultivated as a cash crop in the Middle Hills between about 1,500 and 2,500 meters’ elevation (5000–8000 feet) where the climate is suitable. The fruit are carried to nearby markets by human porters or, increasingly, by truck, but not for long distances because they bruise easily.

In Taiwan, pears harvested in Japan have become luxurious presents since 1997 and their consumption has jumped.[citation needed]

In China, the term "sharing a pear" (Chinese: 分梨; pinyin: fēn lí) is a homophone of "separate" (simplified Chinese: 分离; traditional Chinese: 分離; pinyin: fēnlí), as a result, sharing a pear with a loved one can be read as a desire to separate from them.[11]

In Korea, the fruit is known as bae (), and it is grown and consumed in great quantity. In the South Korean city of Naju, there is a museum called The Naju Pear Museum and Pear Orchard for Tourists (나주 배 박물관 및 배밭 관광체험).

In Cyprus, the pears were introduced in 2010 after initially being investigated as a new fruit crop for the island in the early 1990s. They are currently grown in Kyperounta.[12]


Cultivars are classified in two groups. Most of the cultivars belong to the Akanashi ('Russet pears') group, and have yellowish-brown rinds. The Aonashi ('Green pears') have yellow-green rinds.


Important cultivars include:

  • 'Chojuro' (長十郎, Japan, 1893?)[13][14] ('Russet pears')
  • 'Kosui' (幸水, Japan, 1959; the most important cultivar in Japan),[15][16] ('Russet pears')
  • 'Hosui' (豊水, Japan, 1972)[17][18] ('Russet pears')
  • 'Imamuraaki' (今村秋, Japan, native)[19] ('Russet pears')
  • 'Nijisseiki' (二十世紀, Japan, 1898; name means "20th century", also spelled 'Nijusseiki')[20][21] ('Green pears')
  • 'Niitaka' (新高, Japan, 1927)[22][23] ('Russet pears')
  • 'Okusankichi' (晩三吉, Japan, native)[24][25] ('Russet pears')
  • 'Raja' (new)[26] ('Russet pears')
  • 'Shinko' (新興, Japan, pre-1941)[27][28] ('Russet pears') ('Russet pears')
  • 'Hwangkeum' (황금, 黄金, Korea, 1984, 'Niitaka' × 'Nijisseiki')
  • 'Huanghuali' (not to be confused with the wood of Dalbergia odorifera, also called Huanghuali)[29][30]


  1. ^ a b c d Bailey, L.H.; Bailey, E.Z. & the staff of the Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium (1976). Hortus third: A concise dictionary of plants cultivated in the United States and Canada. New York: Macmillan.
  2. ^ "Pyrus pyrifolia". Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA. Retrieved 14 March 2012.
  3. ^ Lee, Ho-Sun; Isse, Toyoshi; Kawamoto, Toshihiro; Woo, Hyun-Su; Kim, An Keun; Park, Jong Y.; Yang, Mihi (November 2012). "Effects and action mechanisms of Korean pear (Pyrus pyrifolia cv. Shingo) on alcohol detoxification". Phytotherapy Research. 26 (11): 1753–1758. doi:10.1002/ptr.4630. PMID 22451246.
  4. ^ Mishkin, Leah (9 October 2017). "Korean pear season in full swing at Hamilton Township farm". NJTV News. Retrieved 20 January 2018.
  5. ^ Coyne, Kevin (21 August 2009). "Evergreen Farm Taps New Jersey Market for Ethnic Crops". The New York Times. Retrieved 20 January 2018.
  6. ^ NSW Primary Industries 2002. Nashi Asian pear varieties. Agfact H4.1.14
  7. ^ In Japanese the fruit is called nashi. The best variety is called shingo in Korean.
  8. ^ Solomon, Charmaine (1998), "Nashi", Encyclopedia of Asian Food, Periplus Editions, New Holland Publishers, archived from the original on May 21, 2009, retrieved 2008-07-11
  9. ^ "Nashi asian pear varieties". New South Wales Department of Primary Industries. Retrieved 18 December 2017.
  10. ^ The Yuki Teikei Haiku Season Word List Archived 2011-08-23 at the Wayback Machine from the Yuki Teikei Haiku Society (Northern California)
  11. ^ "Chinese Food Symbolism".
  12. ^ Home-grown Japanese pear officially launched - Cyprus Mail Archived 2010-09-18 at the Wayback Machine
  13. ^ "独立行政法人 農業・食品産業技術総合研究機構 農研機構 果樹研究所:果樹研". Archived from the original on 2011-10-03.
  14. ^ "Nashi Variety: Chojuro". New South Wales Department of Primary Industries. 2002. Retrieved December 2, 2014.
  15. ^ "独立行政法人 農業・食品産業技術総合研究機構 農研機構 果樹研究所:果樹研". Archived from the original on 2011-10-03.
  16. ^ NSW Primary Industries 2002. Nashi Asian pear varieties, kosui. Agfact H4.1.14
  17. ^ "独立行政法人 農業・食品産業技術総合研究機構 農研機構 果樹研究所:果樹研". Archived from the original on 2011-10-03.
  18. ^ NSW Primary Industries 2002. Nashi Asian pear varieties, housui. Agfact H4.1.14
  19. ^ "独立行政法人 農業・食品産業技術総合研究機構 農研機構 果樹研究所:果樹研". Archived from the original on 2011-10-03.
  20. ^ "独立行政法人 農業・食品産業技術総合研究機構 農研機構 果樹研究所:果樹研". Archived from the original on 2011-10-03.
  21. ^ NSW Primary Industries 2002. Nashi Asian pear varieties, nijiseiki. Agfact H4.1.14
  22. ^ "独立行政法人 農業・食品産業技術総合研究機構 農研機構 果樹研究所:果樹研". Archived from the original on 2011-10-03.
  23. ^ NSW Primary Industries 2002. Nashi Asian pear varieties, nitaka. Agfact H4.1.14
  24. ^ "独立行政法人 農業・食品産業技術総合研究機構 農研機構 果樹研究所:果樹研". Archived from the original on 2011-10-03.
  25. ^ NSW Primary Industries 2002. Nashi Asian pear varieties, okusanki. Agfact H4.1.14
  26. ^ Edwards, Barbara; Olivella, Mary (2011). From Tree to Table: Growing Backyard Fruit Trees in the Pacific Maritime Climate. Seattle: Skiptone. p. 127. ISBN 9781594855191.
  27. ^ "独立行政法人 農業・食品産業技術総合研究機構 農研機構 果樹研究所:果樹研". Archived from the original on 2011-10-03.
  28. ^ "Nashi Variety: Shinko". New South Wales Department of Primary Industries. 2002. Retrieved December 2, 2014.
  29. ^ Cai, D.-y.; Fan, T.-w.; Teng, Y.-w.; Zhao, C.-z.; Chen, B.-h.; Wang, F.-l. (2008), "Assessment of pear germplasm from the middle area of Gansu province using amplified fragment length polymorphism markers", Journal of Fruit Science, 2008 (3)
  30. ^ Z.R. Luo & Q.L. Zhang (2002). "The genetic resources and their utilization of Pyrus pyrifolia in China". Acta Horticulturae (587): 201–205. doi:10.17660/ActaHortic.2002.587.23.

External links

This page was last edited on 15 November 2019, at 14:27
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