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Pyramid scheme

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The unsustainable exponential progression of a classic pyramid scheme (here with a branching factor of 6)
The unsustainable exponential progression of a classic pyramid scheme (here with a branching factor of 6)

A pyramid scheme is a business model that recruits members via a promise of payments or services for enrolling others into the scheme, rather than supplying investments or sale of products. As recruiting multiplies, recruiting becomes quickly impossible, and most members are unable to profit; as such, pyramid schemes are unsustainable and often illegal.

Pyramid schemes have existed for at least a century in different guises. Some multi-level marketing plans have been classified as pyramid schemes.[1]

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  • ✪ How to spot a pyramid scheme - Stacie Bosley
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Transcription

In 2004, a new company called Vemma Nutrition started offering a life-changing opportunity to earn full time income for part time work. Vemma’s offer was open to everybody, regardless of prior experience or education. There were only two steps to start get started earning: purchase a $500-600 kit of their liquid nutrition products, and recruit two more members to do the same. Vemma Nutrition Company grew quickly, becoming a global operation that brought in 30,000 new members per month at its peak. There was just one problem— while the company generated $200 million of annual revenue by 2013, the vast majority of participants earned less than they paid in. Vemma was eventually charged with operating a pyramid scheme: a common type of fraud where members make money by recruiting more people to buy in. Typically, the founder solicits an initial group of people to buy in and promote the scheme. They are then encouraged to recruit others and promised part of the money those people invest, while the founder also takes a share. The pattern repeats for each group of new participants, with money from recent arrivals funneled to those who recruited them. This differs from a Ponzi scheme, where the founders recruit new members and secretly use their fees to pay existing members, who think the payments come from a legitimate investment. As a pyramid scheme grows, it becomes increasingly difficult for new recruits to make money. That’s because the number of participants expands exponentially. Take a structure where each person has to recruit six more to earn a profit. The founder recruits six people to start, and each of them recruits six more. There are 36 people in that second round of recruits, who then each recruit 6 people— a total of 216 new recruits. By the twelfth round of recruiting, the 2.1 billion newest members would have to recruit over 13 billion more people total to make money– more than the entire world population. In this scenario, the most recent recruits, over 80% of the scheme’s participants, lose all the money they paid in. And in real life, many earlier joiners lose out too. Pyramid schemes are illegal in most countries, but they can be difficult to detect. They are presented as many different things, including gifting groups, investment clubs, and multi-level marketing businesses. The distinction between pyramid schemes and legitimate multi-level marketing can be particularly hazy. In theory, the difference is that the members of the multi-level marketing companies primarily earn compensation from selling a particular product or a service to retail customers, while pyramid schemes primarily compensate members for recruitment of new sellers. In practice, though, many multi-level marketing companies make it all but impossible for members to profit purely through sales. And many pyramid schemes, like Vemma Nutrition, disguise themselves as legal multi-level marketing businesses, using a product or service to hide the pay-and-recruit structure. Many pyramid schemes also capitalize on already existing trust within churches, immigrant communities, or other tightly knit groups. The first few members are encouraged to report a good experience before they actually start making a profit. Others in their network follow their example, and the schemes balloon in size before it comes clear that most members aren’t actually profiting. Often, the victims are embarrassed into silence. Pyramid schemes entice people with the promise of opportunity and empowerment. So when members don’t end up making money, they can blame themselves rather than the scheme, thinking they weren’t tenacious enough to earn the returns promised. Some victims keep trying, investing in multiple schemes, and losing money each time. In spite of all these factors, there are ways to spot a pyramid scheme. Time pressure is one red flag— be wary of directives to “act now or miss a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity.” Promises of large, life-altering amounts of income are also suspect. And finally, a legitimate multi-level marketing business shouldn’t require members to pay for the opportunity to sell a product or service. Pyramid schemes can be incredibly destructive to individuals, communities, and even entire countries. But you can fight fire with fire by sending this video to three people you know, and encouraging them to do the same.

Contents

Concept and basic models

In a pyramid scheme, an organization compels individuals who wish to join to make a payment. In exchange, the organization promises its new members a share of the money taken from every additional member that they recruit. The directors of the organization (those at the top of the pyramid) also receive a share of these payments. For the directors, the scheme is potentially lucrative—whether or not they do any work, the organization's membership has a strong incentive to continue recruiting and funneling money to the top of the pyramid.

Such organizations seldom involve sales of products or services with value. Without creating any goods or services, the only revenue streams for the scheme are recruiting more members or soliciting more money from current members. The behavior of pyramid schemes follows the mathematics concerning exponential growth quite closely. Each level of the pyramid is much larger than the one before it. For a pyramid scheme to make money for everyone who enrolls in it, it would have to expand indefinitely. This is not possible because the population of Earth is finite. When the scheme inevitably runs out of new recruits, lacking other sources of revenue, it collapses. Since the biggest terms in a geometric sequence are at the end, most people will be in the lower levels of the pyramid; accordingly, the bottom layer of the pyramid contains the most people. The people working for pyramid schemes try to promote the actual company instead of the product they are selling. Eventually, all of the people at the lower levels of the pyramid don’t make any money; only the people at the top turn a profit.[2]

People in the upper layers of the pyramid typically profit, while those in the lower layers typically lose money. Since most of the members in the scheme are at the bottom, most participants will not make any money. In particular, when the scheme collapses, most members will be in the bottom layers and thus will not have any opportunity to profit from the scheme; still, they will have already paid to join. Therefore, a pyramid scheme is characterized by a few people (including the creators of the scheme) making large amounts of money, while subsequent members lose money. For this reason, they are considered scams.[3]

The "eight ball" model

The "eight-ball" model contains a total of fifteen members. Note that in an arithmetic progression 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 = 15. The pyramid scheme in the picture in contrast is a geometric progression 1 + 2 + 4 + 8 = 15.
The "eight-ball" model contains a total of fifteen members. Note that in an arithmetic progression 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 = 15. The pyramid scheme in the picture in contrast is a geometric progression 1 + 2 + 4 + 8 = 15.

Many pyramids are more sophisticated than the simple model. These recognize that recruiting a large number of others into a scheme can be difficult, so a seemingly simpler model is used. In this model each person must recruit two others, but the ease of achieving this is offset because the depth required to recoup any money also increases. The scheme requires a person to recruit two others, who must each recruit two others, and so on.

Prior instances of this scheme have been called the "Airplane Game" and the four tiers labelled as "captain", "co-pilot", "crew", and "passenger" to denote a person's level. Another instance was called the "Original Dinner Party" which labeled the tiers as "dessert", "main course", "side salad", and "appetizer". A person on the "dessert" course is the one at the top of the tree. Another variant, "Treasure Traders", variously used gemology terms such as "polishers", "stone cutters", etc.

Such schemes may try to downplay their pyramid nature by referring to themselves as "gifting circles" with money being "gifted". Popular schemes such as "Women Empowering Women"[4] do exactly this.

Whichever euphemism is used, there are 15 total people in four tiers (1 + 2 + 4 + 8) in the scheme—with the Airplane Game as the example, the person at the top of this tree is the "captain", the two below are "co-pilots", the four below are "crew", and the bottom eight joiners are the "passengers".

At ten levels deep, the "airplane game" has an 87% loss rate.
At ten levels deep, the "airplane game" has an 87% loss rate.

The eight passengers must each pay (or "gift") a sum (e.g., $5,000) to join the scheme. This sum (e.g., $40,000) goes to the captain, who leaves, with everyone remaining moving up one tier. There are now two new captains so the group splits in two with each group requiring eight new passengers. A person who joins the scheme as a passenger will not see a return until they advance through the crew and co-pilot tiers and exit the scheme as a captain. Therefore, the participants in the bottom three tiers of the pyramid lose their money if the scheme collapses.

If a person is using this model as a scam, the confidence trickster would take the majority of the money. They would do this by filling in the first three tiers (with one, two, and four people) with phony names, ensuring they get the first seven payouts, at eight times the buy-in sum, without paying a single penny themselves. So if the buy-in were $5,000, they would receive $40,000, paid for by the first eight investors. They would continue to buy in underneath the real investors, and promote and prolong the scheme for as long as possible to allow them to skim even more from it before it collapses.

Although the "captain" is the person at the top of the tree, having received the payment from the eight paying passengers, once they leave the scheme they are able to re-enter the pyramid as a "passenger" and hopefully recruit enough to reach captain again, thereby earning a second payout.

Matrix schemes

Matrix schemes use the same fraudulent, unsustainable system as a pyramid; here, the participants pay to join a waiting list for a desirable product, which only a fraction of them can ever receive. Since matrix schemes follow the same laws of geometric progression as pyramids, they are subsequently as doomed to collapse. Such schemes operate as a queue, where the person at head of the queue receives an item such as a television, games console, digital camcorder, etc. when a certain number of new people join the end of the queue. For example, ten joiners may be required for the person at the front to receive their item and leave the queue. Each joiner is required to buy an expensive but potentially worthless item, such as an e-book, for their position in the queue.The scheme organizer profits because the income from joiners far exceeds the cost of sending out the item to the person at the front. Organizers can further profit by starting a scheme with a queue with shill names that must be cleared out before genuine people get to the front. The scheme collapses when no more people are willing to join the queue. Schemes may not reveal, or may attempt to exaggerate, a prospective joiner's queue position, a condition that essentially means the scheme is a lottery. Some countries have ruled that matrix schemes are illegal on that basis.

Relation to Ponzi schemes

While often confused for each other, pyramid schemes and Ponzi schemes are different from each other. They are related in the sense that both pyramid and Ponzi schemes are forms of financial fraud.[5] However, pyramid schemes are based on network marketing, where each part of the pyramid takes a piece of the pie / benefits, forwarding the money to the top of the pyramid. They fail simply because there are not sufficient people. Ponzi schemes, on the other hand, are based on the principle of "Robbing Peter to pay Paul"—early investors are paid their returns through the proceeds of investments by later investors. In other words, one central person (or entity) in the middle taking money from one person, keeping part of it and giving the rest to others who had invested in the scheme earlier. Thus, a scheme such as the Anubhav teak plantation scheme (teak plantation scam of 1998) in India can be called a Ponzi scheme. Some Ponzi schemes can depend on multi-level marketing for popularizing them, thus forming a combination of the two.[6]

Connection to multi-level marketing

Multi-level marketing (MLM) companies operate as pyramid schemes and consumers often confuse legitimate multi-level marketing with pyramid schemes.[1][7][8][9]

According to the U.S. Federal Trade Commission legitimate MLM, unlike pyramid schemes:

"have a real product to sell."[10] "Not all multi-level marketing plans are legitimate. If the money you make is based on your sales to the public, it may be a legitimate multilevel marketing plan. If the money you make is based on the number of people you recruit and your sales to them, it’s probably not. It could be a pyramid scheme."[11]

Pyramid schemes however "may purport to sell a product, but they often simply use the product to hide their pyramid structure".[8] While some people call MLMs in general "pyramid selling",[12][13][14][15] others use the term to denote an illegal pyramid scheme masquerading as an MLM.[16]

The Federal Trade Commission warns, "It’s best not to get involved in plans where the money you make is based primarily on the number of distributors you recruit and your sales to them, rather than on your sales to people outside the plan who intend to use the products."[17] It states that research is your best tool and gives eight steps to follow:

  1. Find—and study—the company's track record.
  2. Learn about the product.
  3. Ask questions.
  4. Understand any restrictions.
  5. Talk to other distributors. Beware of shills.
  6. Consider using a friend or adviser as a neutral sounding board, or for a gut check.
  7. Take your time.
  8. Think about whether this plan suits your talents and goals.[17]

Some commentators contend that MLMs in general are nothing more than legalized pyramid schemes.[18][19][20] A pyramid scheme will ask their recruiters to sign up to the business with a big front-up cost.[21][22] These are different laws in every state, and they take different actions toward pyramid schemes, but multi-level-marketing is legal.[23] Multi-level marketing lobbying groups have pressured US government regulators to maintain the legal status of such schemes.[24]

This map shows countries (in green) where pyramid schemes are known to be illegal.
This map shows countries (in green) where pyramid schemes are known to be illegal.

Pyramid schemes are illegal in many countries or regions including Albania, Australia,[25][26] Austria,[27] Belgium,[28] Bahrain, Brazil, Canada [29], China,[30] Colombia,[31] Denmark, the Dominican Republic,[32] Estonia,[33] Finland,[34] France, Germany, Hong Kong,[35] Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia,[36] Iran,[37] the Republic of Ireland,[38] Italy,[39] Japan,[40] Malaysia, Maldives, Mexico, Nepal, the Netherlands,[41] New Zealand,[42] Norway,[43] Peru, Philippines,[44] Poland, Portugal, Romania,[45] Russian Federation, Serbia,[46] South Africa,[47], Singapore,[48] Spain, Sri Lanka,[49] Sweden,[50] Switzerland, Taiwan, Thailand,[51] Turkey,[52] Ukraine,[53] the United Kingdom,[54] and the United States.[8]

Franchise fraud is defined by the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation as a pyramid scheme. The FBI website states:

Pyramid schemes—also referred to as franchise fraud or chain referral schemes—are marketing and investment frauds in which an individual is offered a distributorship or franchise to market a particular product. The real profit is earned, not by the sale of the product, but by the sale of new distributorships. Emphasis on selling franchises rather than the product eventually leads to a point where the supply of potential investors is exhausted and the pyramid collapses.[55]

Notable recent cases

The 1997 rebellion in Albania was partially motivated by the collapse of Ponzi schemes; however, they were widely referred to as pyramid schemes due to their prevalence in Albanian society.[56]

In 2003, the United States Federal Trade Commission (FTC) disclosed what it called an Internet-based "pyramid scam." Its complaint states that customers would pay a registration fee to join a program that called itself an "internet mall" and purchase a package of goods and services such as internet mail, and that the company offered "significant commissions" to consumers who purchased and resold the package. The FTC alleged that the company's program was instead and in reality a pyramid scheme that did not disclose that most consumers' money would be kept, and that it gave affiliates material that allowed them to scam others.[57]

WinCapita was a scheme run by Finnish criminals that involved about €100 million. The scheme started in 2005.[58]

In early 2006, Ireland was hit by a wave of schemes with major activity in Cork and Galway. Participants were asked to contribute €20,000 each to a "Liberty" scheme which followed the classic eight-ball model. Payments were made in Munich, Germany to skirt Irish tax laws concerning gifts. Spin-off schemes called "Speedball" and "People in Profit" prompted a number of violent incidents and calls were made by politicians to tighten existing legislation.[59] Ireland has launched a website to better educate consumers to pyramid schemes and other scams.[60]

On 12 November 2008, riots broke out in the municipalities of Pasto, Tumaco, Popayan and Santander de Quilichao, Colombia after the collapse of several pyramid schemes. Thousands of victims had invested their money in pyramids that promised them extraordinary interest rates. The lack of regulation laws allowed those pyramids to grow excessively during several years. Finally, after the riots, the Colombian government was forced to declare the country in a state of economic emergency to seize and stop those schemes. Several of the pyramid's managers were arrested, and are being prosecuted for the crime of "illegal massive money reception."[61]

The Kyiv Post reported on 26 November 2008 that American citizen Robert Fletcher (Robert T. Fletcher III; aka "Rob") was arrested by the SBU (Ukraine State Police) after being accused by Ukrainian investors of running a Ponzi scheme and associated pyramid scam netting US$20 million. (The Kiev Post also reports that some estimates are as high as US$150 million.)[62]

In the United Kingdom in 2008 and 2009, a £21 million pyramid scheme named 'Give and Take' involved at least 10,000 victims in the south-west of England and South Wales. Leaders of the scheme were prosecuted and served time in jail before being ordered to pay £500,000 in compensation and costs in 2015. The cost of bringing the prosecution was in excess of £1.4 million.[63]

Throughout 2010 and 2011 a number of authorities around the world including the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission, the Bank of Namibia and the Central Bank of Lesotho have declared TVI Express to be a pyramid scheme. TVI Express, operated by Tarun Trikha from India has apparently recruited hundreds of thousands of "investors", very few of whom, it is reported, have recouped any of their investment.[64][65][66][67][68] In 2013, Tarun Trikha was arrested at the IGI Airport in New Delhi.[69]

BurnLounge, Inc. was a multi-level marketing online music store founded in 2004 and based in New York City. By 2006 the company reported 30,000 members using the site to sell music through its network. In 2007 the company was sued by the Federal Trade Commission for being an illegal pyramid scheme. The company lost the suit in 2012, and lost appeal in June 2014. In June 2015, the FTC began returning $1.9 million to people who had lost money in the scheme.[70]

In August 2015, the FTC filed a lawsuit against Vemma Nutrition Company, an Arizona-based dietary supplement MLM accused of operating an illegal pyramid scheme. In December 2016, Vemma agreed to a $238 million settlement with the FTC, which banned the company from "pyramid scheme practices" including recruitment-focused business ventures, deceptive income claims, and unsubstantiated health claims.[71][72]

In March 2017, Ufun Store registered as an online business for its members as a direct-sales company was declared operating a pyramid scheme in Thailand. The Criminal Court handed down prison terms totaling 12,265 to 12,267 years to 22 people convicted over the scheme, which conned about 120,000 people out of more than 20 billion baht[73].

See also

References

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  • The Fraudsters: How Con Artists Steal Your Money, Chapter 9, "Pyramids of Sand" (ISBN 978-1-903582-82-4) by Eamon Dillon, published September 2008 by Merlin Publishing, Ireland.

External links

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