To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

4,5
Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
Languages
Recent
Show all languages
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.
.
Leo
Newton
Brights
Milds

Proto-Villanovan culture

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Proto-Villanovan culture
Trattato generale di archeologia091.png
Geographical rangeEurope
PeriodBronze Age
Datesc. 1200–901 BC
Preceded byUrnfield culture
Followed byVillanovan culture, Latial culture, Este culture

The Proto-Villanovan culture was a late Bronze Age culture that appeared in Italy in the first half of the 12th century BC and lasted until the 10th century BC, part of the central European Urnfield culture system.

History

Proto-Villanovan culture was part of the central European Urnfield culture system, similarity had been noted in particular with the regional groups of Bavaria-Upper Austria[1] and of the middle-Danube;[1][2] however, a derivation from the previous Terramare culture of the Po Valley is also hypothesized.[3][4] Various authors, like Marija Gimbutas, associated this culture with the arrival, or the spread, of the proto-Italics into the Italian peninsula.[1]

Proto-Villanovan sites are present all over the peninsula, mostly in the northern-central part but also, to a lesser degree, in Southern Italy and eastern Sicily. Among the most important can be named those of: Frattesina (Veneto), Bismantova and Ripa Calbana (Emilia-Romagna), Cetona and Saturnia (Tuscany), Monti della Tolfa (Lazio), Pianello di Genga (Marche), Ortucchio (Abruzzo), Timmari (Basilicata), Canosa (Apulia), Tropea (Calabria) and Milazzo (Sicily).

Settlements, usually of small dimensions, were generally built on hills and circundated with fortifications. The economy was mostly based on agro-pastoral activities, metallurgy and trades.

The proto-Villanovans practiced cremation: the ashes were placed in biconic urns, often decorated with geometric designs, and then buried in the ground.

Regionalization

After a period of considerable uniformity from north to south, the Proto-Villanovan culture shows a process of regionalization. Starting from c. 950 BC, new regional cultures such as the Villanovan culture, Este culture and Latial culture appeared. Although these new cultures share many similarities with the preceding Proto-Villanovan culture, especially funerary customs, they also show innovations.

References

  1. ^ a b c M. Gimbutas Bronze Age Cultures in Central and Eastern Europe pp. 339–345
  2. ^ John M. Coles The Bronze Age in Europe: An Introduction to the Prehistory of Europe C. 2000–700 BC, pp. 422
  3. ^ Andrea Cardarelli  The collapse of the Terramare culture and growth of new economic and social system during the late Bronze Age in Italy
  4. ^ Francesco di Gennaro. "Protovillanoviano", Enciclopedia dell'arte antica, Treccani, Rome, 1996

See also

This page was last edited on 5 November 2019, at 03:43
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.