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The Egyptian pyramids of the Giza Necropolis, as seen from the air
The Egyptian pyramids of the Giza Necropolis, as seen from the air
Prasat Thom temple at Koh Ker, Cambodia
Prasat Thom temple at Koh Ker, Cambodia

A pyramid (from Greek: πυραμίς pyramís)[1][2] is a structure whose outer surfaces are triangular and converge to a single point at the top, making the shape roughly a pyramid in the geometric sense. The base of a pyramid can be trilateral, quadrilateral, or of any polygon shape. As such, a pyramid has at least three outer triangular surfaces (at least four faces including the base). The square pyramid, with a square base and four triangular outer surfaces, is a common version.

A pyramid's design, with the majority of the weight closer to the ground,[3] and with the pyramidion on top, means that less material higher up on the pyramid will be pushing down from above. This distribution of weight allowed early civilizations to create stable monumental structures.

Civilizations in many parts of the world have built pyramids. The largest pyramid by volume is the Great Pyramid of Cholula, in the Mexican state of Puebla. For thousands of years, the largest structures on Earth were pyramids—first the Red Pyramid in the Dashur Necropolis and then the Great Pyramid of Khufu, both in Egypt—the latter is the only one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World still remaining.

Khufu's Pyramid, built mainly of limestone (with large red granite blocks used in some interior chambers), contains over 2,000,000 blocks ranging in weight from 2.5 tonnes (5,500 lb) to 15 tonnes (33,000 lb) [4] and is built on a square base with sides measuring about 230 m (755 ft), covering 13 acres. Its four sides face the four cardinal points precisely and it has an angle of 52 degrees. The original height of the pyramid was 146.5 m (488 ft), but today it is only 137 m (455 ft) high as 9 m (33 ft) has gone missing due to theft of the fine quality white Tura limestone covering, or casing stones, for construction in Cairo. It remains the tallest pyramid.

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Mainstream historians will tell you that the Great Pyramid of Giza was a glorified tomb for the Egyptian pharaohs The only monument left of the original seven wonders of the world This structure was created with impeccable Mathematical precision and is a unique mysterious feat of construction and of engineering There's only one problem the Great Pyramid has none of the characteristics of tunes including Extravagant artifacts Ornate wall art sealed entrances elaborate coffins Or even mummies themselves it was however built with unique materials the same materials that are used today for electrical conductivity These facts are leading more and more historians to believe the pyramids may have had a far more useful purpose The Pyramid of Giza was not at all a tomb but a power plant Generating and transmitting electricity to the civilization surrounding it impossible Join the universe inside you for a closer look You To start, it's important to comprehend the tremendous effort that went into creating these monuments The pyramids of giza are among no less than 118 of these structures in Egypt alone and that doesn't even include those pyramids in other parts of the world given our current understanding of how early civilizations built their monuments It would have taken no less than 20 years to build these so-called tombs, and that's if no less than 20,000 workers worked daily to this day Historians still can't prove exactly how or when they were built This leads us to ask what resting place for the dead could possibly be so important that it would warrant such phenomenal effort time and precise engineering Even without knowing that they have nothing in common with regular tombs You only need to stand before them to realize that's a lot of work for a cadaver Naturally, we make conclusions based on the assumption that ancient civilizations were more primitive than us but what if intellectual evolution isn't always linear can advanced technology be lost and Rediscovered centuries later is it possible that an ancient culture had knowledge of and used electrical power to Know for sure let's look at another case where technology of power generation Appears to have been used and then forgotten We know Edison and Tesla brought electricity into common use moving into the 20th century Yet in Iraq in 1934 three artifacts were found together a ceramic pot a tube of copper and a rod of iron which when combined with a liquid acid can be used to create chemical reactions that produce an electrical charge Known as the Baghdad or Parthian battery these materials date back 2,000 years ten years after their discovery Someone using grape juice with similar materials successfully generated a few volts of electricity this process has since been demonstrated on the Discovery Channel's program Mythbusters where lemon juice activated the electrochemical reaction between the copper and the iron producing 4 volts of electricity Nowadays you can simply search online to find instructions on how to create your own battery using these chemical principles But historians have long assumed that thousands of years ago. There was no knowledge of this technology That this archaeological find is mere coincidence Even though we've long marveled over artifacts with intricate gold plating which requires electricity to be created quite simply Energy generation happens as a result of simple chemical properties and can be done by anyone with four basic materials So here are some important facts about the structure and the materials of the pyramid For starters it contains angled tunnels which lead not only into the pyramid, but deep underground To areas claimed is still to be unexplored What too needs a shaft directed into the earth? We also know that centuries ago. There were enormous swivel doors that weighed no less than 20 tons But miraculously it was so well engineered. It could be moved to enter with a push of a hand Since no Egyptian tomb has ever been found to be deliberately accessible What was their interest in? continuing to visit the mummies or Could such a door have served the purpose of perhaps containing and insulating the space inside Though you'd almost never know it the Great Pyramids of Giza were once covered in white polished limestone Referred to as casing stones The cuts made in this reflective stone were angled perfectly so it would have a smooth flat appearance This would have made the giant structures brightly reflect the light of the Sun like a mirror it also would have made perfect insulation inside the structure a large earthquake in 1303 disrupted the casing stones And they were removed to use on other structures today all that remains is the inner core of the pyramid The image of the incredible amount of light that would have reflected from the monument Raises curiosity as does the reason for the insulation was there a desire to draw attention to their dead To keep mummies warm or cooler perhaps something else Next the material dolomite was used on the inner surfaces Dolomite is known to increase electrical conductivity Directly relative to the amount of pressure on it high pressure creates more electrical current Next lining the passageways and underground tunnels of the pyramids is granite, which is slightly radioactive Granite contains high amounts of quartz crystal with metal and it's a well known conductor of pzo electricity piezo electricity occurs as a result of stress or pressure on the quartz as Demonstrated by the wristwatches which can be charged simply by rapidly shaking them This granite actually ionizes the air inside the pyramid creating a chemical reaction which again increases the conductivity of electricity When such electrons are given the chance to bypass sections of rock via metal wire quite large currents can flow Another important material used to construct them is the mysterious mortar half a million tons of it Which holds the giant stones in place? Though it's been analyzed many times modern technology is yet to exactly recreate this gypsum Which comes from sediment? This chip some can withstand Tremendous pressure and astoundingly is even stronger than the stones themselves Clearly it's contributed to keeping the monument intact for thousands of years But could there be another reason why they used a material which could withstand such a high pressure So limestone dolomite granite Supposedly constructed for a tomb are in fact analogous to the exact materials we use to make electrical wires they also share a relationship with pressure which increases their electro conductivity Just northwest of the Great Pyramid is the syrup and Here there are 20 huge granite boxes each weighing 100 tons Classic Egyptologists say these are coffins Yet, the granite here came from 500 miles away and each box is so large and so heavy that there's no possible way it can fit through the existing tunnels and entrances These supposed sarcophagi were therefore Somehow built into the structure with such precision They're within a ten thousandth of an inch of being perfectly flat in the meantime Any electrical engineer will explain that a container serving as an energy capacitor or battery? Must be made entirely of the same substance, so there's no interruption in the magnetic field could these boxes be just that if So there's a centuries-old granite sarcophagus on Display in an Egyptian Museum, that's thought to be unfinished Unlike those in the pyramids this one's cracked Suggesting that perhaps it wasn't unfinished But simply abandoned because the crack which occurred would have interrupted the magnetic field Permitting it from successfully serving its purpose So there is clear evidence to support the possibility of an Electrical use Since the supposed Sarcophagi are clearly way too large for a human being the accepted theory is that they were Yes, believe this bull coffins for the pharaohs prized bulls Makes you wonder who came up with the bull coffin theory to add to the mystery in 1993 a mysterious and inaccessible room was discovered after remaining hidden for thousands of years appearing to have deliberately been concealed by the structures engineers the room came to be called the Queen's Chamber and was finally explored in 2011 with a small remote camera to reveal a long-lost mummy hardly it contained carefully crafted copper wire and More importantly there were instructions painted as symbols onto the floor which appeared to show a clear wiring diagram Look at any battery from those used in large power plants to the smallest pellet batteries in wristwatches and you'll see that they require a metal such as copper to create the chemical reaction known as potential difference You can run an electric current through copper wire and the coil will produce a short range magnetic field at a second coil and the power is transferred from one quill to the other a windowless room with copper wiring Could create a higher potential on one wall which transfers energy to the lower potential on the other wall consequentially releasing electromagnetic energy into the confined space of the so-called Queen's Chamber sadly these wires have since disappeared entirely and Mainstream Egyptologists claim there's no functionality whatsoever to this room as they also claim There's no functionality of anything in this structure beyond the ways it serves as a tomb good place to note however That the foremost Egyptologist Zahi Hawass was indicted for theft of Egyptian antiquities It could still be argued that the electrical materials used to construct the Great Pyramid are simply coincidental Because an energy generator still requires a catalyst from another source perhaps Then this explains why the pyramids are geographically located over a powerful natural generator underground rivers and aquifers physio electricity could be harnessed from the power of the current as the water flows and It has been proven that thousands of years ago the Nile River passed directly by where the structures now stand of Course this brings in a debate about the age of the pyramids themselves along with the weathering on the nearby Sphinx Indicating that the monuments are actually double the age. They're currently assumed to be Perhaps that would explain why there's no mention of the pyramids or their creation in any of the Egyptian writings So if water was a source of power it would have traveled up the limestone based on the principle of capillary action Which happens when a small area of a substance that gets wet? Absorbs into the entire area of that substance So water flowing near or underneath the pyramid could have been absorbed as it passed over the limestone even traveling upward to the top of the structure the Quartz and the tunnels of the pyramids would subject to the stress or vibration creating pzo electricity The high force speed of the rising water and the pressure would be analogous to filling a syringe generating electromagnetic energy within the structure by the materials within it and conducting it upwards to the now-missing capstone but why The geographical location of the pyramid may give us some clues It is located exactly at a point Which magnifies the electromagnetic forces on the planet where Talia recurrence are at their strongest? There's an electromagnetic field at the bottom of the pyramid which would rise to the upper layers with these chemical reactions We don't know for sure what capped the pyramid, but there is speculation that it may have been gold Explaining of course why it's long since been missing If it were gold this could have created a conductive path for energy to be directed upwards high into the ionosphere If Super conductive materials were used to create this monument for energy then the potential for something even more amazing Might have been possible Wireless electricity Sound far-fetched One bold and extraordinary man swore this was possible and he may have showed us. How we Know of Nikola Tesla as the solitary genius responsible for the electric engine radio laser radar and for creating a tremendous competitive spirit in Thomas Edison We know Tesla sought above all to serve mankind in fact despite his extraordinary Contributions, he's scarcely known or credited for his genius At the 1893 World's Fair Tesla transmitted electricity naturally to a light bulb He held in his hands, and he created the Tesla coil which is used more today for show than for the function It was intended to serve Most importantly we know that Tesla claimed Adamantly that he had perfected the method of harnessing and transmitting free wireless energy using the electromagnetic nature of the planet in a patent Tesla file in September of 1897 he Claimed that at 30,000 feet altitude There's a stratum of rarefied air that would conduct electric currents at high voltages In this proposed system was a transmitter, which would transmit millions of volts into the atmosphere Then he had something received the electricity and reduce the voltage to a convenient potential to be used by consumers in An experiment the last week of July in 1903 Nearby residents claimed to have witnessed Tesla successfully conduct his experiment at the warden safe tower while Tesla himself Sharing his new method of conductivity Said that it lit up the night sky as if it were a giant fluorescent tube It's even been said that he successfully wirelessly transmitted pictures and sounds though all of his work has been Mercilessly destroyed this cannot be proven Sadly Tesla's technology was confiscated shortly after his death he died in poverty and the US government destroyed his tower Claiming it was being used by German spies Had Tesla succeeded in his mission the distribution of power on this planet would have been very different today Compared Tesla's technology to the pyramids the location height and electromagnetic materials We've seen induction between copper wires work for short distances for a long distance Transfer the same principle can be applied when acoustic energy is converted to kinetic energy and the frequencies match The way an opera singer can shatter a glass when the sound wave he is singing matches the resonant frequency of the glass so if there's a magnetically oscillating current And you create a second possessing same frequency the wireless transmission can pass through solid materials and through long distances The frequency which would have been released from the pyramid would have to have been in the surrounding area Perhaps this would explain the obelisks the tall monuments, which could be acting as receivers Particularly if there's a quartz stone at the top of them This would also explain the ancient carvings in Egypt, which so clearly indicate light sources It's boggling to think anyone would even argue it in The Hathor temple the Dendera light is one such image it Perfectly resembles modern electrical technology showing a wire inside of a bulb like area and a box which appears to be a receiver Across from this carving is a similar image but the system appears to be falling into the hands of a reptilian-looking being as Though it's a warning of the potential to abuse as technology Mainstream historians scoff and make more primitive conclusions, but still the pyramids show no sign of sit from flame torches Instead there are multiple carvings, which show these antennae like objects that appear to be a transmitter Near another object shaped like the famous symbol the ankh which appears to be the receiver Given all this it seems so much more believable that the Great Pyramid functioned using the same principles and conditions as Tesla sought to demonstrate That they conducted and directed electromagnetic energy into the ionosphere where it generated and transmitted electricity wirelessly to receivers within the civilization We've long believed that the pyramids were just tombs, but this theory raises more questions than it answers Why do they have nothing in common with other tombs? Why do unique construction materials made to build it including the very materials required for conducting power? Why the oversized granite Boxes proven to have never contained any mummies or the ones that are clearly too large for humans Why the alignment with the North Pole that 20-ton swivel doors? Intricate tunnels and chambers shafts and areas still yet to be discovered Why is there no soot from fire torches anywhere inside the structure and why do the tunnels protrude deep into the earth These mysteries still elude our understanding But more and more people are accepting the possibility that the Great Pyramid of Giza had a more important function than we understand We know there is a heightened electromagnetic measurement around the pyramid. That's equivalent to that made in an electrical storm We also know that if you look at them from space you can see that They're actually eight sided not four sided and that there are strange heat spots observable only with special equipment They have unique electric materials Including copper and a design that suggests high pressure and water power They have a powerful magnetic structure and placement over the telev occurrence They're aligned with the stars and the unique art of the area shows clear depictions of wired light sources All these things suggest there's a lot more to this story than we've been told all these circumstances make the likelihood high that the pyramid was created to be a compact energy generator and a broadcasting system that transmitted electricity wirelessly The implications for this understanding of electrical power by an ancient culture is huge It would rewrite history as we know it Do you think that free energy could be transmitted wirelessly around the world and? Whether or not you do believe that do you think that if it really could do that we would actually know about it Thank you for watching And hit the like button if you enjoyed this video if you're new please hit subscribe And the bell next to it to be notified of future releases


Ancient monuments


Chogha Zanbil is an ancient Elamite complex in the Khuzestan province of Iran.
Chogha Zanbil is an ancient Elamite complex in the Khuzestan province of Iran.

The Mesopotamians built the earliest pyramidal structures, called ziggurats. In ancient times, these were brightly painted in gold/bronze. Since they were constructed of sun-dried mud-brick, little remains of them. Ziggurats were built by the Sumerians, Babylonians, Elamites, Akkadians, and Assyrians for local religions. Each ziggurat was part of a temple complex which included other buildings. The precursors of the ziggurat were raised platforms that date from the Ubaid period[5] during the fourth millennium BC. The earliest ziggurats began near the end of the Early Dynastic Period.[6] The latest Mesopotamian ziggurats date from the 6th century BC.

Built in receding tiers upon a rectangular, oval, or square platform, the ziggurat was a pyramidal structure with a flat top. Sun-baked bricks made up the core of the ziggurat with facings of fired bricks on the outside. The facings were often glazed in different colors and may have had astrological significance. Kings sometimes had their names engraved on these glazed bricks. The number of tiers ranged from two to seven. It is assumed that they had shrines at the top, but there is no archaeological evidence for this and the only textual evidence is from Herodotus.[7] Access to the shrine would have been by a series of ramps on one side of the ziggurat or by a spiral ramp from base to summit.


The most famous pyramids are the Egyptian — huge structures built of brick or stone, some of which are among the world's largest constructions. They are shaped as a reference to the rays of the sun. Most pyramids had a polished, highly reflective white limestone surface, to give them a shining appearance when viewed from a distance. The capstone was usually made of hard stone – granite or basalt – and could be plated with gold, silver, or electrum and would also be highly reflective.[8] After 2700 BC, the ancient Egyptians began building pyramids, until around 1700 BC. The first pyramid was erected during the Third Dynasty by the Pharaoh Djoser and his architect Imhotep. This step pyramid consisted of six stacked mastabas. The largest Egyptian pyramids are those at the Giza pyramid complex. The Egyptian sun god Ra, considered the father of all pharaohs, was said to have created himself from a pyramid-shaped mound of earth before creating all other gods.[8]

The age of the pyramids reached its zenith at Giza in 2575–2150 BC.[9] Ancient Egyptian pyramids were in most cases placed west of the river Nile because the divine pharaoh's soul was meant to join with the sun during its descent before continuing with the sun in its eternal round.[8] As of 2008, some 135 pyramids have been discovered in Egypt.[10][11] The Great Pyramid of Giza is the largest in Egypt and one of the largest in the world. It was the tallest building in the world until Lincoln Cathedral was finished in 1311 AD. The base is over 52,600 square metres (566,000 sq ft) in area. While pyramids are associated with Egypt, the nation of Sudan has 220 extant pyramids, the most numerous in the world.[12] The Great Pyramid of Giza is one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. It is the only one to survive into modern times. The Ancient Egyptians covered the faces of pyramids with polished white limestone, containing great quantities of fossilized seashells.[13] Many of the facing stones have fallen or have been removed and used for construction in Cairo.

Ancient pyramids of Egypt
Ancient pyramids of Egypt

Most pyramids are located near Cairo, with only one royal pyramid being located south of Cairo, at the Abydos temple complex. The pyramid at Abydos, Egypt were commissioned by Ahmose I who founded the 18th Dynasty and the New Kingdom.[14] The building of pyramids began in the Third Dynasty with the reign of King Djoser.[15] Early kings such as Snefru built several pyramids, with subsequent kings adding to the number of pyramids until the end of the Middle Kingdom.

The last king to build royal pyramids was Ahmose,[16] with later kings hiding their tombs in the hills, such as those in the Valley of the Kings in Luxor's West Bank.[17] In Medinat Habu, or Deir el-Medina, smaller pyramids were built by individuals. Smaller pyramids were also built by the Nubians who ruled Egypt in the Late Period, though their pyramids had steeper sides.[18]


Nubian Pyramids at Meroe with pylon-like entrances.
Nubian Pyramids at Meroe with pylon-like entrances.

Nubian pyramids were constructed (roughly 240 of them) at three sites in Sudan to serve as tombs for the kings and queens of Napata and Meroë. The pyramids of Kush, also known as Nubian Pyramids, have different characteristics than the pyramids of Egypt. The Nubian pyramids were constructed at a steeper angle than Egyptian ones. Pyramids were still being built in Sudan as late as 200 AD.


One of the unique structures of Igbo culture was the Nsude Pyramids, at the Nigerian town of Nsude, northern Igboland. Ten pyramidal structures were built of clay/mud. The first base section was 60 ft. in circumference and 3 ft. in height. The next stack was 45 ft. in circumference. Circular stacks continued, till it reached the top. The structures were temples for the god Ala/Uto, who was believed to reside at the top. A stick was placed at the top to represent the god's residence. The structures were laid in groups of five parallel to each other. Because it was built of clay/mud like the Deffufa of Nubia, time has taken its toll requiring periodic reconstruction.[19]


Pausanias (2nd century AD) mentions two buildings resembling pyramids, one, 19 kilometres (12 mi) southwest of the still standing structure at Hellenikon,[20] a common tomb for soldiers who died in a legendary struggle for the throne of Argos and another which he was told was the tomb of Argives killed in a battle around 669/8 BC. Neither of these still survive and there is no evidence that they resembled Egyptian pyramids.

There are also at least two surviving pyramid-like structures still available to study, one at Hellenikon and the other at Ligourio/Ligurio, a village near the ancient theatre Epidaurus. These buildings were not constructed in the same manner as the pyramids in Egypt. They do have inwardly sloping walls but other than those there is no obvious resemblance to Egyptian pyramids. They had large central rooms (unlike Egyptian pyramids) and the Hellenikon structure is rectangular rather than square, 12.5 by 14 metres (41 by 46 ft) which means that the sides could not have met at a point.[21] The stone used to build these structures was limestone quarried locally and was cut to fit, not into freestanding blocks like the Great Pyramid of Giza.[citation needed]

The dating of these structures has been made from the pot shards excavated from the floor and on the grounds. The latest dates available from scientific dating have been estimated around the 5th and 4th centuries. Normally this technique is used for dating pottery, but here researchers have used it to try to date stone flakes from the walls of the structures. This has created some debate about whether or not these structures are actually older than Egypt, which is part of the Black Athena controversy.[22]

Mary Lefkowitz has criticised this research. She suggests that some of the research was done not to determine the reliability of the dating method, as was suggested, but to back up an assumption of age and to make certain points about pyramids and Greek civilization. She notes that not only are the results not very precise, but that other structures mentioned in the research are not in fact pyramids, e.g. a tomb alleged to be the tomb of Amphion and Zethus near Thebes, a structure at Stylidha (Thessaly) which is just a long wall, etc. She also notes the possibility that the stones that were dated might have been recycled from earlier constructions. She also notes that earlier research from the 1930s, confirmed in the 1980s by Fracchia was ignored. She argues that they undertook their research using a novel and previously untested methodology in order to confirm a predetermined theory about the age of these structures.[23]

Liritzis responded in a journal article published in 2011, stating that Lefkowitz failed to understand and misinterpreted the methodology.[24]


The Pyramids of Güímar refer to six rectangular pyramid-shaped, terraced structures, built from lava stone without the use of mortar. They are located in the district of Chacona, part of the town of Güímar on the island of Tenerife in the Canary Islands. The structures have been dated to the 19th century and their original function explained as a byproduct of contemporary agricultural techniques.

Autochthonous Guanche traditions as well as surviving images indicate that similar structures (also known as, "Morras", "Majanos", "Molleros", or "Paredones") could once have been found in many locations on the island. However, over time they have been dismantled and used as a cheap building material. In Güímar itself there were nine pyramids, only six of which survive.


Ancient Korean tomb in Ji'an, Northeastern China
Ancient Korean tomb in Ji'an, Northeastern China

There are many square flat-topped mound tombs in China. The First Emperor Qin Shi Huang (circa 221 BC, who unified the 7 pre-Imperial Kingdoms) was buried under a large mound outside modern day Xi'an. In the following centuries about a dozen more Han Dynasty royals were also buried under flat-topped pyramidal earthworks.


A number of Mesoamerican cultures also built pyramid-shaped structures. Mesoamerican pyramids were usually stepped, with temples on top, more similar to the Mesopotamian ziggurat than the Egyptian pyramid.

The largest pyramid by volume is the Great Pyramid of Cholula, in the Mexican state of Puebla. Constructed from the 3rd century BC to the 9th century AD, this pyramid is considered the largest monument ever constructed anywhere in the world, and is still being excavated. The third largest pyramid in the world, the Pyramid of the Sun, at Teotihuacan is also located in Mexico. There is an unusual pyramid with a circular plan at the site of Cuicuilco, now inside Mexico City and mostly covered with lava from an eruption of the Xitle Volcano in the 1st century BC. There are several circular stepped pyramids called Guachimontones in Teuchitlán, Jalisco as well.

Pyramids in Mexico were often used as places of human sacrifice. For the re-consecration of Great Pyramid of Tenochtitlan in 1487, Where, according to Michael Harner, "one source states 20,000, another 72,344, and several give 80,400".[25]

North America

A diagram showing the various components of Eastern North American platform mounds
A diagram showing the various components of Eastern North American platform mounds

Many pre-Columbian Native American societies of ancient North America built large pyramidal earth structures known as platform mounds. Among the largest and best-known of these structures is Monks Mound at the site of Cahokia in what became Illinois, completed around 1100 AD, which has a base larger than that of the Great Pyramid at Giza. Many of the mounds underwent multiple episodes of mound construction at periodic intervals, some becoming quite large. They are believed to have played a central role in the mound-building peoples' religious life and documented uses include semi-public chief's house platforms, public temple platforms, mortuary platforms, charnel house platforms, earth lodge/town house platforms, residence platforms, square ground and rotunda platforms, and dance platforms.[26][27][28] Cultures who built substructure mounds include the Troyville culture, Coles Creek culture, Plaquemine culture and Mississippian cultures.

Roman Empire

Pyramid of Cestius in Rome, Italy
Pyramid of Cestius in Rome, Italy

The 27-metre-high Pyramid of Cestius was built by the end of the 1st century BC and still exists today, close to the Porta San Paolo. Another one, named Meta Romuli, standing in the Ager Vaticanus (today's Borgo), was destroyed at the end of the 15th century.

Medieval Europe

Pyramids have occasionally been used in Christian architecture of the feudal era, e.g. as the tower of Oviedo's Gothic Cathedral of San Salvador.


The main gopura of the Thanjavur Temple pyramid.
The main gopura of the Thanjavur Temple pyramid.

Many giant granite temple pyramids were made in South India during the Chola Empire, many of which are still in religious use today. Examples of such pyramid temples include Brihadisvara Temple at Thanjavur, the Temple of Gangaikondacholapuram and the Airavatesvara Temple at Darasuram. However the largest temple pyramid in the area is Sri Rangam in Srirangam, Tamil Nadu. The Thanjavur temple was built by Raja raja Chola in the 11th century. The Brihadisvara Temple was declared by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site in 1987; the Temple of Gangaikondacholapuram and the Airavatesvara Temple at Darasuram were added as extensions to the site in 2004.[29]


Next to menhir, stone table, and stone statue; Austronesian megalithic culture in Indonesia also featured earth and stone step pyramid structures called punden berundak as discovered in Pangguyangan site near Cisolok[30] and in Cipari near Kuningan.[31] The construction of stone pyramids is based on the native beliefs that mountains and high places are the abode for the spirit of the ancestors.[32]

The step pyramid is the basic design of 8th century Borobudur Buddhist monument in Central Java.[33] However the later temples built in Java were influenced by Indian Hindu architecture, as displayed by the towering spires of Prambanan temple. In the 15th century Java during late Majapahit period saw the revival of Austronesian indigenous elements as displayed by Sukuh temple that somewhat resemble Mesoamerican pyramid, and also stepped pyramids of Mount Penanggungan.[34]


Andean cultures had used pyramids in various architectural structures such as the ones in Caral, Túcume and Chavín de Huantar.

Modern examples

Louvre Pyramid (Paris, France)
Louvre Pyramid (Paris, France)
The central part of the "Tama-Re" village, as seen from the air
The central part of the "Tama-Re" village, as seen from the air
Pyramid Arena in Memphis, Tennessee
Pyramid Arena in Memphis, Tennessee
Sunway Pyramid in Subang Jaya is the mall that has an Egyptian-inspired Pyramid with a lion designed Sphinx.
Sunway Pyramid in Subang Jaya is the mall that has an Egyptian-inspired Pyramid with a lion designed Sphinx.
Oscar Niemeyer's design for a museum in Caracas
Oscar Niemeyer's design for a museum in Caracas
Transamerica Pyramid in San Francisco, California
Transamerica Pyramid in San Francisco, California
Comparison of approximate profiles of several notable pyramidal or near-pyramidal buildings. Dotted lines indicate original heights, where data are available. In its SVG file, hover over a pyramid to highlight and click for its article.


See also


  1. ^ πυραμίς, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus Digital Library
  2. ^ The word meant "a kind of cake of roasted wheat-grains preserved in honey"; the Egyptian pyramids were named after its form (R. S. P. Beekes, Etymological Dictionary of Greek, Brill, 2009, p. 1261).
  3. ^ Centre of volume is one quarter of the way up—see Centre of mass.
  4. ^ "National Geographic: Egypt—Great Pyramid of Khufu at Giza". Archived from the original on 2014-10-20.
  5. ^ Crawford, page 73
  6. ^ Crawford, page 73-74
  7. ^ Crawford, page 85
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