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John Wycliffe is called the "morning star of the reformation" by Andy Thomson.[1]
John Wycliffe is called the "morning star of the reformation" by Andy Thomson.[1]
Luther Monument in Worms, including Protestant forerunners such as Girolamo Savonarola, Jan Hus and Peter Waldo[2]
Luther Monument in Worms, including Protestant forerunners such as Girolamo Savonarola, Jan Hus and Peter Waldo[2]

Proto-Protestantism, also called pre-Protestantism, refers to individuals and movements that propagated ideas similar to Protestantism before 1517, which historians usually regard as the starting year for the Reformation era. The relationship between medieval sects and Protestantism is an issue that has been debated by historians.[3]


Before Martin Luther and John Calvin, some men tried to reform Christianity. The main forerunners of the Protestant Reformation were Peter Waldo, John Wycliffe and Jan Hus.[4] Martin Luther himself saw it important to have forerunners of his views, and thus he praised people like Girolamo Savonarola, Lorenzo Valla, Wessel Gansfort and other groups as prefiguring some of his views.[5][6][7][8][9]

Claimed to have prefigured Protestantism

According to Edmund Hamer Broadbent in The Pilgrim Church, over much of the Christian era, many Christian sects, cults and movements foreshadowed the teachings of what later became the Protestant movements.[10]

Movements that have been argued as having similar ideas as Protestantism before the Reformation are:

  • Montanism and Tertullian: Montanists were a sect of ascetics that were against many developments in the early church, into which Tertullian converted.[11] Parallels have been drawn between Montanism and modern-day movements such as Pentecostalism (including Oneness Pentecostals) and the Charismatic movement.[12][13] Tertullian's attack on church authorities for "being more interested in their own power than listening to the Spirit" foreshadows Protestant reactions to papal claims.[14]
  • Antidicomarians: Antidicomarians refused to give Mary "special status" and denied her perpetual virginity, their positions on Mary became the standard in many Protestant sects.[15]
  • Aerius of Sebaste: Aerius of Sebaste is seen as a forerunner of the reformation by some Protestants,[16] he attacked monasticism, denied fasting commandments and denied the episcopal polity.[17]
  • Helvedius: Helvedius is seen by some Protestants as a forerunner of the reformation,[16] Helvedius opposed the doctrine of the perpetual virginity of Mary and monasticism, he was attacked by Jerome.[17]
  • Jovinian and Jovinianism (died c. 405): Jovinian was a 4th-century theologian who challenged the wave of ascetism in the 4th century, challenged the exaltation of virginity, denied the perpetual virginity of Mary, and he believed that there is no difference between abstaining from food and enjoying it with thanksgiving. Jovinian taught a perseverance doctrine similar to John Calvin, as he taught the truly regenerate will persevere to the end.[18] Some also have argued Jovinian held grace oriented salvation views, similar to the Reformation. Jovinian is sometimes praised as an early forerunner of the reformation.[19][18] It has been argued that Jovinian believed in a distinction between the visible and invisible churches, based on his statement that the Church is founded on faith, and that all in the Church are taught by God and that no "unripe" members exist within the Church and no one can enter the church "by fraud".[20][21][22][23][24]
  • Vigilantius (fl. c. 400): Vigilantus was a presbyter in Spain, he wrote against ascetism and the superstitions connected with it, Jerome criticized Vigilantius for forbidding the honor of the graves of the martyrs, rejection of Vigils, opposition for virginity and being against fasting for the saints.[17] Vigilantius is seen as a forerunner of the reformation by some Protestants.[16] Some have also attempted to connect Vigilantius with the Waldensians.[31]
  • Augustine of Hippo (354 - 430): the Augustinian views of sin and grace foreshadow Protestant views, because many reformers borrowed their views about predestination, free will and grace from Augustine. However Augustine of Hippo also shared theology in common with the Catholic church, such as Mariology, his view of baptism and some other views.[32] The Protestant apologist James White has argued that Augustine did not accept the modern Roman Catholic view of transubstantiation, however Catholic apologist Tim Staples argued that Augustine did not deny transubstantiation.[33][34]
  • Paulicians: Due to supposed iconoclasm it was asserted that the sect rejected the Christian cross, rites, sacraments, the worship, and the hierarchy of the established Church,[35][36] because of which Edward Gibbon considered them as "worthy precursors of Reformation".[37]
  • Byzantine Iconoclasm: this was a movement within the Eastern Church that gained imperial support in the 8th century from Leo III the Isaurian (685 – 741) and some later emperors. They eliminated religious icons, with some violence, possibly influenced by Islam.[38] Protestant Iconoclasts looked back to the Byzantine iconoclasts to justify their assault on religious image.[39] Protestants in the reformation used the same Biblical and Patristic texts used by the Byzantines in the 8th and 9th centuries, to condemn religious images.[40]
  • Claudius of Turin: Claudius of Turin was the Bishop of Turin; because of his iconoclasm, he is often seen as proto-Protestant.[41] His commentary on the Epistle to Galatians shows some of his views prefigure those expressed by both the Waldensians and Protestants centuries later. Claudius in his writings, maintained that faith is the only requirement for salvation, denies the supremacy of Peter, sees praying for the dead to be useless, attacked practices of the church and held the church to be fallible.[42][43]
  • Gottschalk of Orbais: Gottschalk was a 9th-century Saxon theologian who was condemned for heresy, due to his teachings on predestination and that Christ's redemption was only for the elect. The grace views of Gottschalk mirror the Protestant sola fide doctrine.[44][45][46]
  • Ratramnus: Ratramus was a theologian who died in 868. Ratramus believed that the Eucharist is merely symbolic, thus rejecting the real presence of the Eucharist. Ratramnus also believed in single predestination. The writings of Ratramus influenced Protestant theologians and contributed to the later Reformation.[47]
  • Tondrakians: Tondrakians criticized the Armenian church as rigidly structured, materialistic, they had their own priests, stressed free will and they pressed for reforms.[48]
  • Ælfric of Eynsham: Protestants have appealed to Ælfric of Eynsham as evidence for the English church not believing transubstantiation, because of his book: Sermo de sacrificio in die pascae where he defines the Eucharist.[49]
  • Berengar of Tours: Berengar of Tours (c.1005-1088), was a forerunner of the reformation. Berengar of Tours argued against transubstantiation, saying that it is against logic and the Bible, and taught that the body and blood were not "real" in the Eucharist.[50][51][52]
  • Albigenses: the Albigenses were a religious group, that first appeared around the first half of the 11th century.[53] Despite holding to dualist ideas, the Albigenses wanted to return to a purer form of Christianity and used the New Testament as their main authority. The Albigenses also held anti clerical tendencies, denied the idea of a purgatory, the crucifix, invocation of the saints, prayers for the dead, and transubstantiation.[3] The later Protestant reformation had flourished in areas which were previously Cathar and Waldensian strongholds. The inclusion of the Cathars or Albigenses as a Protestant forerunner has been a matter of controversy, some people in the past attempting to justify the Albigenses as Protestants have even argued against them being dualist, however without much evidence.[3])
  • Bosnian Church: Also called Krstjani, they denied the power of the Pope and were excommunicated by both the eastern and western churches. Some have claimed that the Bosnian church is an early pre-reformist church.[54][55][56]
  • Pataria: The Pataria were an 11th-century group in northern Italy, that was against corruption in the church.[57]
  • Tanchelm: Tanchelm was a 12th-century preacher who rejected the structure of the Catholic church.[57]
  • Peter Abelard: Peter Abelard was a Frenchman in around the year 1100, he sought to include human reason as one of the ways to understand the meaning of scripture, instead of believing everything the church declares without question. He was condemned as a heretic, and his books were burned.[58] Novelist and Abelard scholar George Moore referred to Abelard as the "first protestant" prior to Martin Luther.[59]
  • Peter of Bruys: was a French reformer who fought against the Catholic church, he rejected infant baptism and religious images.[60]
  • Henry of Lausanne: Henry of Lausanne preached in France and his followers were called Henricans, Henry condemned Catholic clergy for their wealth.[57]
  • Arnold of Brescia: Arnold of Brescia attacked the Catholic bishops for their wealth, he was hanged in 1155.[57]
  • Joachimites: Joachimite interpretations prefigured developments in Protestant hermeneutics.[61]
  • Waldensians: Waldensians were a 12th-century movement often viewed as a precursor to the Reformation. The Waldensians did not baptize infants and they rejected the use of indulgences; the Waldensians also denied transubstantiation. The Waldensians wanted to follow Jesus in poverty and simplicity. The Waldensians later joined the Protestant reformation.[62][3] The Waldensian movement was started by Peter Waldo, they contested the institution of the papacy and the wealth of the church, however they still took part in the sacraments of the Catholic church.[63]
  • Fraticelli: the Fraticelli or Spiritual Franciscans were an extreme group of the Franciscans in the 12th century. The Fraticelli influenced later Protestant mystics.[64]
  • King John: During the reformation, king John was seen as a hero and as proto-Protestant martyr who suffered excommunication for his defiance of the Pope. King John was praised by John Foxe and John Bale.[65][66][67]
  • Dante Alighieri: Some early Protestant writers, such as John Foxe and John Bale tried to argue that Dante opposed papal supremacy and claimed him as a Protestant forerunner, this is because of his work "Monarchia", where he attacked temporal powers claimed by the pope.[68] Another reason why some interpreted Dante as a proto-Protestant was due to his advocacy of the use of vernacular writing, and in his work Inferno the Archbishop Ruggieri was imprisoned, which was quoted for anticlericalism.[69] Despite many writers claiming Dante as a proto-Protestant, his religious views still aligned with Catholicism, such as purgatory.[70]
  • Marsilius of Padua: Marsilius (born in 1270ad) is sometimes called a forerunner of the reformation. Marsilius believed that the only source of truth for a Christian are the scriptures, and he rejected the ultimate authority of the church. Marsilius believed that obedience to papal decrees is not necessary for salvation, and he believed the Papal system to be of human arrangement and not divine. The beliefs of Marsilius were largely in agreement with the Protestant reformers.[71]
  • William of Ockham: Ockhamite philosophy influenced Luther and Protestant philosophy. Luther conveyed the ethnical philosophy of Ockham into Protestantism.[72][73] Ockham's stress on scripture anticipates Protestant views and some see him as a proto-Protestant.[74]
  • Thomas Bradwardine: Thomas was an English man and a teacher at Oxford. Bradwardine believed in the doctrine of predestination, Thomas died in 1349.[75]
  • Gregory of Rimini: Gregory of Rimini (1300 – November 1358) was an Italian theologian; his teachings influenced later Protestant Reformers. Rimini believed in the human inability to lead a moral life without divine grace, and in predestination.[76]
  • Friends of God: Friends of God or Gottesfreunde were a 14th-century Christian group in Germany, some of the leaders of the movement were executed for their criticism of the Catholic church, the movement foreshadowed the Protestant reformation. The Gottesfreunde movement was a democratic lay movement that stressed piety, devotion and holiness.[77]
  • Petrarch: Many Scholars have regarded Petrarch as a proto-Protestant who challenged the Pope's dogma.[78][79][80][81][82]
  • Strigolniki: Striginolki were a 14th-century movement in Russia that were against monasteries, the upper clergy and they perhaps were Iconoclastic.[83] There is some debate if the Strigolniki were similar to Protestantism or more "heretical".[84]
  • Lollardy: Lollardy was a 14th-century movement that stressed the importance of scripture, denied transubstantiation and rejected the system of the papacy. The movement was started by John Wycliffe. Lollard doctrine anticipated those found in the Protestant Reformation.[85]
  • Hussites: Hussites were a 15th-century group in Bohemia, founded by Jan Hus, who was influenced by the writings of John Wycliffe.[86][87] Jan Hus attacked indulgences and believed the scriptures to be the only authority for every man.[88]
    • Taborites: Taborites were a faction of the Hussite movement, they denied transubstantiation, veneration of saints, prayers for the dead, indulgences, confession to clergy and renounced oaths.[89]
    • Utraquists: Ultraquists insisted on communion under two kinds, apostolic poverty, "free preching of the gospel" and the use of Czech in scripture reading.[90]
  • Lorenzo Valla: Lorenzo Valla broke loose from an infallible church tradition and thus some call him a Protestant forerunner and prefigured some teachings of the reformation. Luther himself praised Lorenzo Valla.[9][91]
  • Johannes von Goch: Goch asserted that the bible is the supreme authority on doctrine, perhaps taught that faith alone is enough for salvation and questioned monasticism.[92]
  • Johann Ruchrat von Wesel: Johann attacked indulgences and rejected priesty celibacy and papal authority; he believed in predestination and in the church invisibile, and believed that the Scriptures are the only trustworthy authority.[93]
  • John of Wessel: John of Wessel attacked indulgences, rejected the Catholic doctrine of transubstantiation, Wessel believed that the pope and councils can err and layed stress on the faith of the recipient of the sacraments.[7][94] While some Catholics have claimed that the identification of John of Wessel with Protestantism "exaggerates the similarities".[95]
  • Johannes Geiler von Kaysersverg: Born in 1445, Johannes was concerned for moral reform in Strasbourg, and preached about God's justice. His reforms laid groundwork for the later Protestant reform in Strasbourg.[96]
  • Girolamo Savonarola was an Italian preacher and reformer, he was born in 1452 and died in 1498. Historians believe that Girolamo Savonarola influenced Luther, and possibly also John Calvin.[97] despite having many beliefs that align with Roman Catholicism, Savonarola believed in divine grace, such as Protestants do. Savonarola declared, that good works are not a cause of predestination but result of predestination.[8] His followers were called the Piagnoni.[98] Savonarola never abandoned the dogmas of the Roman Catholic church, however his protests against papal corruption, reliance on the bible as the main guide link Savonarola with the reformation.[99] Although some dispute the inclusion of Girolamo Savonarola as a proto-Protestant.[100]
  • Pico della Mirandola: Pico della Mirandola published 900 theses against Rome, where he argued that "this is my body" must be seen symbolically and that no images should be adored. Pico was also an admirer of Girolamo Savonarola.[101]
  • Johann Reuchlin: Johann Reuchlin was a scholar, who got his master's decree in 1477, and later went through other studies.[102] When the reformation had begun, he never left the Catholic church but was suspected of leaning towards reformation ideas.[103] Later his grandnephew, Melanchthon joined the Protestant reformation.[102]
  • Johannes von Staupitz: Johannes was born in 1460 and served as Luther's superior in the Augustinian order, Staupitz stressed the doctrine of unconditional election.[104]
  • Faber Stapulensis: Faber was a forerunner of Luther in France, and anticipated the doctrine of justification by faith.[105] Jacques Lefèvre d’Etaples wrote commentaries on the bible which influenced Martin Luther.[106]
  • Erasmus: Erasmus was born only 20 years before Luther in the Netherlands. Despite Erasmus not supporting many radical reforms that Luther brought forward, Erasmus was still sympathetic towards some of Luther's beliefs and prefigured some of his ideas, most notably that everyone should be able to read the bible in their own languages. Erasmus sometimes defended Luther when he was in trouble, yet did not defend all of his teachings as he felt that the doctrine of sola fide was too divisive. Erasmus' contemporaries charged him with "laying the egg that Luther hatched".[107]

Baptist opinion

Baptist successionism postulates an unbroken lineage of churches which have held beliefs similar to those of current Baptists. Groups often included in this lineage include the Montanists, Novationists, Donatists, Paulicians, Albigenses, Waldenses, Petrobrusians, Arnoldists, Henricians, Hussites (partly), Lollards (partly) and Anabaptists. Baptist successionism proposes that groups such as Bogomils or Paulicians were Baptist in doctrine instead of Gnostic.[108]

See also


  1. ^ Thomson, Andy (1988). Morning Star of the Reformation. Bob Jones University Press. ISBN 978-0-89084-453-3.
  2. ^ "Worms: world's largest Reformation Monument". Fotoeins Fotografie. 2017-05-15. Retrieved 2021-12-31.
  3. ^ a b c d Walther, Daniel (1968). "Were the Albigenses and Waldenses Forerunners of the Reformation?". Andrews University Seminary Studies. 6 (2).
  4. ^ "Forerunners of the Reformation". Musée protestant. Retrieved 2021-11-20.
  5. ^ Daniels, David D. "Honor the Reformation's African roots". The Commercial Appeal. Retrieved 2022-01-28.
  6. ^ "Martin Luther and Ethiopian Christianity: Historical Traces | The University of Chicago Divinity School". Retrieved 2022-01-28.
  7. ^ a b "Philip Schaff: History of the Christian Church, Volume VI: The Middle Ages. A.D. 1294-1517 - Christian Classics Ethereal Library". Retrieved 2022-01-27.
  8. ^ a b "Philip Schaff: History of the Christian Church, Volume VI: The Middle Ages. A.D. 1294-1517 - Christian Classics Ethereal Library". Retrieved 2021-11-17.
  9. ^ a b "Philip Schaff: History of the Christian Church, Volume VI: The Middle Ages. A.D. 1294-1517 - Christian Classics Ethereal Library". Retrieved 2021-12-23.
  10. ^ Broadbent, E.H. (1931). The Pilgrim Church. Basingstoke: Pickering & Inglis. ISBN 0-7208-0677-1.
  11. ^ III, H. W. Crocker (2009-02-25). Triumph: The Power and the Glory of the Catholic Church. Crown. ISBN 978-0-307-56077-3. In technical terms, he went into schism as a Montanist, a proto-Protestant sect.
  12. ^ Robeck, Cecil M, Jr (2010), "Montanism and Present Day 'Prophets'", Pneuma: The Journal of the Society for Pentecostal Studies, 32 (3): 413, doi:10.1163/157007410x531934.
  13. ^ "Oneness Pentecostal Origins by Thomas Weisser". 16 May 1996. Retrieved 2020-09-15.
  14. ^ "Tertullian : The Montanists". Retrieved 2022-07-03.
  15. ^ William H. Brackney, Historical Dictionary of Radical Christianity (Scarecrow Press, 2012 [ISBN 978-0-8108-7179-3]), p. 31.
  16. ^ a b c "Philip Schaff: History of the Christian Church, Volume III: Nicene and Post-Nicene Christianity. A.D. 311-600 - Christian Classics Ethereal Library". Retrieved 2021-12-21.
  17. ^ a b c "Philip Schaff: History of the Christian Church, Volume III: Nicene and Post-Nicene Christianity. A.D. 311-600 - Christian Classics Ethereal Library". Retrieved 2021-12-21.
  18. ^ a b "Philip Schaff: History of the Christian Church, Volume III: Nicene and Post-Nicene Christianity. A.D. 311-600 - Christian Classics Ethereal Library". Retrieved 2021-12-21.
  19. ^ G. Hunter, David (1987). "Resistance to the Virginal Ideal in Late-Fourth-Century Rome: The Case of Jovinian" (PDF). Theological Studies. 48: 45–64. doi:10.1177/004056398704800103. S2CID 54891999.
  20. ^ Neander, August (1849). General History of the Christian Religion and Church. Crocker & Brewster. It is plainly evident that Jovinian could only have understood by the church , here , the invisible church
  21. ^ Dorner, Isaac August (1890). A System of Christian Doctrine. T. & T. Clark.
  22. ^ M ́Clintock, John Strong, James (2020-04-17). Cyclopaedia of Biblical, Theological, and Ecclesiastical Literature: Volume II. BoD – Books on Demand. ISBN 978-3-8460-5024-8. As Jovinian taught the Pauline doctrine of faith, so he did the Pauline idea of the invisible Church
  23. ^ Evans, Warren Felt (2016-12-19). The Spiritual Journals of Warren Felt Evans: From Methodism to Mind Cure. Indiana University Press. ISBN 978-0-253-02255-4. Jovinian (a choice spirit who differentiated the invisible from the visible church
  24. ^ Evans, Warren Felt (2016-12-19). The Spiritual Journals of Warren Felt Evans: From Methodism to Mind Cure. Indiana University Press. ISBN 978-0-253-02255-4. But there is an invisible Church, which has existed in every century, which is pure and spotless. ... This whole train of thought has been suggested by reading the words of Jovinian, in Neander
  25. ^ Butler, Clement Moore (1868). An Ecclesiastical History, from the First to the Thirteenth Century. M'Calla & Stavely.
  26. ^ Greenslade, Stanley Lawrence (1956-01-01). Early Latin Theology: Selections from Tertullian, Cyprian, Ambrose, and Jerome. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 978-0-664-24154-4.
  27. ^ Kurtz, Professor (2020-07-27). Church History: Volume 1. BoD – Books on Demand. ISBN 978-3-7523-4770-8.
  28. ^ Neander, August (1848). General History of the Christian Religion and Church: From the German of Dr. Augustus Neander. Crocker & Brewster.
  29. ^ Kurtz, J. H. (2020-12-17). The History of Church: All 3 Volumes. e-artnow.
  30. ^ Jerome; Jerome, St St (2010). Commentary on Galatians. CUA Press. ISBN 978-0-8132-0121-4.
  31. ^ "Accounts of the Waldenses". Sketches of the Waldenses. Religious Tract Society. 1846. p. 18. Retrieved 2 March 2022. [...] returning to the region of the Alps, he [Vigilantius] found a body of Christians like-minded with himself; with these he gladly united, and laboured.
  32. ^ "Philip Schaff: NPNF1-01. The Confessions and Letters of St. Augustine, with a Sketch of his Life and Work - Christian Classics Ethereal Library". Retrieved 2021-12-24. But, on the other hand, Augustin is, of all the fathers, nearest to evangelical Protestantism, and may be called, in respect of his doctrine of sin and grace, the first forerunner of the Reformation. The Lutheran and Reformed churches have ever conceded to him, without scruple, the cognomen of Saint, and claimed him as one of the most enlightened witnesses of the truth and most striking examples of the marvellous power of divine grace in the transformation of a sinner. It is worthy of mark, that his Pauline doctrines, which are most nearly 22 akin to Protestantism, are the later and more mature parts of his system, and that just these found great acceptance with the laity. The Pelagian controversy, in which he developed his anthropology, marks the culmination of his theological and ecclesiastical career, and his latest writings were directed against the Pelagian Julian and the Semi-Pelagians in Gaul, who were brought to his notice by two friendly laymen, Prosper and Hilary. These anti-Pelagian works have wrought mightily, it is most true, upon the Catholic church, and have held in check the Pelagianizing tendencies of the hierarchical and monastic system, but they have never passed into its blood and marrow. They waited for a favourable future, and nourished in silence an opposition to the prevailing system. All the Reformers in the outset, Melanchthon and Zwingle among them, adopted his denial of free will and his doctrine of predestination, and sometimes even went beyond him into the abyss of supralapsarianism, to cut out the last roots of human merit and boasting{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  33. ^ White, James (2000-04-11). "Catholic Legends And How They Get Started: An Example (Sermon 131)". Alpha and Omega Ministries. Retrieved 2022-05-06. These comments are in reference to the heresy of Pelagianism, which Augustine had been battling in the church in North Africa. This sermon, delivered September 23, 416, begins, ironically, with an exposition of John 6:53 that is directly contradictory to modern Roman teaching on the doctrine of transubstantiation. Since so few take the time to actually read the contexts of the statements about which arguments are based in patristic sources, I provide the first two sections of this sermon, which show us the direction that Augustine was taking:
  34. ^ "Did Tertullian and St. Augustine Deny the Real Presence?". Catholic Answers. Retrieved 2022-05-06.
  35. ^ "Paulician". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 1 March 2019.
  36. ^ Nikolin, Svetlana (2008). "Pavlikijani ili banatski Bugari" [Paulicians or Banat Bulgarians]. XXI Vek (in Serbo-Croatian). 3: 15–16. Retrieved 1 March 2019.
  37. ^ Garsoïan, Nina G. (1967). The Paulician heresy: a study of the origin and development of Paulicianism in Armenia and the Eastern Provinces of the Byzantine empire. Walter de Gruyter. pp. 13–26. ISBN 978-3-11-134452-2.
  38. ^ "Byzantine Empire – The age of Iconoclasm: 717–867". Retrieved 2021-10-29.
  39. ^ Schildgen, Brenda Deen (2008). "Destruction: Iconoclasm and the Reformation in Northern Europe". Heritage or Heresy: 39–56. doi:10.1057/9780230613157_3. ISBN 978-1-349-37162-4.
  40. ^ Herrin, Judith (2009-09-28). Byzantium: The Surprising Life of a Medieval Empire. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-14369-9.
  41. ^ Raaijmakers, Janneke (2017). "Claudius. Self-styling in early medieval debate: Self-styling in early medieval debate". {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  42. ^ Milner, Joseph. The History of the Church of Christ Volume 3. A comment on the epistle to the Galatians, is his only work which was committed to the press. In it he every where asserts the equality of all the apostles with St. Peter. And, indeed, he always owns Jesus Christ to be the only proper head of the church. He is severe against the doctrine of human merits, and of the exaltation of traditions to a height of credibility equal to that of the divine word. He maintains that we are to be saved by faith alone; holds the fallibility of the church, exposes the futility of praying for the dead, and the sinfulness of the idolatrous practices then supported by the Roman see. Such are the sentiments found in his commentary on the epistle to the Galatians.
  43. ^ F. L. Cross; E. A. Livingstone, eds. (13 March 1997). The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, 3rd edition. USA: Oxford University Press. pp. 359. ISBN 0-19-211655-X.
  44. ^ "Gottschalk Of Orbais | Roman Catholic theologian". Retrieved 2021-10-27.
  45. ^ caryslmbrown (2017-07-18). "Reformation parallels: the case of Gottschalk of Orbais". Doing History in Public. Retrieved 2021-10-27.
  46. ^ Lockridge, Kenneth R. "Gottschalk "Fulgentius" of Orbais". {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  47. ^ "Ratramnus | Benedictine theologian | Britannica". Retrieved 2021-11-21.
  48. ^ Payaslian, Simon (2011-06-30). The Political Economy of Human Rights in Armenia: Authoritarianism and Democracy in a Former Soviet Republic. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 52. ISBN 978-0-85772-005-4. Foreshadowing the Protestant Reformation in Europe, the Tondrakians criticized the Armenian church as too rigidly structured and too materialist in orientation and pressed for reforms. They preferred to elect their own priests independent of the Armenian Church hierarchy and stressed individual free will and egalitarianism, which they believed more accurately represended the authentic principles and practices of Christianity
  49. ^ Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Ælfric" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 1 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 255.
  50. ^ Minton, Gretchen E. (2014-01-26). John Bale's 'The Image of Both Churches'. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 978-94-007-7296-0. Berengar of Tours was an 11th-century theologian who argued that the doctrine of transubstantiation was contrary to reason and unsupported by scripture
  51. ^ Siebeck, Mohr (11 March 2016). Prophecy, Piety, and the Problem of Historicity: Interpreting the Hebrew. Germany. p. 372. ISBN 978-3-16-154270-1. Berengar of Tours (c. 1005-1088), Bernand of Clairvaux, the Waldensians in the twelfth century, the Albigensians in the thirteenth century and John Wycliffe (x. 1330-1385) and Jan Hus (c. 1370-1415) in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, are all prefigured in the poetic images of Solomon's Songs. They all become forerunners of Luther and Calvin
  52. ^ Jung, Emma; Franz, Marie-Luise von (1998). The Grail Legend. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-00237-8. Berengar of Tours (first half og the eleventh century), whose views occasioned the dispute known as the Second Eucharistic Controversy. Berengar aught that the body and the blood of the Lord were no "real" in the Eucharist but a specific image or likeleness ("figuram quandam similitudinem"). He was thus a forerunner of the Reformers.
  53. ^ "Cathari | Christian sect". Retrieved 2021-10-29.
  54. ^ Markowitz, AvFran (2010). Sarajevo: A Bosnian Kaleidoscope.
  55. ^ Dedijer, Vladimir (1961). The Beloved Land. Simon & Schuster. But within a short time both Rome and Constantinople had excommunicated the Bosnian Church , which claimed to represent the true form of Christianity . ... The Bosnian faith was , in a way , the forerunner of the great Reformation
  56. ^ Bringa, Tone (2020-09-01). Being Muslim the Bosnian Way: Identity and Community in a Central Bosnian Village. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-1-4008-5178-2. The Bosnian Church has, however, been described primarily as a heretic Catholic sect. It has furthermore been seen as a forerunner to the Protestants
  57. ^ a b c d Reddy, Mike Megrove (2017). "The forms of communication employed by the Protestant Reformers and especially Luther and Calvin" (PDF). Pharos Journal of Theology. 98. The Pre-Reformers: All groups that spoke out against the church were regarded as "heretical" groups. In the same light, the present-day church considers those individuals that questioned the church "doctrine" and "teachings" as heretics. McCallum (2002:n.p.) states that there were eight heretical groups of pre-reformers between the 12th and 15th centuries during the various European regions. McCallum 2002:n.p. mentions them as follows:
    • Flagellants were in 1259. They marched with only loincloths through the streets crying out to God to show mercy on them (McCallum 2002:n.p.). In 1349 they were condemned.
    • Then there was a variety of lay groups known as Beguines who had no specific set of forms (McCallum, 2002;n.p.). They were followers of Lambert le Begue who was a stammerer.
    • In the 12th century Tanchelm preached in the diocese of Utrecht. He denied the author of the pope and the church and attacked the structure of the Catholic Church (McCallum, 2002:n.p.).
    • Peter of Bruys in the 12th century also rejected christening of infants. He rejected prayers for the dead, the Eucharist veneration of the cross and ecclesiastical ceremonies (McCallum, 2002:n.p.).
    • In the first half of 12th century Henry of Lausanne preached in what is known as France. His followers were known as the Henricans. The clergy were condemned for the love of wealth and power by Henry of Lausanne (McCallum, 2002:n.p.).
    • The Adamists engaged in behaviour that was socially unacceptable and indulged in the practice of nude worship.
    • Arnold of Brescia wanted the church to follow Christian ideals (McCallum 2002:n.p.). He attacked the bishops for their dishonest gains. He was hanged in 1155 and his body was burned.
    • The Pataria, in Northern Italy were in reaction to the corruption which was taking place in the church. McCallum (2002:n.p.) states that the self-indulgent practices within the Roman Catholic Church were also opposed by other smaller movements.
  58. ^ dePrater, William A. (2015-03-25). God Hovered Over the Waters: The Emergence of the Protestant Reformation. Wipf and Stock Publishers. p. 37. ISBN 978-1-4982-0454-5. (Chapter name: Forerunners of the Protestant Reformation) Despite the failure of the efforts atr a reformation of the church's governance, there were efforts to reform the church's theology and manner of faith. Yet the church was slow to change, Peter Aberlard, a Frenchmand sought to include human reason as one of the means of understanding the meanings of scripture.
  59. ^ O'Brien, Peggy. Heloise and Abelard. Irish Times.
  60. ^ Kim, Elijah Jong Fil (2012-04-06). The Rise of the Global South: The Decline of Western Christendom and the Rise of Majority World Christianity. Wipf and Stock Publishers. p. 201. ISBN 978-1-61097-970-2. Peter bruys became one of the earliest leaders of the Reformation, rejecting images, infant baptism,
  61. ^ Lundin, Roger (1993). The Culture of Interpretation: Christian Faith and the Postmodern World. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. ISBN 978-0-8028-0636-9. Joachimite interpretation itself prefigured later developments in Protestant and romantic hermeneutics.
  62. ^ "Waldenses | Description, History, & Beliefs". Retrieved 2021-10-27.
  63. ^ "Pierre Valdo (1140-1217) and the Waldenses". Musée protestant. Retrieved 2021-12-31.
  64. ^ "Spiritual | religious order". Retrieved 2021-10-27.
  65. ^ Perry, Curtis; Watkins, John (2009-05-07). Shakespeare and the Middle Ages. OUP Oxford. pp. 86, 82. ISBN 978-0-19-160967-1. John Bale and John Foxed honored John as a proto-Protestant martyr who suffered excommunication for his defiance of Innocent III
  66. ^ Tomaini, Thea (2017). The Corpse as Text: Disinterment and Antiquarian Enquiry, 1700-1900. Boydell & Brewer. ISBN 978-1-78327-194-8.
  67. ^ Groves, Beatrice (2006-11-30). Texts and Traditions: Religion in Shakespeare 1592 - 1604. Clarendon Press. ISBN 978-0-19-151414-2.
  68. ^ Boswell, Jackson Campbell (1999). Dante's Fame in England: References in Printed British Books, 1477-1640. University of Delaware Press. pp. xv. ISBN 978-0-87413-605-0. after John Foxe's enormously influential Ecclesiastical History Contayning the Actes and Monumentes was published, Dante's role as a proto-Protestant was sealed.
  69. ^ Saglia, Diego (2005). British Romanticism and Italian Literature: Translating, Reviewing, Rewriting. p. 261.
  70. ^ Crisafulli, Edoardo (2003). The Vision of Dante: Cary's Translation of The Divine Comedy. Troubador Publishing Ltd. ISBN 978-1-899293-09-4.
  71. ^ "Philip Schaff: History of the Christian Church, Volume VI: The Middle Ages. A.D. 1294-1517 - Christian Classics Ethereal Library". Retrieved 2021-12-23.
  72. ^ Covington, Jesse; McGraw, Bryan T.; Watson, Micah (2012-11-16). Natural Law and Evangelical Political Thought. Lexington Books. ISBN 978-0-7391-7323-7.
  73. ^ Ockham), William (of (2021-05-06). William of Ockham: Questions on Virtue, Goodness, and the Will William Ockham: Qstns Virt Gdn Will. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-108-49838-8.
  74. ^ McGregor, Peter John; Rowland, Tracey (2022-01-20). Healing Fractures in Contemporary Theology. Wipf and Stock Publishers. ISBN 978-1-7252-6610-0.
  75. ^ dePrater, William A. (2015-03-25). God Hovered Over the Waters: The Emergence of the Protestant Reformation. Wipf and Stock Publishers. ISBN 978-1-4982-0454-5. (Chapter name: Forerunners of the Protestant reformation) Bradwardine in his study of Augustinian theology came to an understanding of the doctrine of predestination as a positive affirmation of Gd's benevolent grace unto us.
  76. ^ "Gregory Of Rimini | Italian philosopher". Retrieved 2021-10-29.
  77. ^ "Friends of God | religious group | Britannica". Retrieved 2021-11-25.
  78. ^ Paulina Kewes, ed. (2006). The Uses of History in Early Modern England. Huntington Library. p. 143. ISBN 9780873282192.
  79. ^ William J. Kennedy (2004). The Site of Petrarchism Early Modern National Sentiment in Italy, France, and England. Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 3. ISBN 9780801881268.
  80. ^ Alessandra Petrina, ed. (2020). Petrarch's 'Triumphi' in the British Isles. Modern Humanities Research Association. p. 6. ISBN 9781781888827.
  81. ^ Enrica Zanin; Rémi Vuillemin; Laetitia Sansonetti; Tamsin Badcoe, eds. (2020). The Early Modern English Sonnet. Manchester University Press. ISBN 9781526144416.
  82. ^ Abigail Brundin (2016). Vittoria Colonna and the Spiritual Poetics of the Italian Reformation. Taylor & Francis. p. 10. ISBN 9781317001065.
  83. ^ Michalski, Sergiusz (2013-01-11). Reformation and the Visual Arts: The Protestant Image Question in Western and Eastern Europe. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-134-92102-7. in the middle of the fourteenth century the Strigolniki heresy broke out in Russia, chiefly in the cities in the north of the country, which gave this movement a proto-Reformation character
  84. ^ Belich, James (2022-07-19). The World the Plague Made: The Black Death and the Rise of Europe. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-22287-5.
  85. ^ "Lollard | English religious history". Retrieved 2021-10-27.
  86. ^ "Hussite | religious movement". Retrieved 2021-10-27.
  87. ^ "Jan Hus | Biography, Reforms, Beliefs, Death, & Facts". Retrieved 2021-10-27.
  88. ^ "Jan Hus (1369-1415) and the Hussite wars (1419-1436)". museéprotestant.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  89. ^ "Philip Schaff: History of the Christian Church, Volume VI: The Middle Ages. A.D. 1294-1517 - Christian Classics Ethereal Library". Retrieved 2022-02-28.
  90. ^ "Philip Schaff: History of the Christian Church, Volume VI: The Middle Ages. A.D. 1294-1517 - Christian Classics Ethereal Library". Retrieved 2022-02-28.
  91. ^ "Lorenzo Valla | Italian humanist | Britannica". Retrieved 2022-01-27.
  92. ^ "Philip Schaff: History of the Christian Church, Volume VI: The Middle Ages. A.D. 1294–1517 – Christian Classics Ethereal Library". Retrieved 2021-11-14. John Pupper, 1400–1475, usually called John of Goch from his birthplace, a hamlet on the lower Rhine near Cleves, seems to have been trained in one of the schools of the Brothers of the Common Life, and then studied in Cologne and perhaps in Paris. He founded a house of Augustinians near Mecheln, remaining at its head till his death. His writings were not published till after the beginning of the Reformation. He anticipated that movement in asserting the supreme authority of the Bible. The Fathers are to be accepted only so far as they follow the canonical Scriptures. In contrast to the works of the philosophers and the Schoolmen, the Bible is a book of life; theirs, books of death.1167 He also called in question the merit of monastic vows and the validity of the distinction between the higher and lower morality upon which monasticism laid stress. What is included under the higher morality is within the reach of all Christians and not the property of monks only. He renounced the Catholic view of justification without stating with clearness the evangelical theory These three German theologians, Goch, Wesel and Wessel, were quietly searching after the marks of the true Church and the doctrine of justification by faith in Christ alone. Without knowing it, they were standing on the threshold of the Reformation.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  93. ^ "Philip Schaff: History of the Christian Church, Volume VI: The Middle Ages. A.D. 1294–1517 – Christian Classics Ethereal Library". Retrieved 2021-11-14. John Ruchrath von Wesel, d. 1481, attacked the hierarchy and indulgences and was charged on his trial with calling in question almost all the distinctive Roman Catholic tenets. He was born in Oberwesel on the Rhine between Mainz and Coblentz. He taught at the University of Erfurt and, in 1458, was chosen its vice-rector. Luther bore testimony to his influence when he said, "I remember how Master John Wesalia ruled the University of Erfurt by his writings through the study of which I also became a master."1169 Leaving Erfurt, he was successively professor in Basel and cathedral preacher in Mainz and Worms. In 1479, Wesel was arraigned for heresy before the Inquisition at Mainz.1170 Among the charges were that the Scriptures are alone a trustworthy source of authority; the names of the predestinate are written in the book of life and cannot be erased by a priestly ban; indulgences do not profit; Christ is not pleased with festivals of fasting, pilgrimages or priestly celibacy; Christ’s body can be in the bread without any change of the bread’s substance: pope and councils are not to be obeyed if they are out of accord with the Scriptures; he whom God chooses will be saved irrespective of pope and priests, and all who have faith will enjoy as much blessedness as prelates. Wesel also made the distinction between the visible and the invisible Church and defined the Church as the aggregation of all the faithful who are bound together by love—collectio omnium fidelium caritate copulatorum. In his trial, he was accused of having had communication with the Hussites. In matters of historical criticism, he was also in advance of his age, casting doubt upon some of the statements of the Athanasian Creed, abandoning the application of the term Catholic to the Apostles’ Creed and pronouncing the addition of the filioque clause—and from the Son—unwarranted. The doctrines of indulgences and the fund of merit he pronounced unscriptural and pious frauds. The elect are saved wholly through the grace of God—sola Dei gratia salvantur electi. These three German theologians, Goch, Wesel and Wessel, were quietly searching after the marks of the true Church and the doctrine of justification by faith in Christ alone. Without knowing it, they were standing on the threshold of the Reformation.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  94. ^ "The forms of communication employed by the Protestant Reformers and especially Luther and Calvin" (PDF). Pharos Journal of Theology. 98. 2016. John of Wessel was one member in the group who attacked indulgences (Reddy 2004:115). The doctrine of justification by faith alone was the teaching of John of Wessel (Kuiper 1982:151). He rejected the doctrine of transubstantiation where it is believed when the priest pronounces the sacraments then the wine and bread in turned into the real body and blood of Christ
  95. ^ "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: John Wessel Goesport (Gansfort)". Retrieved 2022-01-27.
  96. ^ dePrater, William A. (2015-03-25). God Hovered Over the Waters: The Emergence of the Protestant Reformation. Wipf and Stock Publishers. ISBN 978-1-4982-0454-5. (Chapter name: forerunners of the Protestant reformation) Yet his modest ethnical reforms would lay the grounwork for the later Protestant Reformation movement at Strasbourg.
  97. ^ "How did Savonarola influence the Reformation and Counter-Reformation –". Retrieved 2021-10-29.
  98. ^ "Italy - Savonarola | Britannica". Retrieved 2021-12-19.
  99. ^ Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Savonarola, Girolamo" . Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
  100. ^ "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Girolamo Savonarola". Retrieved 2022-01-27.
  101. ^ "Philip Schaff: History of the Christian Church, Volume VI: The Middle Ages. A.D. 1294-1517 - Christian Classics Ethereal Library". Retrieved 2021-12-23.
  102. ^ a b dePrater, William A. (2015-03-25). "Forerunners of the Protestant reformation". God Hovered Over the Waters: The Emergence of the Protestant Reformation. Wipf and Stock Publishers. p. 43. ISBN 978-1-4982-0454-5.
  103. ^ This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainRines, George Edwin, ed. (1920). "Reuchlin, Johann" . Encyclopedia Americana.
  104. ^ dePrater, William A. (2015-03-25). God Hovered Over the Waters: The Emergence of the Protestant Reformation. Wipf and Stock Publishers. pp. 42–43. ISBN 978-1-4982-0454-5.
  105. ^ "Philip Schaff: History of the Christian Church, Volume VI: The Middle Ages. A.D. 1294-1517 - Christian Classics Ethereal Library". Retrieved 2021-12-23.
  106. ^ "Jacques Lefèvre d'Etaples (1450-1537)". Musée protestant. Retrieved 2021-12-31.
  107. ^ Little, Katherine. "Before Martin Luther, there was Erasmus – a Dutch theologian who paved the way for the Protestant Reformation". The Conversation. Retrieved 2021-12-31.
  108. ^ Hisel, Berlin (2017). Baptist History Notebook.

Further reading

  • Barnett, S. J. (1999). "Where Was Your Church before Luther? Claims for the Antiquity of Protestantism Examined". Church History. Cambridge University Press. 68 (1): 14–41. doi:10.2307/3170108. ISSN 0009-6407. JSTOR 3170108. S2CID 154764488.
  • Stephen D. Bows: Reform before the Reformation : Vincenzo Querini and the religious Renaissance in Italy, Leiden [et al.], 2002.
  • Walter Rügert: John Wyclif, Jan Hus, Martin Luther: Wegbereiter der Reformation Konstanz, 2017.
  • E. H. Broadbent: The Pilgrim Church, Pickering & Inglis, 1937.
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