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Propionic acid

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Propanoic acid
Propionic acid.jpg
Names
Preferred IUPAC name
Propanoic acid
Other names
Propionic acid
Ethanecarboxylic acid
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
ChEBI
ChEMBL
ChemSpider
DrugBank
ECHA InfoCard 100.001.070
EC Number
  • Propionic acid: 201-176-3
E number E280 (preservatives)
  • Propionic acid: 1062
RTECS number
  • Propionic acid: UE5950000
UNII
Properties
C3H6O2
Molar mass 74.079 g·mol−1
Appearance Colorless, oily liquid[1]
Odor Pungent, rancid, unpleasant[1]
Density 0.98797 g/cm3[2]
Melting point −20.5 °C (−4.9 °F; 252.7 K) [3]
Boiling point 141.15 °C (286.07 °F; 414.30 K) [3]
Sublimes at −48 °C
ΔsublHo = 74 kJ/mol[4]
8.19 g/g (−28.3 °C)
34.97 g/g (−23.9 °C)
Miscible (≥ −19.3 °C)[5]
Solubility Miscible in EtOH, ether, CHCl3[6]
log P 0.33[7]
Vapor pressure 0.32 kPa (20 °C)[8]
0.47 kPa (25 °C)[7]
9.62 kPa (100 °C)[4]
4.45·10−4 L·atm/mol[7]
Acidity (pKa) 4.88[7]
-43.50·10−6 cm3/mol
1.3843[2]
Viscosity 1.175 cP (15 °C)[2]
1.02 cP (25 °C)
0.668 cP (60 °C)
0.495 cP (90 °C)[7]
Structure
Monoclinic (−95 °C)[9]
P21/c[9]
a = 4.04 Å, b = 9.06 Å, c = 11 Å[9]
α = 90°, β = 91.25°, γ = 90°
0.63 D (22 °C)[2]
Thermochemistry
152.8 J/mol·K[6][4]
191 J/mol·K[4]
−510.8 kJ/mol[4]
1527.3 kJ/mol[2][4]
Hazards
Main hazards Corrosive
GHS pictograms
GHS02: Flammable
GHS05: Corrosive
[8]
GHS Signal word Danger
H314[8]
P280, P305+351+338, P310[8]
NFPA 704 (fire diamond)
Flammability code 2: Must be moderately heated or exposed to relatively high ambient temperature before ignition can occur. Flash point between 38 and 93 °C (100 and 200 °F). E.g. diesel fuelHealth code 3: Short exposure could cause serious temporary or residual injury. E.g. chlorine gasReactivity code 0: Normally stable, even under fire exposure conditions, and is not reactive with water. E.g. liquid nitrogenSpecial hazards (white): no codeNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
2
3
0
Flash point 54 °C (129 °F; 327 K) [8]
512 °C (954 °F; 785 K)
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):
1370 mg/kg (mouse, oral)[6]
NIOSH (US health exposure limits):
PEL (Permissible)
none[1]
REL (Recommended)
TWA 10 ppm (30 mg/m3) ST 15 ppm (45 mg/m3)[1]
IDLH (Immediate danger)
N.D.[1]
Related compounds
Other anions
Propanoate
Acetic acid
Lactic acid
3-hydroxypropionic acid
Tartronic acid
Acrylic acid
Butyric acid
Related compounds
1-Propanol
Propionaldehyde
Sodium propionate
Propionic anhydride
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Infobox references

Propionic acid (/prpiˈɒnɪk/, from the Greek words protos, meaning "first", and pion, meaning "fat"; also known as propanoic acid) is a naturally occurring carboxylic acid with chemical formula CH3CH2CO2H. It is a liquid with a pungent and unpleasant smell somewhat resembling body odor. The anion CH3CH2CO2 as well as the salts and esters of propionic acid are known as propionates or propanoates.

History

Propionic acid was first described in 1844 by Johann Gottlieb, who found it among the degradation products of sugar.[10] Over the next few years, other chemists produced propionic acid by different means, none of them realizing they were producing the same substance. In 1847, French chemist Jean-Baptiste Dumas established all the acids to be the same compound, which he called propionic acid, from the Greek words πρῶτος (prōtos), meaning first, and πίων (piōn), meaning fat, because it is the smallest H(CH2)nCOOH acid that exhibits the properties of the other fatty acids, such as producing an oily layer when salted out of water and having a soapy potassium salt.[11]

Properties

Propionic acid has physical properties intermediate between those of the smaller carboxylic acids, formic and acetic acids, and the larger fatty acids. It is miscible with water, but can be removed from water by adding salt. As with acetic and formic acids, it consists of hydrogen bonded pairs of molecules in both the liquid and the vapor.

Propionic acid displays the general properties of carboxylic acids: it can form amide, ester, anhydride, and chloride derivatives. It undergoes the Hell–Volhard–Zelinsky reaction that involves α-halogenation of a carboxylic acid with bromine, catalysed by phosphorus tribromide, in this case to form 2-bromopropanoic acid, CH3CHBrCOOH.[12] This product has been used to prepare a racemic mixture of alanine by ammonolysis.[13][14]

Preparation of alanine from propionic acid.png

Manufacture

Chemical

In industry, propionic acid is mainly produced by the hydrocarboxylation of ethylene using nickel carbonyl as the catalyst:[15]

Hydrocarboxylation of ethene with carbon monoxide and water to form propionic acid in the presence of nickel tetracarbonyl as catalyst

It is also produced by the aerobic oxidation of propionaldehyde. In the presence of cobalt or manganese salts (manganese propionate is most commonly used), this reaction proceeds rapidly at temperatures as mild as 40–50 °C:

Liquid-phase oxidation of propionaldehyde with atmospheric oxygen to form propionic acid in the presence of manganese(II)-propionate as catalyst

Large amounts of propionic acid were once produced as a byproduct of acetic acid manufacture. At the current time, the world's largest producer of propionic acid is BASF, with approximately 150 kt/a production capacity.

Biotechnological

Biotechnological production of propionic acid mainly uses Propionibacterium strains.[16] However, large scale production of propionic acid by Propionibacteria faces challenges such as severe inhibition of end-products during cell growth and the formation of by-products (acetic acid and succinic acid).[17] One approach to improve productivity and yield during fermentation is through the use of cell immobilization techniques, which also promotes easy recovery, reuse of the cell biomass and enhances microorganisms’ stress tolerance.[18] In 2018, 3D printing technology was used for the first time to create a matrix for cell immobilization in fermentation. Propionic acid production by Propionibacterium acidipropionici immobilized on 3D-printed nylon beads was chosen as a model study. It was shown that those 3D-printed beads were able to promote high density cell attachment and propionic acid production, which could be adapted to other fermentation bioprocesses.[19] Other cell immobilization matrices have been tested, such as recycled-glass Poraver and fibrous-bed bioreactor.[20][21]

Alternative methods of production have been trialled, by genetically engineering strains of Escherichia coli to incorporate the necessary pathway, the Wood-Werkman cycle.[22]

Industrial uses

Propionic acid inhibits the growth of mold and some bacteria at levels between 0.1 and 1% by weight. As a result, some propionic acid produced is consumed as a preservative for both animal feed and food for human consumption. For animal feed, it is used either directly or as its ammonium salt. The antibiotic monensin is added to cattle feed to favor propionibacteria over acetic acid producers in the rumen; this produces less carbon dioxide and feed conversion is better. This application accounts for about half of the world production of propionic acid. Another major application is as a preservative in baked goods, which use the sodium and calcium salts.[15] As a food additive, it is approved for use in the EU,[23] USA,[24] Australia and New Zealand.[25]

Propionic acid is also useful as an intermediate in the production of other chemicals, especially polymers. Cellulose-acetate-propionate is a useful thermoplastic. Vinyl propionate is also used. In more specialized applications, it is also used to make pesticides and pharmaceuticals. The esters of propionic acid have fruit-like odors and are sometimes used as solvents or artificial flavorings.[15]

In biogas plants, propionic acid is a common intermediate product, which is formed by fermentation with propionic acid bacteria. Its degradation in anaerobic environments (e.g. biogas plants) requires the activity of complex microbial communities.[26]

Biology

Propionic acid is produced biologically as its coenzyme A ester, propionyl-CoA, from the metabolic breakdown of fatty acids containing odd numbers of carbon atoms, and also from the breakdown of some amino acids. Bacteria of the genus Propionibacterium produce propionic acid as the end-product of their anaerobic metabolism. This class of bacteria is commonly found in the stomachs of ruminants and the sweat glands of humans, and their activity is partially responsible for the odor of Emmental cheese, American "Swiss cheese" and sweat.

The metabolism of propionic acid begins with its conversion to propionyl coenzyme A, the usual first step in the metabolism of carboxylic acids. Since propionic acid has three carbons, propionyl-CoA cannot directly enter either beta oxidation or the citric acid cycles. In most vertebrates, propionyl-CoA is carboxylated to D-methylmalonyl-CoA, which is isomerised to L-methylmalonyl-CoA. A vitamin B12-dependent enzyme catalyzes rearrangement of L-methylmalonyl-CoA to succinyl-CoA, which is an intermediate of the citric acid cycle and can be readily incorporated there.

In propionic acidemia, a rare inherited genetic disorder, propionate acts as a metabolic toxin in liver cells by accumulating in mitochondria as propionyl-CoA and its derivative, methylcitrate, two tricarboxylic acid cycle inhibitors. Propanoate is metabolized oxidatively by glia, which suggests astrocytic vulnerability in propionic acidemia when intramitochondrial propionyl-CoA may accumulate. Propionic acidemia may alter both neuronal and glial gene expression by affecting histone acetylation.[27][28] When propionic acid is infused directly into rodents' brains, it produces reversible behavior (e.g., hyperactivity, dystonia, social impairment, perseveration) and brain changes (e.g., innate neuroinflammation, glutathione depletion) that may be used as a means to model autism in rats.[27]

It also, being a three-carbon molecule, feeds into hepatic gluconeogenesis (that is, the creation of glucose molecules from simpler molecules in the liver).[29]

Human occurrence

The human skin is host of several species of Propionibacteria. The most notable one is the Cutibacterium acnes (formerly known as Propionibacterium acnes), which lives mainly in the sebaceous glands of the skin and is one of the principal causes of acne.[30] Propionate is observed to be among the most common short-chain fatty acids produced in the large intestine of humans by gut microbiota in response to indigestible carbohydrates (dietary fiber) in the diet.[31][32] The role of the gut microbiota and their metabolites, including propionate, in mediating brain function has been reviewed.[33]

A study in mice suggests that propionate is produced by the bacteria of the genus Bacteroides in the gut, and that it offers some protection against Salmonella there.[34] Another study finds that fatty acid propionate can calm the immune cells that drive up blood pressure, thereby protecting the body from damaging effects of high blood pressure.[35]

Bacteriology

The Bacteria species Coprothermobacter platensis produces propionate when fermenting gelatin.[36]

Propionate salts and esters

The propionate /ˈprpiənt/, or propanoate, ion is C2H5COO, the conjugate base of propionic acid. It is the form found in biological systems at physiological pH. A propionic, or propanoic, compound is a salt or ester of propionic acid. In these compounds, propionate is often written in shorthand, as CH3CH2CO2 or simply EtCO2.

Propionates should not be confused with propenoates (commonly known as acrylates), the ions/salts/esters of propenoic acid (also known as 2-propenoic acid or acrylic acid).

Examples

Salts

Esters

See also

References

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External links

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